# Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table Petrucci, Harwood and Herring: Chapters 9 and 10 Aims: To examine the Quantum Theory, to understand the electronic structure of elements, To explain the periodic table To explain atomic properties Periodic table I 1 Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table I will assume you understand: Radiation (frequency, wavelength, PHH 9-1) Introductory atomic structure (PHH 2-1 to 2-6) Bohr atom (although I will do some of this) Periodic table I 2 1

2 Bohr Atom Observations led to the development of the Bohr model for the atom: In particular: The spectra of atomic absorption and emission are line spectra, not continua. Atoms can only emit and absorb certain frequencies Understanding black body radiation needed the ideas of quantization of energy levels (Planck) Understanding some of the properties of light needed a quantum theory. (e.g. photoelectric effect) Periodic table I 3 Emission from an atomic lamp only gives discrete wavelengths The energy released comes from electrons changing energy states This suggests the electrons can only have particular energy states Periodic table I 4 2

3 Bohr Atom The fundamental principles of the Bohr model of the atom are: The electron moves in circular orbits around the nucleus The electron has fixed orbits. The electron has constant energy and no energy is emitted An electron can only go from one allowed orbit to another Periodic table I 5 Quantitatively Bohr Atom The radius of an orbit is r n =n 2 a 0 Where n= 1,2,3, and a 0 = 53pm (determined by assuming the angular momentum is quantized in units of h/2π) The electron energy is an orbit is less than if it was free and E=-R H /n 2 Where R H = x J Periodic table I 6 3

4 Bohr Atom in space Periodic table I 7 Bohr atom in energy Periodic table I 8 4

5 Bohr atom This was very successful as it predicted the energy of the transitions in a hydrogen atom - R H 1 1 E = Hence E = -R H n n f ni Periodic table I 9 So what s wrong with the Bohr Model? Cannot explain emission spectra from multi-electron atoms Cannot explain the effect of magnetic fields on spectra No reason for the fixed, quantized orbits Periodic table I 10 5

6 Quantum Mechanics The most important idea is that of waveparticle duality i.e. small particles display wave-like properties Einstein had said light was a wave but to explain some results it has particle like properties. de Broglie formulated the reverse, the waveparticle duality. Particles can display wave type properties. h λ = mu Periodic table I 11 Example of a particle having wave properties X-rays diffracted by a metal foil Electrons diffracted by a metal foil Periodic table I 12 6

7 Wave Mechanics Wave mechanics is the description of electrons (in an atom), where the electron is considered to be a wave rather than a particle. We first point we need to remember is that waves can interfere. Periodic table I 13 Wave Mechanics Think about a wave (electron) around a nucleus. (In 2-D) The upper wave is reasonable, the lower is not. In the lower the parts of the wave will interfere and the wave will not survive. Hence only standing waves make sense Periodic table I 14 7

8 Standing Waves In both cases only a particular wavelengths are stable. Each wavelength has a particular energy so only discrete energies are possible. Periodic table I 15 Describing the Wave Each wave can be described by a wave function Ψ. The example is an electron in a 1-D box. Ψ gives the amplitude of the wave as a function of position. Note the quantum number n=1,2,3, Periodic table I 16 8

9 Describing the Wave Ψ is the wave function, but this has no physical meaning (I.e. we cannot relate it to anything we can measure) However, Ψ 2 corresponds to the electron charge density (or in terms of a particle: the probability of finding an electron in a small volume of space). We want to know about the location of the electron so we examine Ψ 2 Periodic table I 17 The Wave Function and the Electron Charge Density Periodic table I 18 9

10 Hydrogen Atom The behaviour of the electron in the hydrogen atom is described by Schödinger s equation. This is a 3-D wave equation for the electron subjected to the attractive force between the nucleus and the electron. Solving Schödinger s equation yields a set of wave functions (orbitals) for the electron. The solution also yields the energy associated with each of these wave functions. Periodic table I 19 Hydrogen Atom The solutions for the hydrogen atom include 3 quantum numbers. A set of these three numbers defines the wave function. There are constraints on the quantum numbers, again from the solution to the Schödinger equation. Periodic table I 20 10

11 Definitions of Quantum Numbers and Constraints Principle quantum number n n = 1, 2, 3, Orbital angular momentum quantum number l l = 0, 1, 2, (n-1) Magnetic quantum number m l m l = - l, -l + 1, -l +2, 0 l - 2, l -1, l Periodic table I 21 Shells and Sub-Shells We use a shorthand to describe the orbitals n defines the principal electronic shell and we keep the number. Within each principal shell there are other possible sub-shells (as l varies) When l =0 we call the subshell s When l =1 we call the subshell p When l =2 we call the subshell d When l =3 we call the subshell f Periodic table I 22 11

12 Note also Shells and Sub-Shells When l =0, m l = 0 so there is 1 s orbital When l =1 m l = 0,±1 so there are 3 p orbitals When l =2 m l = 0,±1,±2 so there are 5 d orbitals When l =3 m l = 0,±1,±2,±3 so there are 7 f orbitals The principle quantum number defines the energy, so the orbital energy levels are: Periodic table I 23 So what do these orbitals look like? For s orbitals Ψ 2 Electron density Envelope containing 90% of electron density Periodic table I 24 12

13 How Does This Model Fit With the Bohr Atom? We need to look at the electron density a bit differently. This picture gives the electron density at a point. What we want is the electron density in a shell of constant distance from the nucleus. Periodic table I 25 How Does This Model Fit With the Bohr Atom? Analogy with the dart board In the centre the density of hits is high In a ring around the centre (say the 30) the density is lower but the area is larger so the number of hits within a ring is higher For hydrogen the electron density is also high in the centre Periodic table I 26 13

14 How Does This Model Fit With the Bohr Atom? To get the radius corrected number of hits on the dart board we need to multiply the hit density by the distance from the centre (radius) To get the radius corrected electron density in hydrogen we need to multiply the actual electron density (Ψ 2 ) by the radius squared Periodic table I 27 Radial Probability Distributions These are radial probability distributions for s orbitals. Note for the 1s orbital the maximum is at a 0 the Bohr radius The distance of the maximum from the nucleus increases with n (although not as n 2 ) Periodic table I 28 14

15 Back to: So what do these orbitals look like? Periodic table I 29 So what do these orbitals look like? A 2p orbital The three 2p orbitals 2p x, 2p y,2p z Periodic table I 30 15

16 So what do these orbitals look like? The five 3d orbitals d xy, d xz, d yz, d 2 2 x y, d z 2 Periodic table I 31 So, does this theory work? It provides the missing reason why the orbitals (orbits in Bohr model) are quantized By assuming that multi-electron atoms have the same orbitals as the hydrogen atom, the spectra could be understood (in fact this is the origin of the s,p,d,f labels) Still a problem with magnetic fields Periodic table I 32 16

17 Electron spin For atoms with an odd number of electrons, the atom experiences a force when placed in a magnetic field. This is best explained using the particle nature of the electron if the electron can spin. This spin induces a magnetic field. The spin is described by an additional electron spin quantum number m s with values of +½ or -½ For 2 electrons of opposing spin the net field is zero Periodic table I 33 Electron spin Periodic table I 34 17

18 Electronic States The electronic state of an atom is usually represented by the principle quantum number (n), the letter associated with the angular momentum quantum number (s,p,d..), and the number of electrons in the orbital. For hydrogen we can have states such as 1s 1, 2p 1, 3s 1. Periodic table I 35 Multielectron Atoms Schrödinger s equation for a multi-electron atom has the additional terms for the repulsion between electrons. This prevents an exact solution. One way around the problem is to consider one electron at a time, in an environment established by the nucleus and the other electrons. This then looks like a big hydrogen atom where the outer electron sees a nucleus that includes the nuclear charge, shielded (screened) by the other electrons. Periodic table I 36 18

19 Multielectron Atoms Solving the Schrödinger equation for this system gives hydrogen-like orbitals. The same shape Different sizes At large distances from the nucleus this works fine, however at close distances we see effects because the shielding is not done by only spherical orbitals Periodic table I 37 Shielding in Multielectron Atoms Return to the radial probability distribution for an electron in an orbital. (The probability multiplied by the surface area at distance r) Periodic table I 38 19

20 Compare the 2s and 2p orbitals, assuming the 1s is full The peak in electron density at around a 0 means the 2s orbital can penetrate closer to the nucleus than the 2p The nuclear attraction at the closer distance means the 2s electron is held tighter than the 2p, so the 2s orbital will be at lower energy Also this means that the 2s orbital is less effectively shielded (screened) by the inner orbitals Periodic table I 39 Multielectron Atoms The consequence of penetration/shielding is that the s,p,d,f orbitals within a shell (same n) no longer have the same energy. The order of energies up to n=4 is then 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, Periodic table I 40 20

21 Periodic table I 41 Electron Configuration Electron Configuration is the description of how the electrons are distributed through the orbitals. Periodic table I 42 21

22 Rules for Assigning Electrons to Orbitals 1. Electrons occupy orbitals to minimize the energy of the atom The electrons in the atom fill up from the bottom 2. No two electrons can have the same four quantum numbers Pauli exclusion principle, alternatively-you can only have 2 electrons per orbital and then they must have opposite spin Periodic table I 43 Rules for Assigning Electrons to Orbitals 3. When orbitals have the same energy, electrons initially occupy them singly. Hunds rule: alternatively an atom tries to have as many unpaired electrons as possible, or it costs energy to pair up electrons Periodic table I 44 22

23 Representing Electron Configurations For carbon (6 electrons) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 Or more explicitly 1s 2 2s 2 2p x1 2p y 1 or Periodic table I 45 We are now in a position to describe how electrons are distributed through the available orbitals. This is normally thought of as a building process. You put the first electron in the lowest energy orbital, then the next and so on. This is usually called the aufbau process Periodic table I 46 23

24 Aufbau process Z=1,H. 1s 1 Z=2,He. 1s 2 Z=3,Li. 1s 2 2s 1 Z=4,Be. 1s 2 2s 2 Z=5,B. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 Z=6,C. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 x 2p 1 y Z=7,N. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 x 2p 1 y 2p 1 z Periodic table I 47 Aufbau process Z=7-10 N-Ne Periodic table I 48 24

25 Aufbau process Z=11-18, this is the same as Z=3-10 but with the 3s and 3p orbitals. End with Ar One would expect the 3d orbitals to fill next but remember that 4s is lower Z=19,20 fill the 4s orbital Z=21-30 fill the 3d orbitals. There are two exceptions where the full and ½ full d orbital is especially stable and you get 4s 1 not 4s 2 Periodic table I 49 4s 1 Note the nomenclature here: [Ar] shows the Ar shell. The electrons shown are the valence electrons Periodic table I 50 25

26 Periodic Table We can now see the electron configuration rationale for the periodic table. Periodic table I 51 Periodic table I 52 26

### Chapter 7: Electrons in Atoms. Electromagnetic Radiation

Chapter 7: Electrons in Atoms Dr. Chris Kozak Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada 1 Electromagnetic Radiation Electric and magnetic fields propagate as waves through empty space or through a medium.

### AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 7 Notes - Atomic Structure and Periodicity

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 7 Notes - Atomic Structure and Periodicity 7.1 Electromagnetic Radiation A. Types of EM Radiation (wavelengths in meters) 10-1 10-10 10-8 4 to 7x10-7 10-4 10-1 10 10 4 gamma

### Atomic structure The product of frequency and wavelength for all forms of electromagnetic radiation (light) is a constant, the speed of light c.

Chapter 5: Electrons in Atoms Light (Electromagnetic Radiation) Light has the properties of both waves and particles. Light waves carry energy through space. wavelength (λ) meters frequency (ν) Hz (s -1

### Atomic Structure: Chapter Problems

Atomic Structure: Chapter Problems Bohr Model Class Work 1. Describe the nuclear model of the atom. 2. Explain the problems with the nuclear model of the atom. 3. According to Niels Bohr, what does n stand

### Lecture 12 Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Orbitals

Lecture 12 Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Orbitals Bohr and Einstein demonstrated the particle nature of light.e = hν. De Broglie demonstrated the wavelike properties of particles. λ = h/mv. However, these

### Practice questions for Ch. 7

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Practice questions for Ch. 7 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When ignited, a uranium compound burns with a green

### Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table. Chapter 3.5

Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table Chapter 3.5 The Periodic Table The elements of the periodic table are arranged according to the way electrons arrange themselves around the nuclei of atoms Electron

### Chapter 5. Mendeleev s Periodic Table

Chapter 5 Perodicity and Atomic Structure Mendeleev s Periodic Table In the 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev proposed that the properties of the chemical elements repeat at regular intervals when arranged in order

### Topic 1. Atomic Structure and Periodic Properties

Topic 1 1-1 Atomic Structure and Periodic Properties Atomic Structure 1-2 History Rutherford s experiments Bohr model > Interpretation of hydrogen atom spectra Wave - particle duality Wave mechanics Heisenberg

### Chapter 6 Electromagnetic Radiation and the Electronic Structure of the Atom

Chapter 6 In This Chapter Physical and chemical properties of compounds are influenced by the structure of the molecules that they consist of. Chemical structure depends, in turn, on how electrons are

### Atomic Structure Ron Robertson

Atomic Structure Ron Robertson r2 n:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\atomicstructuretrans.doc I. What is Light? Debate in 1600's: Since waves or particles can transfer energy, what is

### Chapter 7. Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure

Chapter 7. Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure A problem arose in Rutherford s nuclear model. A nucleus and electron attract each other; to remain apart the electron must move. The energy of the electron

### Chapter 7: The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom

C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 7 P a g e 1 Chapter 7: The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom Homework: Read Chapter 7. Work out sample/practice exercises Suggested Chapter 7 Problems: 37, 39,

### AP CHEMISTRY CHAPTER REVIEW CHAPTER 6: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

AP CHEMISTRY CHAPTER REVIEW CHAPTER 6: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE You should be familiar with the wavelike properties of light: frequency ( ), wavelength ( ), and energy (E) as well as

### Chapter 11 Modern Atomic Theory

Chapter 11 Modern Atomic Theory Rutherford s Atom The concept of a nuclear atom (charged electrons moving around the nucleus) resulted from Ernest Rutherford s experiments. Question left unanswered: how

### Name Date Class ELECTRONS IN ATOMS. Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics

13 ELECTRONS IN ATOMS Conceptual Curriculum Concrete concepts More abstract concepts or math/problem-solving Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics Honors Curriculum Core honors content Options

### Chapter 11 Atoms, Energy and Electron Configurations Objectives

Objectives 1. To review Rutherford s model of the atom 2. To explore the nature of electromagnetic radiation 3. To see how atoms emit light A. Rutherford s Atom.but there is a problem here!! Using Rutherford

### Sample Exercise 6.1 Concepts of Wavelength and Frequency

Sample Exercise 6.1 Concepts of Wavelength and Frequency Two electromagnetic waves are represented in the margin. (a) Which wave has the higher frequency? (b) If one wave represents visible light and the

### Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms

CHAPTER 4 PRE-TEST Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms In the space provided, write the letter of the term that best completes each sentence or best answers each question. 1. Which of the following orbital

### Multi-electron atoms

Multi-electron atoms Today: Using hydrogen as a model. The Periodic Table HWK 13 available online. Please fill out the online participation survey. Worth 10points on HWK 13. Final Exam is Monday, Dec.

### Lecture 20: Polyelectronic Atoms

Lecture 20: Polyelectronic Atoms Reading: Zumdahl 12.10-12.13 Outline: Spin (the 4 th quantum number) The Aufbau ( filling-up ) Principle Filling up orbitals and the Periodic Table Electronic Configuration

### CHAPTER 16: Quantum Mechanics and the Hydrogen Atom

CHAPTER 16: Quantum Mechanics and the Hydrogen Atom Waves and Light Paradoxes in Classical Physics Planck, Einstein, and Bohr Waves, Particles, and the Schrödinger equation The Hydrogen Atom Questions

### 13- What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the subshell 3d? a) 1 b) 3 c) 5 d) 2

Assignment 06 A 1- What is the energy in joules of an electron undergoing a transition from n = 3 to n = 5 in a Bohr hydrogen atom? a) -3.48 x 10-17 J b) 2.18 x 10-19 J c) 1.55 x 10-19 J d) -2.56 x 10-19

### Electromagnetic radiation (Maxwell, 1864) (nature of light) Composed of perpendicular electric field and magnetic field

7 Atomic Structure and Periodicity Electromagnetic radiation (Maxwell, 1864) (nature of light) Composed of perpendicular electric field and magnetic field Electric field (E) (wavelength) t Magnetic field

### Quantum Atom: Atomic Structure, Electron Configuration, and Periodicity

Quantum Atom: Atomic Structure, Electron Configuration, and Periodicity Equations: λν = c E = hν E = hν energy of photon difference of energy levels λ = h/p p = mu (momentum and particle wavelength) debroglie

### Chapter 7. Electron Structure of the Atom. Chapter 7 Topics

Chapter 7 Electron Structure of the Atom Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Chapter 7 Topics 1. Electromagnetic radiation 2. The Bohr model of

### Exam 2 Solutions Chem 6, 9 Section, Spring 2002

1. Dartmouth s FM radio station, WDCR, broadcasts by emitting from its antenna photons of frequency 99.3 MHz (99.3 10 6 Hz). (a) What is the energy of a single WDCR photon? The photon energy is simply

### TIME OF COMPLETION NAME SOLUTION DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL SCIENCES. PHYS 3650, Exam 2 Section 1 Version 1 October 31, 2005 Total Weight: 100 points

TIME OF COMPLETION NAME SOLUTION DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL SCIENCES PHYS 3650, Exam 2 Section 1 Version 1 October 31, 2005 Total Weight: 100 points 1. Check your examination for completeness prior to starting.

### AP Chemistry Chapter 6 Lecture Notes- Electrons! 6.1 The Wave Nature of Light. 6.2 Quantized Energy and Photons. Chapter 6 Homework

AP Chemistry Chapter 6 Lecture Notes- Electrons! Chapter 6 Homework 6.1 The Wave Nature of Light pg 253 #3, 4, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 25, 29 The electronic structure of an atom refers to the arrangement of

### Introduction to quantum mechanics

Introduction to quantum mechanics Lecture 3 MTX9100 Nanomaterjalid OUTLINE -What is electron particle or wave? - How large is a potential well? -What happens at nanoscale? What is inside? Matter Molecule

### Chapter 10. Modern Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table

Chapter 10 Modern Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table 1 10.1 A brief history 10.1 A brief history atoms proposed by Greek philosopher Dalton s model of atom Thomson s model Rutherford s model there remain

### Quantum Mechanics I Physics 325. Importance of Hydrogen Atom

Quantum Mechanics I Physics 35 Atomic spectra and Atom Models Importance of Hydrogen Atom Hydrogen is the simplest atom The quantum numbers used to characterize the allowed states of hydrogen can also

### 1: Below you can see a computer generated image of a 2s orbital from Rutgers University website.

Quantum Mechanics of an H atom: 1: Below you can see a computer generated image of a 2s orbital from Rutgers University website. 2: Since the rest of the problems include alteration to the plot, it is

### Sample Exercise 6.1 Concepts of Wavelength and Frequency

Sample Exercise 6.1 Concepts of Wavelength and Frequency Two electromagnetic waves are represented below. (a) Which wave has the higher frequency? (b) If one wave represents visible light and the other

### Chapter 6 Electronic Structure of Atoms

Chapter 6 Electronic Structure of Atoms 1. Electromagnetic radiation travels through vacuum at a speed of m/s. (a). 6.626 x 26 (b). 4186 (c). 3.00 x 8 (d). It depends on wavelength Explanation: The speed

WAVES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION All waves are characterized by their wavelength, frequency and speed. Wavelength (lambda, ): the distance between any 2 successive crests or troughs. Frequency (nu,):

### The Phenomenon of Photoelectric Emission:

The Photoelectric Effect. The Wave particle duality of light Light, like any other E.M.R (electromagnetic radiation) has got a dual nature. That is there are experiments that prove that it is made up of

### Unit 1, Lesson 03: Answers to Homework 1, 0, +1 2, 1, 0, +1, +2 1, 0, +1 2, 1, 0, +1, +2 3, 2, 1, 0, +1, +2, +3. n = 3 l = 2 m l = -2 m s = -½

Unit, Lesson : Answers to Homework Summary: The allowed values for quantum numbers for each principal quantum level n : n l m l m s corresponding sub-level number of orbitals in this sub-level n = s n

### AP* Atomic Structure & Periodicity Free Response Questions KEY page 1

AP* Atomic Structure & Periodicity ree Response Questions KEY page 1 1980 a) points 1s s p 6 3s 3p 6 4s 3d 10 4p 3 b) points for the two electrons in the 4s: 4, 0, 0, +1/ and 4, 0, 0, - 1/ for the three

### Outline. Chapter 6 Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table. Review. Arranging Electrons in Atoms. Fireworks. Atomic Spectra

Outline William L Masterton Cecile N. Hurley Edward J. Neth cengage.com/chemistry/masterton Chapter 6 Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table Light, photon energies and atomic spectra The hydrogen

### CHAPTER 6: ANSWERS TO ASSIGNED PROBLEMS Hauser- General Chemistry I revised 8/03/08

CHAPTER 6: ANSWERS TO ASSIGNED PROBLEMS Hauser- General Chemistry I revised 8/03/08 6.9 What are the basic SI units for? (a) the wavelength of light meters, although colors are usually reported in 3 digit

### The Electronic Structures of Atoms Electromagnetic Radiation

The Electronic Structures of Atoms Electromagnetic Radiation The wavelength of electromagnetic radiation has the symbol λ. Wavelength is the distance from the top (crest) of one wave to the top of the

### Chapter 38C - Atomic Physics. A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University

Chapter 38C - Atomic Physics A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University 007 Objectives: After completing this module, you should be able to:

### Chem 1A Exam 2 Review Problems

Chem 1A Exam 2 Review Problems 1. At 0.967 atm, the height of mercury in a barometer is 0.735 m. If the mercury were replaced with water, what height of water (in meters) would be supported at this pressure?

### Wave Function, ψ. Chapter 28 Atomic Physics. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Line Spectrum

Wave Function, ψ Chapter 28 Atomic Physics The Hydrogen Atom The Bohr Model Electron Waves in the Atom The value of Ψ 2 for a particular object at a certain place and time is proportional to the probability

### History of the Atomic Model. Bohr s Model of the Atom

Bohr s Model of the Atom Niels Bohr (93) was the first to propose that the periodicity in the properties of the elements might be explained by the electronic structure of the atom Democritus (400 B.C.)

### DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERIODIC TABLE

DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERIODIC TABLE Prior to the 1700s, relatively few element were known, and consisted mostly of metals used for coinage, jewelry and weapons. From early 1700s to mid-1800s, chemists discovered

### COLLEGE PHYSICS. Chapter 29 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM PHYSICS

COLLEGE PHYSICS Chapter 29 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM PHYSICS Quantization: Planck s Hypothesis An ideal blackbody absorbs all incoming radiation and re-emits it in a spectrum that depends only on temperature.

### Welcome to Chemistry!

Welcome to Chemistry! Introduction Lecturer: Dr Adrian George (Chemistry room 224; adrian.george@sydney.edu.au) General administration and course structure Tutorials and tutorial quizzes (3 quizzes 15%

### Electron Configurations, Orbital Notation and Quantum Numbers Understanding Electron Arrangement and Oxidation States

Electron Configurations, Orbital Notation and Quantum Numbers Understanding Electron Arrangement and Oxidation States Chemical properties depend on the number and arrangement of electrons in an atom. Usually,

### Unit 2: Chemical Bonding and Organic Chemistry

Chemistry AP Unit : Chemical Bonding and Organic Chemistry Unit : Chemical Bonding and Organic Chemistry Chapter 7: Atomic Structure and Periodicity 7.1: Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic (EM)

### Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom

Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom 1. For most elements, an atom has A. no neutrons in the nucleus. B. more protons than electrons. C. less neutrons than electrons. D. just as many electrons as protons.

### Light is a type of electromagnetic (EM) radiation, and light has energy. Many kinds of light exist. Ultraviolet (UV) light causes skin to tan or burn.

Light and radiation Light is a type of electromagnetic (EM) radiation, and light has energy. Many kinds of light exist. Ultraviolet (UV) light causes skin to tan or burn. Infrared (IR) light is used in

### Chapter 29: Atomic Structure. What will we learn in this chapter?

Chapter 29: Atomic Structure What will we learn in this chapter? Contents: Electrons in atoms Wave functions Electron spin Pauli exclusion principle Atomic structure Periodic table W. Pauli & N. Bohr Both

### 8/29/2011. The Greek Philosophers. Atomic Structure & The Periodic Table. Dalton s Atomic Theory (1808) J. J. Thomson. Thomson s Experiment

Atomic Structure & The Periodic Table The Greek Philosophers Democritus believed that all matter is made up of tiny particles that could not be divided Aristotle -- thought that matter was made of only

### 2) Remember the Pauli exclusion principle. 3) Hund s rule of maximum multiplicity Energy

Building up the atoms in the periodic table 1) The Aufbau ( building up ) principle: lowest energy orbitals are filled first 1s, then 2s, then 2p, then 3s, then 3p, etc. 2) Remember the Pauli exclusion

### ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER

SUBAREA I. ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER COMPETENCY 1.0 UNDERSTAND THE VARIOUS MODELS OF ATOMIC STRUCTURE, THE PRINCIPLES OF QUANTUM THEORY, AND THE PROPERTIES AND INTERACTIONS OF SUBATOMIC

### DO PHYSICS ONLINE FROM QUANTA TO QUARKS QUANTUM (WAVE) MECHANICS

DO PHYSICS ONLINE FROM QUANTA TO QUARKS QUANTUM (WAVE) MECHANICS Quantum Mechanics or wave mechanics is the best mathematical theory used today to describe and predict the behaviour of particles and waves.

### CHEMSITRY NOTES Chapter 13. Electrons in Atoms

CHEMSITRY NOTES Chapter 13 Electrons in Atoms Goals : To gain an understanding of : 1. Atoms and their structure. 2. The development of the atomic theory. 3. The quantum mechanical model of the atom. 4.

### The Evolution of the Atom

The Evolution of the Atom 1808: Dalton s model of the atom was the billiard ball model. He thought the atom was a solid, indivisible sphere. Atoms of each element were identical in mass and their properties.

### Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 2 - Cont. 30 January 2014

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 2 - Cont. 30 January 2014 The Structure of the Atom and the Periodic Table Element Information in the

### Question: Do all electrons in the same level have the same energy?

Question: Do all electrons in the same level have the same energy? From the Shells Activity, one important conclusion we reached based on the first ionization energy experimental data is that electrons

### Our goals in studying this chapter are to:

Electronic Structure of Atoms (Quantum Theory) Classical Theory: By the early 1900 s, classical theory viewed light as behaving like a wave, as demonstrated in 1801 by Thomas Young in his double slit experiment.

### Chemistry 2 Chapter 13: Electrons in Atoms Please do not write on the test Use an answer sheet! 1 point/problem 45 points total

Chemistry 2 Chapter 13: Electrons in Atoms Please do not write on the test Use an answer sheet! 1 point/problem 45 points total 1. Calculate the energy in joules of a photon of red light that has a frequency

### Atoms and the Periodic Table. Subatomic Particles

Atoms and the Periodic Table Chapter Three Subatomic Particles Atoms are composed of subatomic particles Particle Symbol Mass (g) Mass (amu) Charge Proton p 1.672622 x 10-24 1.007276 +1 Neutron n 1.674927

### Chapter One (continued)

Slide 1 of 39 Chapter One (continued) Many Electron Atoms and The Periodic Table Slide 2 of 39 Multielectron Atoms In the hydrogen atom, all subshells of a principal shell are at the same energy level.

### Chapter 8 Molecules. Some molecular bonds involve sharing of electrons between atoms. These are covalent bonds.

Chapter 8 Molecules (We have only three days for chapter 8!) 8.1 The Molecular Bond A molecule is an electrically neutral group of atoms held together strongly enough to behave as a single particle. A

### 5.111 Principles of Chemical Science

MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 5.111 Principles of Chemical Science Fall 2008 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms. 5.111 Lecture Summary

### Chapter 2. Quantum Theory

Chapter 2 Quantum Theory 2.0 Introduction 2.6 Orbital Shapes, Signs, and Sizes 2.1 The Nature of Light 2.7 Electron Configurations 2.2 Quantization 2.8 Quantum Theory and the Periodic Table 2.3 Bohr Model

Electro-magnetic radiation (light) The nature of light light is a wave The nature of waves What is a wave? What is waving? Waves A time Wave: some sort of periodic function something that periodicaly changes

### Modern Atomic Theory

Reading: Ch. 9, sections 1-4 Ch. 7, sections 5-6 (lec) Ch. 7, sections 1-3 (lab) Modern Atomic Theory Homework: Chapter 9: 37*, 39*, 41 Chapter 7: 59, 61*, 63, 65 (lec.) Chapter 7: 39, 41, 43, 47 (lab)

Chapter 7 A Quantum Model of Atoms Chapter Objectives: Understand the relationships between wavelength, frequency, and energy of light. Understand the origin of atomic line spectra. Learn how the quantum

### CHEM 1411 Chapter 5 Homework Answers

1 CHEM 1411 Chapter 5 Homework Answers 1. Which statement regarding the gold foil experiment is false? (a) It was performed by Rutherford and his research group early in the 20 th century. (b) Most of

### The Bohr model for the electrons

The Bohr model for the electrons Electronic structure how the electrons are arranged inside the atom Applying the quantum principle of energy Two parameters: Energy Position Learning objectives Describe

### Electron Arrangements

Section 3.4 Electron Arrangements Objectives Express the arrangement of electrons in atoms using electron configurations and Lewis valence electron dot structures New Vocabulary Heisenberg uncertainty

### The Early History of Quantum Mechanics

Chapter 2 The Early History of Quantum Mechanics In the early years of the twentieth century, Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Louis de Broglie, Neils Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, Max Born,

### Chemistry 102 Summary June 24 th. Properties of Light

Chemistry 102 Summary June 24 th Properties of Light - Energy travels through space in the form of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). - Examples of types of EMR: radio waves, x-rays, microwaves, visible

### History of Atomic Theory

History of Atomic Theory Alchemy ~ Before 400 B.C. Experiment: Pseudoscience concerned with: Changing metal to gold Finding an eternal life elixir Aristotle Beliefs: All matter was made up of a combination

CD-ROM) Section Review Answers Student Textbook page 130 1. (a) Thomson's model of the atom focussed on the electrons. Rutherford's model focussed on the nucleus. Thomson viewed the atom as a positively

### PRACTICE EXAM IV P202 SPRING 2004

PRACTICE EXAM IV P202 SPRING 2004 1. In two separate double slit experiments, an interference pattern is observed on a screen. In the first experiment, violet light (λ = 754 nm) is used and a second-order

### We consider a hydrogen atom in the ground state in the uniform electric field

Lecture 13 Page 1 Lectures 13-14 Hydrogen atom in electric field. Quadratic Stark effect. Atomic polarizability. Emission and Absorption of Electromagnetic Radiation by Atoms Transition probabilities and

### Basic Nuclear Concepts

Section 7: In this section, we present a basic description of atomic nuclei, the stored energy contained within them, their occurrence and stability Basic Nuclear Concepts EARLY DISCOVERIES [see also Section

### 3 Modern Atomic Theory

CHAPTER 4 3 Modern Atomic Theory SECTION Atoms KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: How are electrons organized in an atom? Can the exact location of an electron be determined?

### Ch 3 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table. Figure 3.1 size relationship is not to scale, ratio of average diameters atom/nucleus = 10 5

1 Ch 3 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table Figure 3.1 size relationship is not to scale, ratio of average diameters atom/nucleus = 10 5 2 Atoms are very small and spherical. Radii Range 0.9 x 10-10

### PSI AP Chemistry Unit 1: The Atom Free Response CW/HW

PSI AP Chemistry Unit 1: The Atom Free Response CW/HW Name Laws of Multiple and Definite Proportions and Conservation of Mass Classwork: 1. Exactly twice as much oxygen is required to react with 1 gram

### ALE 7. Ionization Energies & Electron Affinities. (Reference: Sections Silberberg 5 th edition)

Answer Key ALE 7. Ionization Energies & Electron Affinities (Reference: Sections 8.4 - Silberberg 5 th edition) How can one use the Periodic Table to make predictions of atomic properties? The Model: First

### Photons. ConcepTest 27.1. 1) red light 2) yellow light 3) green light 4) blue light 5) all have the same energy. Which has more energy, a photon of:

ConcepTest 27.1 Photons Which has more energy, a photon of: 1) red light 2) yellow light 3) green light 4) blue light 5) all have the same energy 400 nm 500 nm 600 nm 700 nm ConcepTest 27.1 Photons Which

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Practice Questions - Chapter 7 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which one of the following represents an impossible set of

### ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATIONS

ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATIONS ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATIONS CONTENTS The Bohr Atom Levels and sub-levels Rules and principles Orbitals Rules for filling orbitals. The Aufbau principle Electronic configurations

### In the previous lecture we have learnt the quantum mechanical treatment of hydrogen atom.

Lecture : Title : ALKALI SPCTA Page- In the previous lecture we have learnt the quantum mechanical treatment of hydrogen atom. The similar picture is not able to explain the alkali atoms, the other elements

### NMR - Basic principles

NMR - Basic principles Subatomic particles like electrons, protons and neutrons are associated with spin - a fundamental property like charge or mass. In the case of nuclei with even number of protons

### 3) Of the following, radiation has the shortest wavelength. A) X-ray B) radio C) microwave D) ultraviolet E) infrared Answer: A

1) Which one of the following is correct? A) ν + λ = c B) ν λ = c C) ν = cλ D) λ = c ν E) νλ = c Answer: E 2) The wavelength of light emitted from a traffic light having a frequency of 5.75 1014 Hz is.

### electron configuration

electron configuration Electron Configuration Knowing the arrangement of electrons in atoms will better help you understand chemical reactivity and predict an atom s reaction behavior. We know when n=1

ATOMIC STRUCTURE and Periodicity Electromagnetic Radiation Radiant energy that exhibits wavelength-like behavior and travels through space at the speed of light in a vacuum. Figure 7.5: The electromagnetic

### CHAPTER 11: MODERN ATOMIC THEORY

CHAPTER 11: MODERN ATOMIC THEORY Active Learning Questions: 1-2, 8-10, 14-18; End-of-Chapter Problems: 3-9, 11-13, 16, 18, 20-36, 45-54, 56-64, 66b, 67, 69-91, 98, 101-102, 108, 110, 113, 116, 11.2 ELECTROMAGNETIC

### 2. Atomic Structure. 2.1 Historical Development of Atomic Theory. Remember!? Dmitri I. Mendeleev s Periodic Table (17 Feb. 1869 )

2. Atomic Structure 2.1 Historical Development of Atomic Theory Remember!? Dmitri I. Mendeleev s Periodic Table (17 Feb. 1869 ) 1 2.1.1 The Periodic Table of the Elements 2.1.2 Discovery of Subatomic Particles

### MODERN ATOMIC THEORY AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

CHAPTER 10 MODERN ATOMIC THEORY AND THE PERIODIC TABLE SOLUTIONS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Wavelength is defined as the distance between consecutive peaks in a wave. It is generally symbolized by the Greek