Ionic Compounds and Ionic Bonding

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1 Ionic Compounds and Ionic Bonding 1

2 Chemical Bonds There are three basic types of bonds: Ionic The electrostatic attraction between ions Covalent The sharing of electrons between atoms Metallic Each metal atom bonds to other metals atoms within a "sea" of electrons (covered in a later unit) 2

3 Periodic Table Review The periodic table is "periodic" because of certain trends that are seen in the elements. Properties of elements are functions of their atomic number. Elements from the same family/group have similar physical and chemical properties. Atoms are listed on the periodic table in rows, based on number of protons, which is equal to the number of electrons in a neutral atom. 3

4 The Periodic Table of the Elements The periodic table can be also divided into metals (left/blue) and nonmetals (right/yellow). A few elements retain some of the properties of metals and nonmetals, they are called metalloids (staircase/pink). B Si Ge As Sb Te? 4

5 1 In the periodic table, the elements are arranged in. A B C D E F alphabetical order order of increasing atomic number order of increasing metallic properties order of increasing neutron content reverse alphabetical order I don't know how to answer this. 5

6 2 Elements exhibit similar physical and chemical properties. A B C D E F with similar chemical symbols with similar atomic masses in the same period of the periodic table on opposite sides of the periodic table in the same group of the periodic table I don't know how to answer this. 6

7 3 Which pair of elements would you expect to exhibit the greatest similarity in their physical and chemical properties? A B C D E F H, Li Cs, Ba Ca, Si Ga, Ge C, O I don't know how to answer this. 7

8 4 Which one of the following is a nonmetal? A W B Sr C Os D Ir E S F I don't know how to answer this. 8

9 5 Potassium is a and chlorine is a. A B C D E F metal, nonmetal metal, metal metal, metalloid metalloid, nonmetal nonmetal, metal I don't know how to answer this. 9

10 Review: Octet Rule Atoms tend towards having complete outer shells of electrons (remember stability). A full outer shell will have: 2 electrons in the s subshell and 6 electrons in the p subshell ( s 2 p 6 configuration) Octet rule: atoms tend towards having a total of 8 electrons 8 valence electrons make an octet 10

11 Valence Electrons Valence electrons are the electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an element s atoms. Valence electron The number of valence electrons largely determines the chemical properties of an element. To find the number of valence electrons in an atom of a representative element, simply look at its group number. Atoms in group 3 have 3 valence electrons, atoms in group 17 have 7 valence electrons, etc. 11

12 Valence Electrons Number of valence 1 2 electrons in neutral atoms: There is one exception: helium has only 2 valence electrons. 12

13 6 How many valence electrons does Aluminum have? A 5 B 7 C 3 D 27 E I don't know how to answer this. 13

14 7 How many valence electrons does Barium have? A 1 B 2 C 52 D 3 E I don't know how to answer this. 14

15 Ions Cations are positive and are formed by elements on the left side of the periodic chart (metals). Anions are negative and are formed by elements on the right side of the periodic chart (nonmetals). 15

16 The Formation of Cations Metals usually give up valence electrons This results in a noble gas (8 electron) outer shell. Na : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 Na +1 : 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 Ne atom Loss of valence electrons The configuration of the Sodium ion is the same as Neon 16

17 The Formation of Cations Na atom Na+ ion loses e 11p 11e 11p 10e 17

18 The Formation of Cations Cations of Group 1A elements always have a charge of 1+. Cations of Group 2A elements always have a charge of 2+. Mg Mg 2+ 2e + Magnesium atom (electrically neutral, charge = 0) Magnesium ion (+2 indicates 2 units of positive charge) (2 in front of e indicates 2 units of negative charge) 18

19 The Formation of Anions Nonmetals usually gain valence electrons. This results in a noble gas (8 electrons) outer shell Cl: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 Cl 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6 Ar atom A chloride ion has the same electron configuration as argon. 19

20 The Formation of Anions Cl atom Cl ion 17P 17e Gains an e 17p 18e 20

21 The Formation of Anions Anions of Group 15 (5A) elements have a charge of 3 Anions of Group 16 (6A) elements always have a charge of 2 Anions of Group 17 (7A) elements have a charge of 1 21

22 8 Metals tend to electrons and cations tend to electrons. A B C D E F gain, gain lose, lose gain, lose lose, gain neither, they keep their electrons I don't know how to answer this. 22

23 9 Anions tend to be and cations tend to be. A B C D E F metals, metals nonmetals, nonmetals metals, nonmetals nonmetals, metals metalloids, metalloids I don't know how to answer this. 23

24 10 Metals lose electrons to form cations True False 24

25 11 Anions are formed from nonmetals True False 25

26 12 Nonmetals tend to lose electrons forming ions True False 26

27 13 This is the ion formed from a calcium atom A Ca + B Ca 2+ C Ca D Ca 2 E I don't know how to answer this. 27

28 14 Barium forms an ion with a charge of. A 1+ B 2 C 3+ D 3 E 2+ F I don't know how to answer this. 28

29 15 Aluminum forms an ion with a charge of. A 2+ B 1 C 3+ D 2 E 0 F I don't know how to answer this. 29

30 16 Of the following, contains the greatest number of electrons. A P 3+ B P C P 2 D P 3 E P 2+ F I don't know how to answer this. 30

31 17 Oxygen forms an ion with a charge of. A 2 B 2+ C 3 D 3+ E 6+ F I don't know how to answer this. 31

32 18 Iodine forms an ion with a charge of. A 7 B 1+ C 2 D 2+ E 1 F I don't know how to answer this. 32

33 19 This is the ion formed from nitrogen A N B N 2 C N 3+ D N 3 E I don't know how to answer this. 33

34 20 Predict the charge of the most stable ion of S? A 3+ B 1 C 6+ D 2+ E 2 F I don't know how to answer this. 34

35 Ionic Bonding Electronegativity is how strongly an atom attracts electrons. Atoms with a high electronegativity will be able to attract electrons away from atoms with a much lower electronegativity. This removal of electrons can occur when the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms is approximately 1.7 or higher. Once a positive and negative ion are formed, they will be attracted to each other via the electrostatic force: 35

36 Ionic Bonding An electronegativity difference of approximately 1.7 can only occur between a metal and a nonmetal. 36

37 21 Which pair of atoms will form an ionic bond? A B C D E Li and Ne K and Br K and Cs S and Cl I don't know how to answer this. 37

38 22 Which pair of atoms will form an ionic bond? A Li and Be B Na and Mg C K and Ca D Na and Cl E I don't know how to answer this. 38

39 23 Which of the following compounds would you expect to be ionic? A H2 O B CO 2 C SrCl 2 D SO 2 E H 2 S F I don't know how to answer this. 39

40 Formation of Ionic Compounds Compounds composed of cations and anions are called ionic compounds. Although they are composed of ions, ionic compounds are electrically neutral. The electrostatic forces that hold ions together in ionic compounds are called ionic bonds. 40

41 Ionic Bonds When sodium and chlorine are close together, sodium's valence electron flies off and "harpoons" the chlorine atom. The result is a sodium cation (+) next to a chloride anion ( ) These oppositely charged two ions attract: they reel one another together to form an ionic bond. Na Cl Na+ Cl 1s 2 2s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 Ne Ar 41

42 Ionic Bonds The electron transfer process in creating an ionic bond: Na Cl The dots represents the valence electrons in an atom. click here for an animation of this reaction 42

43 Formula Units A chemical formula shows the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of a substance. A formula unit is the lowest whole number ratio of ions in an ionic compound. Every ionic compound has a 3D array of positive and negative ions. 43

44 [*] Properties of Ionic Compounds They are crystalline solids at room temperature They have high melting points They conduct electricity when melted (molten) or dissolved in water (aqueous) 44

45 Predicting an Ionic Compound Formula Potassium (K) with an electronegativity of 0.8 and oxygen (O) with an electronegativity of 3.5 will form an ionic compound. What is the formula for an ionic compound of potassium and oxygen? How many additional valence electrons does oxygen want? 2 How many valence electrons does potassium have? 1 How many potassium atoms will it take to give oxygen the electrons it needs? 2 The formula unit is K 2 O K K O Always Metal First (low electonegativity) 45

46 Predicting an Ionic Compound Formula What is the formula for an ionic compound of Mg and N? How many additional valence electrons does N want? 3 How many valence electrons does Mg have to offer? 2 How many Mg atoms will it take to give how many N the electrons it needs? (Find the lowest common multiplier first.) Mg Mg Mg N N 3 Mg : 2 N The formula unit is Mg 3 N 2 46

47 Alternate Method If you don't like finding least common multipliers, you can use this alternative method: 1. Write down the ions side by side along with their charge. Always write the metal first. 2. "Criss cross" the numerical values of the charges. 3. Reduce subscripts to lowest ratio. Mg Mg Mg N N 47

48 Predicting an Ionic Compound Formula Example: Write the formula for calcium sulfide. Step 1: Identify the cation & write its common ion Calcium is in group 2 Ca 2+ Step 2: Identify the anion & write its formula Sulfur is in group 6 S 2 Step 3: Criss cross; reduce subscripts if necessary Ca 2+ S 2 Ca 2 S 2 CaS 48

49 Predicting an Ionic Compound Formula What is the compound formed between Mg and S? Mg +2 S 2 Mg 2 S 2 Always use the lowest ratio of the ions! MgS 49

50 24 The formula for the ionic between Cs and O is: A CsO 2 B OCs 2 C Cs 2 O D OCs 2 E I don't know how to do this. 50

51 25 The ionic compound between Ca and N is: A CaN B Ca 2 N 2 C Ca 3 N 2 D Ca 2 N 3 E I don't know how to do this. 51

52 26 The ionic compound between Al and O A Al 3 O 2 B Al 2 O 3 C AlO D Al 2 O 2 E I don't know how to do this. 52

53 27 What is the ionic compound formed between Ca and Al? A CaAl B Ca 3 Al 2 C Al 2 Ca 3 D E No compound is formed. I don't know how to do this. 53

54 28 What is the ionic compound formed between P and Br? A B C P 3 Br BrP no ionic compound D (BrP) 2 E I don't know how to do this. 54

55 29 What is the formula for sodium phosphide? A SP 3 B C NaP Na 3 P D NaP 3 E I don't know how to do this. 55

56 30 What is the formula for strontium bromide? A SrBr B SrBr 2 C Sr 2 Br D BrSr 2 E I don't know how to do this. 56

57 31 The formula for barium sulfide is Ba 2 S 2. True False 57

58 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Cations Many cations have the same name as the original, neutral atom. Charge formula name 1 + H + Hydrogen ion Li + Lithium ion K + Potassium ion Cs + Cesium ion Ag + Silver ion 2 + Mg 2+ Magnesium ion Ca 2+ Calcium ion Ba 2+ Barium ion Zn 2+ Zinc ion Cadmium ion Cd Al 3+ Aluminum ion 58

59 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Anions All monoatomic anions all end in " ide". The ions that are produced from Group 7A (or 17) elements are called halide ions. Group 15 Group 16 Group 17 Nitride N 3 OxideO 2 Fluoride F Phosphide P 3 Sulfide S 2 Chloride Cl Bromide Br Iodide I 59

60 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Binary (two element) compounds are named by writing the name of the cation followed by the name of the anion. The name of the cation is the same as the metal name. The name of the anion is the name of the non metal with the suffix changed to ide. Binary compounds end in " ide." Examples: NaCl = sodium chloride KI = potassium iodide Li 2 S = lithium sulfide 60

61 61

62 32 Na 2 S is A B C D E Sodium sulfate Sodium sulfide Di sodium sulfide Sulfur nitride I don't know how to do this. 62

63 33 The correct name for SrO is. A B C D E F strontium oxide strontium hydroxide strontium peroxide strontium monoxide strontium dioxide I don't know how to do this. 63

64 34 The correct name for Al2 O 3 is. A B C D E F aluminum trioxide dialuminum oxide dialuminum trioxide aluminum oxide aluminum hydroxide I don't know how to do this. 64

65 Cations formed by Transition Elements Recall that s block metals have only one possible ionic charge, based on the Octet Rule. However, most transition metals can have more than one ionic charge. For this reason, there is a system for designating each ion. Sn, Pb from the p block will form more than one type of ions and behave like transition metals. 65

66 Cations Formed by Transition Elements Only common transition metals are shown. Silver, cadmium and zinc only form one cation, Ag +, Cd 2+ and Zn 2+ Note the mercury cations. Tin and Lead act like transition metals. 66

67 Cations formed by Transition Elements We will use the Stock naming system (Roman numerals) to name transition metals. Formula Name Cu +1 Copper (I) ion Co +2 Fe +2 Mn +2 Pb +2 Cr +3 Fe +3 Cobalt (II) ion Iron (II) ion Manganese (II) ion lead (II) ion Chromium (III) ion Iron (III) ion 67

68 Writing Formulas with Transition Metals The charge on the cation is indicated by the Roman numeral, as shown in this example. Iron (III) oxide Fe 3+ O 2 Write ion formulas. Fe 3+ O 2 Criss cross charges. Fe 2 O 3 Reduce if necessary. 68

69 Writing Formulas with Transition Metals The charge on the cation is indicated by the Roman numeral, as shown in this example. Tin (IV) oxide Sn 4+ O 2 Write ion formulas. Sn 4+ O 2 Criss cross charges. Sn 2 O 4 SnO 2 Reduce if necessary. 69

70 35 Which metal is capable of forming more than one cation? A B C D E F K Cs Ba Al Sn I don't know how to answer this. 70

71 36 Which metal is not capable of forming more than one cation? A Cu B C D E F Au Fe Sn Al I don't know how to answer this. 71

72 37 The name of FeCl3 is A B C D iron chloride iron (II) chloride iron (III) chloride I don't know how to answer this. 72

73 Formulas with Transition Metals In order to correctly name a formula containing a transition metal, it is necessary to first determine the charge on the cation. Since all compounds are neutral, then the total positive cation charge must equal the total negative anion charge. In other words: Total cation charge + Total anion charge = 0 (charge of cation) (# of cations) + (charge of anion) (# of anions) = 0 73

74 Example Formula with Transition Metals In the case of FeCl 3, we make the following substitutions: (charge of cation) (# of cations) +(charge of anion) (# of anions) = 0 (x) (1) + ( 1) (3) = 0 Thus x = 3 and the cation is Fe 3+ or iron(iii). 74

75 Formulas with Transition Metals A short cut method is to "uncriss cross" the ions, but you must always double check your ions (or you'll get in trouble!). FeCl 3 : Fe 1 Cl 3 Uncriss cross. Fe 3+ Cl 1 Check the ions Cl does form a 1 ion and Fe 3+ is Iron (III) Iron (III) Cloride 75

76 Formulas with Transition Metals Here's another practice problem. CrO: Cr 1 O 1 Uncriss cross. Check the ions Cr + O O forms a 2 ion and Cr+ does not exist! (this formula had to be reduced from Cr 2 O 2 ) Cromium (II) Oxide 76

77 [*] 38 The formula for tin (IV) oxide is A B SnO Sn 2 O C SnO 2 D E SnO I don't know how to answer this. 77

78 39 The formula for copper (II) sulfide is A CuS 2 B CuS C Cu 2 S 2 D (CuS) 2 E I don't know how to answer this. 78

79 40 Which one of the following compounds is copper(i) chloride? A CuCl B CuCl 2 C Cu 2 Cl D Cu 2 Cl 2 E Cu 3 Cl 2 F I don't know how to answer this. 79

80 41 The charge on the cation in the salt Fe 2 O 3 is. A 1+ B 2+ C 3+ D 5 E 6 F I don't know how to answer this. 80

81 [*] 42 What is the charge on zirconium ion in ZrO2? A 2+ B 4+ C 1+ D 2 E I don't know how to answer this. 81

82 Polyatomic Ions A polyatomic ion is a group of atoms bonded together that have a charge and acts like a single unit or ion. They are not free compounds and are not found free in nature. They are found combined with other ions. Eg: Sulfate = (SO 4 ) 2 Nitrate = (NO 3 ) Carbonate = (CO 3 ) 2 Notes: Use " ( ) " to keep the atoms together. Do not change the subscripts inside the "( )" 82

83 Polyatomic Ions (con't) Most of the polyatomic ions contain oxygen atoms. Many anions names end with ite or ate In ite/ate pairs, the ion with fewer oxygen atoms will have the ite ending Examples: sulfite /sulfate nitrite /nitrate Note that the suffix does not indicate the actual number of O atoms. 83

84 . Polyatomic Ions (cont.) Familiarize yourself with the polyatomic ions on your reference sheet Be careful of ide, ite, and ate! H + = proton or hydrogen ion ] or bicarbonate 84

85 Naming Ternary Ionic Compounds Ternary ionic compounds contain three or more different elements due to the presence of polyatomic ion(s). Just as in binary ionic compounds, the name of the cation is given first, followed by the name of the anion. Names of ternary compounds often end in ite or ate. Examples CaCO 3 Zn(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 AgNO 3 Na 2 SO 3 calcium carbonate (in eggshells) zinc acetate silver nitrate sodium sulfite 85

86 Writing Formulas for Ternary Ionic Compounds Ternary ionic compounds are neutral, just like binary ionic compounds. Therefore, the goal is to find the lowest ratio of cations to anions that will yield a neutral compound. This ratio is represented in a formula unit. Examples of formula units Ca(CO 3 ) Zn(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 Ag(NO 3 ) Na 2 (SO 3 ) 86

87 Writing Formulas for Ternary Ionic Compounds (con't) To write a formula, the criss cross method can again be used. Example: Write the formula for lithium phosphate. Step 1: Identify the cation & write its formula Lithium is in group 1 > Li + Step 2: Identify the anion & write its formula Phosphate is a polyatomic ion > PO 4 3 Step 3: Criss cross; reduce subscripts if necessary Li 1+ PO 4 3 Li 3 (PO 4 ) 1 or simply Li 3 (PO 4 ) 87

88 Writing Formulas for Ternary Ionic Compounds Example: Write the formula for calcium nitrite. Ca 2+ (NO 3 ) Ca(NO 3 ) 2 When writing formulas with polyatomic ions, there are two important things to remember: 1) It is helpful to use " ( ) " to keep the atoms together, keeping the charge OUTSIDE the ( ) For example: nitrate (NO 3 ) 1 carbonate (CO 3 ) 2 2) NEVER alter any symbols or subscripts INSIDE inside the "( )" 88

89 Per 1 2 ionic bonding ionic compounds presentation.notebook 43 November 26, 2014 The formula for sodium hydroxide is A Na (OH)2 B Na(OH) C Na(OH2) D Na(HO) E I don't know how to answer this. 89

90 44 The formula for aluminum phosphate is: A Al(PO4 ) B Al 3 (PO 4 ) C Al 2 (PO 4 ) 3 D Al 3 (PO 4 ) 3 E I don't know how to answer this. 90

91 45 The formula for magnesium carbonate is : A Mg 2 (CO 3 ) B Mg(CO 3 ) C Mg 2 (CO 3 ) 2 D Mg(CO 3 ) 2 E I don't know how to answer this. 91

92 46 The formula for calcium sulfate is A Ca(SO 4 ) B Ca 2 (SO 4 ) 2 C Ca(SO 3 ) D Ca 2 (SO 3 ) 2 E I don't know how to answer this. 92

93 47 NaClO is A B C D E sodium chlorate sodium chloride sodium chlorite sodium hypochlorite I don't know how to answer this. 93

94 48 Mg(HCO 3 ) 2 is A Magnesium carbonate Magnesium hydrogen carbonate B Magnesium hydroxide C D Magnesium carboxide E I don't know how to answer this. 94

95 49 Ammonium carbonate is A (NH 4 )(CO 3 ) B (NH 4 ) 2 (CO 3 ) C (NH 4 )(CO 3 ) 2 D (NH 4 ) 2 (CO 2 ) E I don't know how to answer this. 95

96 PRACTICE Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds Complete the table by filling in the formula for the ionic compound formed by each pair of cations and anions, as shown for the first pair. 96

97 PRACTICE Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds Write the formula for the following compounds: 1. Magnesium iodide 2. Calcium sulfite 3. Barium hydrogen carbonate 4. Iron (III) phosphate 97

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