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1 Biology Biology 1 of 49

2 2 of 49

3 Comparing the Cell to a Factory 1. Eukaryotic Cell Structures A.Organelles: Structures within a eukaryotic cell perform important cellular functions B. Cytoplasm: * Gel/liquid portion that surrounds the organelles. 3 of 49

4 Comparing the Cell to a Factory Plant Cell Nucleus Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Rough endoplasmic reticulum Cell wall Cell membrane Nucleolus Nuclear envelope Ribosome (free) Ribosome (attached) Golgi apparatus Chloroplast Vacuole Mitochondrion 4 of 49

5 Comparing the Cell to a Factory Animal Cell Nucleus Nuclear envelope Rough endoplasmic reticulum Centrioles Nucleolus Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Ribosome (free) Cell membrane Ribosome (attached) Mitochondrion 5 of 49

6 Nucleus C. Nucleus: * control center of the cell. (The nucleus contains nearly all the cell's DNA and with it the coded instructions for making proteins and other important molecules.) 6 of 49

7 Nucleus D. nuclear envelope: *membrane composed of 2 layers E. nuclear pores: (small hole) allows materials to move in and out of the nucleus. Nuclear envelope Nuclear pores 7 of 49

8 Nucleus F. chromatin: granular material in the nucleus * consists of DNA bound to protein. Chromatin 8 of 49

9 Nucleus G. chromosomes: *In cell division; condensed chromation * contain the genetic information ( that is passed from one generation of cells to the next.) 9 of 49

10 Nucleus H. nucleolus: * assembly of ribosomes begins. Nucleolus 10 of 49

11 Nucleus The Nucleus Chromatin Nucleolus Nuclear envelope Nuclear pores 11 of 49

12 Ribosomes I. Ribosomes: *small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm *assembles proteins by following coded instructions that come from the nucleus (One of the most important jobs carried out in the cell is making proteins.). 12 of 49

13 Endoplasmic Reticulum J. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): *Factory *lipid components of the cell membrane, proteins, and other materials that exported are assembled 13 of 49

14 Endoplasmic Reticulum Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes 14 of 49

15 Endoplasmic Reticulum 1. two types of ER: a. rough ER: involved in protein synthesis (Ribosomes are found on the surface of rough ER. Rough ER is abundant in cells that produce large amounts of protein for export. ) b. Smooth ER: contains collections of enzymes that perform specialized tasks 15 of 49

16 Golgi Apparatus K. Golgi apparatus: *post office *modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the ER for storage or secretion outside the cell. (From the Golgi apparatus, proteins are then shipped to their final destinations throughout the cell or outside of the cell.) 16 of 49

17 Golgi Apparatus The Golgi apparatus appears as a stack of closely apposed membranes. 17 of 49

18 Lysosomes L. Lysosomes: *small and filled with enzymes. *break down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules *break down old organelles 18 of 49

19 Vacuoles M. Vacuoles *saclike structures *store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates. 19 of 49

20 Vacuoles a. plant cells have a single, large central vacuole filled with liquid. (The pressure of the central vacuole allows plants to support heavy structures such as leaves and flowers. ) Vacuole 20 of 49

21 Vacuoles (Vacuoles are also found in some unicellular organisms and in some animals. The paramecium contains a contractile vacuole that pumps excess water out of the cell.) Contractile vacuole 21 of 49

22 Mitochondria and Chloroplasts N. Mitochondria : Power house * convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that the cell can use. Mitochondrion 22 of 49

23 Mitochondria and Chloroplasts O. Chloroplasts capture energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy (in a process called photosynthesis.) Chloroplast *contain the green pigment chlorophyll 23 of 49

24 Cytoskeleton P. Cytoskeleton: *network of protein filaments helps to maintain cell shape. cell movement 1. The cytoskeleton is made up of: 24 of 49

25 Cytoskeleton a. Microfilaments: 1. threadlike structures made up of the protein 2. form extensive networks 3. produce a tough, flexible framework that supports the cell. 4. help some cells move. 25 of 49

26 Cytoskeleton b. Microtubules * hollow structures made up of proteins 1. maintain cell shape. 2. important in cell division. 3. form cilia and flagella--enable some cells to swim rapidly through liquids. 26 of 49

27 Cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton Cell membrane Endoplasmic reticulum Microtubule Microfilament Ribosomes Mitochondrion 27 of 49

28 Cytoskeleton Q. Centrioles: *in animal cells * located near the nucleus * help to organize cell division. 28 of 49

29 7-2 Continue to: - or - Click to Launch: 29 of 49

30 7-2 In the nucleus of a cell, the DNA is usually visible as a. a dense region called the nucleolus. b. the nuclear envelope. c. granular material called chromatin. d. condensed bodies called chloroplasts. 30 of 49

31 7-2 Two functions of vacuoles are storing materials and helping to a. break down organelles. b. assemble proteins. c. maintain homeostasis. d. make new organelles. 31 of 49

32 7-2 Chloroplasts are found in the cells of a. plants only. b. plants and some other organisms. c. all eukaryotes. d. most prokaryotes. 32 of 49

33 7-2 Which of the following is NOT a function of the Golgi apparatus? a. synthesize proteins b. modify proteins c. sort proteins d. package proteins 33 of 49

34 7-2 Which of the following is a function of the cytoskeleton? a. manufactures new cell organelles b. assists in movement of some cells from one place to another c. releases energy in cells d. modifies, sorts, and packages proteins 34 of 49

35 END OF SECTION

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