Satellite bathymetry and other satellite derived data. Per Knudsen, Ole Andersen, Rene Forsberg, Roberto Saldo, & Henning Skriver

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1 Satellite bathymetry and other satellite derived data Per Knudsen, Ole Andersen, Rene Forsberg, Roberto Saldo, & Henning Skriver

2 Space and the Arctic Two major meetings were held in March 2012: Space for the Arctic '12 IAP Applications for the Arctic Workshop to discuss the contribution of space technologies to one of the regions most affected by climate change. Coorganised by Arctic nations, ESA and EC. Space systems offer opportunities for monitoring the environment, facilitating navigation and communications, enhancing marine safety and supporting sustainable exploitation of national resources. Jean-Jacques Dordain, ESA Director General.

3 Space and the Arctic Both meetings focused on the objectives: 1. To identify operational user needs in the Arctic region. 2. To help to establish operational services in the Arctic in areas where integrated applications are relevant: 3... a) Oil and Gas. b) Shipping c) Fishing. d) Search and Rescue. e) Telemedicine. f) Tourism

4 Space and the Arctic Several specific recommendations that should be taken up by the Arctic stakeholders came out of Space for the Arctic 2012, including higher bandwidth satellite telecommunication channels, improved satellite-based navigation systems, and trans-arctic monitoring of sea ice and icebergs to increase safety of navigation.

5 Space and the Arctic Gaps have been identified that have to be addressed to support the policies and commitments of European and Canadian states and the EU in the Arctic: Secure the implementation of the GMES programme Act to ensure High bandwidth communications Investigate means such as Galileo Arctic test-bed to ensure High reliability navigation above 75ºN Ensure continuity and development of Arctic meteorology and space weather Collaboration and partnership are fundamental with the development or improvements of networks

6 Developing satellite based infrastructures for the Arctic Galileo a GNSS including a ground system to ensure: Positioning with integrity information Search & Rescue GMES - Actual, reliable, standardised information about the environment based on Earth observation and in-situ data: MyOcean the marine GMES service Safer emergency management

7 Galileo - components 30 satellites at 23,200 km altitude A series of control stations on ground (RIMS) 5 frequencies, 10 navigations signals, and Search-and-Rescue EC / European GNSS Agency + operators Service providers Users

8 Galileo services Galileo is designed for 5 different services, targeting different user segments: Open Service freely available for all Safety of Life higher quality and integrity, increased security Commercial Service - for professional users, high quality and service guaranty Public Regulated Service - Encrypted og robust to jamming Search and Rescue (SAR) Emergency signals and supporting rescue operations.

9 Galileo implementation On 21.October 2011 the first two Galileo IOV satellites were launched. The next two will follow on 12/ satellites and FOC-1 in satellitter and FOC in 2019.

10 Galileo Arctic Testbed Project in the European GNSS Evolutions Programme: The objective is to develop and deploy an Arctic TestBed to support Galileo services over ARCTIC regions. Lead: Kongsberg Seatex Supported by Kartverket, U Calgary, and DTU (develop net of ground stations, improve iono models, and testing)

11 Earth observation Develop GMES: Explore missions, such as GOCE and Cryosat-2 Develop applications and products Establish services, such as MyOcean Operate observation networks Sentinels In-situ Operational soon..

12 Satellite bathymetry Information about the bathymetry may be derived from: High resolution images, Lasers (air borne demos), Radars: SAR (wave studies), Altimeters (gravity inversion).

13 Coastlines E.g. GRASS (a small Danish company) offer analyses of coastline changes. Recently declassified US spy satellite images combined with modern high resolution satellite images, provides long time series of coastal development. This will allow an analysis of coastline changes in the period and an accuracy of app. 15 metres. Higher accuracies can be obtained with SPOT which is available in the period 1986 to present. In this way accuracies can be within 5 metres. Using QuickBird data with a spatial resolution of 60 cm, the results are comparable to aerial photography.

14 Coastlines Contain information about bathymetry, obviously.

15 Satellite bathymetry Fugro NPA have extensive experience of bathymetric mapping using satellite imagery in shallow water areas.

16 Satellite bathymetry WorldView-2 from DigitalGlobe provide 1.84 m resolution multi-spectral imagery, plus a Coastal Blue detector focused on the nanometer spectral range. With the Coastal Blue band included it is be possible to calculate depths up to 20 m and potentially as deep as 30 m, by measuring relative absorption of the Coastal Blue, Blue and Green bands.

17 Laser bathymetry air-borne Infrared laser.. surface Green laser... Sea bottom.. Down to 2-50 m Theoretical sea surface: geoid (gravity field equipotential surface... If known green ok) Commercial systems: Optech-Shoals (Canada) LADS (Australia) Hawk-Eye (Sweden/UK)

18 Commercial systems

19

20

21 New instrument #1: Photon counting SigmaSpace icemapper (prototype for proposed NASA Jupiter moon mission 10x more effective than present systems (less power needed) 3 cm accuracy in timing, 2000 m+ flight elev 15 deg scanning 60 kg in rack Flown in Antarctica Feb 2011 Solution for Arctic bathymetry needs? Laser tests in Antarctica (Univ. of Texas / DTU-Space)

22 Laser bathymetry air-borne NOAA's contractors use LIDAR to collect near shore bathymetry in Alaska, the North Atlantic Coast and the Caribbean. Future developments include improving object detection capabilities to better identify near shore hazards to navigation. Depending on water clarity, these systems can reach depths of 50 meters.

23 Satellite bathymetry - radars Using geophysical methods space-borne radars may be used: SAR or other imaging radars to study waves: Changes in wavelengths due to shallow waters (no examples) Altimeters measuring marine geoid undulations: Changes in gravity due to changes in bathymetry such as reefs and sea mounts.

24 Satellite bathymetry - altimetry Principle of using Gravity to predict Bathymetry (From Sandwell/Smith)

25 Satellite bathymetry - altimetry High Quality MSS/Gravity field can be used to map bathymetry. Using Spectral sepration throught filtering (20 and 120 km) Adjusting wavelength 20 km 120 km based on DNSC08 gravity optimizing coherency (outside these bands GEBCO-1 is used) Adjusting depth where GEBCO-1 > 100 meters. (Figure from Sandwell/Smith)

26 Comparison with Polar Stern Bathymetry Survey example around Antarctica obs Std Dev. (meters) Max difference (meters) ETOPO 5 (5 minute) ETOPO 2 (2 minute) (Altimetry enhanced) GEBCO 1 minute DNSC08 1 minute

27 GEBCO-1 Global Bathymetry

28

29 On satellite bathymetry None of the (space-based) methods described above may work: as stand-alone hydrographic surveying tools, in areas covered by sea ice. Satellite based method may support the hydrographic mapping by identifying areas of interest.

30 Other relevant satellite data ESA Explore missions: GOCE: Gravity for ocean circulation SMOS: Salinity Cryosat: Sea ice also thickness Ocean topography/geoid

31 Sea ice thickness from Cryosat

32 MyOcean services MyOcean provide products for Maritime safety Marine resources Coastal and marine environment Weather, climate and seasonal forecasting Examples: Temperature Salinity Currents Sea level Sea ice

33 Seaice.dk

34 Seaice.dk

35 Seaice.dk

36 Space and the Arctic Gaps have been identified that have to be addressed to support the policies and commitments of European and Canadian states and the EU in the Arctic: Secure the implementation of the GMES programme Act to ensure High bandwidth communications Investigate means such as Galileo Arctic test-bed to ensure High reliability navigation above 75ºN Ensure continuity and development of Arctic meteorology and space weather Collaboration and partnership are fundamental with the development or improvements of networks

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