Ask a dozen people to name a genius and the odds are that 'Einstein' will spring to their lips. Ask them the meaning of 'relativity' and few of them

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Ask a dozen people to name a genius and the odds are that 'Einstein' will spring to their lips. Ask them the meaning of 'relativity' and few of them"

Transcription

1 Ask a dozen people to name a genius and the odds are that 'Einstein' will spring to their lips. Ask them the meaning of 'relativity' and few of them will be able to tell you what it is. The ABC of Relativity is Bertrand Russell's most brilliant work of scientific popularisation. With marvellous lucidity he steers the reader who has no knowledge of maths or physics through the subtleties of Einstein's thinking; in easily assimilable steps he explains the theories of special and general relativity and describes their practical application (among much else to discoveries about gravitation and the invention of the hydrogen bomb). 'Einstein', wrote Russell, 'revolutionised our conception of the physical world, but the innumerable popular accounts of his theory generally cease to be intelligible at the point where they begin to say something important.' The basic principles of relativity have not changed since Russell first published his lucid guide for the general reader. This new edition takes account of the extension of our knowledge about the theory and its applications.

2 BERTRAND RUSSELL ABC OF RELATIVITY Fourth Revised Edition Edited by Felix Pirani LONDON

3 Preface to the Fourth Edition

4 Contents

5 Chapter 1 Touch and Sight: The Earth and the Heavens Everybody knows that Einstein did something astonishing, but very few people know exactly what it was. It is generally recognised that he revolutionised our conception of the physical world, but the new conceptions are wrapped up in mathematical technicalities. It is true that there are

6 10 ABC of Relativity

7 Touch and Sight 11

8 12 ABC of Relativity

9

10 14 ABC of Relativity

11 Touch and Sight 15 exerting themselves, and evidently putting out 'force' in the same way as human beings do. Everybody knew from experience what it is to push or pull, or to be pushed or

12 16 ABC of Relativity their relative position, we cannot say that one is moving while the other is at rest, since the occurrence is merely a change

13 Chapter 2 What Happens and What is Observed A certain type of superior person is fond of asserting that 'everything is relative'. This is, of course, nonsense, because,

14 18 ABC of Relativity perception of a given occurrence differs from another's. Some of these differences are due to differences in the brains or

15 What Happens and What is Observed 19

16 20 ABC of Relativity (about 186,000 miles). It travels from the sun to the earth in about eight minutes, and from the stars in anything from four years to several thousand million. Of course, we cannot

17 What Happens and What is Observed 21 - as subjective, while allowing 'primary' qualities - shapes and positions and sizes - to be genuine properties of physical objects. The physicist's rules were such as would follow from this doctrine. Colours and noises were allowed to be subjective, but due to waves proceeding with a definite velocity - that of light or sound as the case may be - from their source to the eye or ear of the percipient. Apparent shapes vary according to the laws of perspective, but these

18 22 ABC of Relativity

19 What Happens and What is Observed 23

20 24 ABC of Relativity in physics. Since all motion is relative, you may take any body

21 What Happens and What is Observed 25 temporal properties of physical occurrences are found to be

22 Chapter 3

23

24 28 ABC of Relativity

25 The Velocity of Light 29

26 30 ABC of Relativity

27

28 32 ABC of Relativity at the same spot at the same moment, it also would find that it remained at the centre of the ripples, even if it separated itself widely from the first fly. This is exactly analogous to

29 The Velocity of Light 33 may judge that the time was more or less than an hour. You cannot say that one is right and the other wrong, any more than you could if one used a clock showing Greenwich time

30 34 ABC of Relativity

31 Chapter 4

32 36 ABC of Relativity

33

34 38 ABC of Relativity two events are simultaneous according to the definition, there

35

36 40 ABC of Relativity

37 Clocks and Foot-rules 41 in Edinburgh, there are four hundred miles and ten hours. We have already seen that other observers will judge the time differently; it is even more obvious that they will judge the

38 42 ABC of Relativity say that the interval 1 between the two events is 'space-like';

39

40 44 ABC of Relativity Although AB and AC are different for different observers,

41 Chapter 5 Space-Time

42 46 ABC of Relativity number of such ways of fixing the position in space, all

43 Space-Time 47 we cannot, as before, divide off one of the four as quite independent of the other three. It is not quite true to say that there is no longer any distinction between time and space. As we have seen, there are time-like intervals and space-like intervals. But the distinction is of a different sort from that which was formerly assumed. There is no longer a universal time which can be

44 48 ABC of Relativity fundamental, but is at any rate a help in understanding the state of affairs we have been describing. He maintained that

45 Space-Time 49

46 50 ABC of Relativity

47 Space-Time 51 get different results from their measurements. Thus the trouble about time is at the bottom of the trouble about distance.

48 52 ABC of Relativity of the state of the world at a given instant is, for another

49 Chapter 6 The Special Theory of Relativity

50 54 ABC of Relativity other scientific hypothesis not capable of direct verification. But a new set of facts began to be discovered, and gradually the whole picture was changed.

51

52 56 ABC of Relativity of his results must almost be ascribed to intuition. Now these

53 The Special Theory of Relativity 57

54 58 ABC of Relativity

55

56 60 ABC of Relativity But when, instead of comparing events at the same place on the earth, we compare events at widely separated places, the results are still more odd. Let us now take all the events

57 The Special Theory of Relativity 61 travellers. We must first take five-fourths of the time as estimated by the earth-dwellers, and then subtract three-

58 62 ABC of Relativity

59

60 64 ABC of Relativity Y such that OY is equal to OX (X is the point of the railway where the lightning strikes). Draw YM perpendicular to the

61 The Special Theory of Relativity 65

62 Chapter 7

63 Intervals in Space-Time 67 the restriction, Einstein was led to his new law of gravitation, which we shall consider presently. The work was extraordinarily difficult, and occupied him for ten years. The

64 68 ABC of Relativity though few physicists in modern times have believed in

65 Intervals in Space-Time 69

66 70 ABC of Relativity The next step of importance is due to Descartes, who

67 Intervals in Space-Time 71

68 72 ABC of Relativity convince yourself of this by experiment. If not, you can easily

69 Intervals in Space-Time 73 angles of the triangle add up to two right angles: they will

70 74 ABC of Relativity

71 Intervals in Space-Time 75

72 76 ABC of Relativity between two points would be given by a formula analogous

73 Intervals in Space-Time 77

74 Chapter 8 Einstein's Law of Gravitation Before tackling Einstein's law, it is as well to convince ourselves, on logical grounds, that Newton's law of gravitation cannot be quite right. Newton said that between any two particles of matter there

75 Einstein's Law of Gravitation 79

76 80 ABC of Relativity

77 Einstein's Law of Gravitation 81

78 82 ABC of Relativity

79 Einstein's Law of Gravitation 83

80 84 ABC of Relativity physical phenomena. We know certain things. We know that the old Newtonian physics is very nearly accurate when our

81 Einstein's Law of Gravitation 85 that there should be no gravitation in the region; it is enough if the intensity of gravitation is practically the same

82 86 ABC of Relativity move, we are confined to time-like intervals. The interval

83 Einstein's Law of Gravitation 87

84 88 ABC of Relativity

85 Einstein's Law of Gravitation 89 myself. The most interesting point about it is that it makes the law no longer the result of action at a distance; the sun

86 90 ABC of Relativity

87 Chapter 9 Proofs of Einstein's Law of Gravitation The reasons for accepting Einstein's law of gravitation rather

88 92 ABC of Relativity perturbations caused by the other planets, but this small

89 Proofs of Einstein's Law of Gravitation 93

90 94 ABC of Relativity you hear is only due to the fact that the train was first approaching and then receding. To people in the train, there was no change of note. This is not the effect about which the prediction was made. According to the new theory,

91 Proofs of Einstein's Law of Gravitation 95 predicted effect has now been accurately confirmed by many different experiments. There are many other differences between the new law of

92 96 ABC of Relativity

93

94 98 ABC of Relativity Thus if we mean 'gravitational mass' in sense (1), that is to say, the way a body responds to gravitation, we find that 'the equality of inertial and gravitational mass', which sounds

95

96 Chapter 10 Mass, Momentum, Energy, and Action The pursuit of quantitative precision is as arduous as it is

97 Mass, Momentum, Energy, and Action 101

98 102 ABC of Relativity 'weights' are altered just as much as the body to be weighed,

99 Mass, Momentum, Energy, and Action 103

100 104 ABC of Relativity

101 Mass,

102 106 ABC of Relativity how this comes about is not easy: nevertheless we will make the attempt. In popular talk, 'mass' and 'energy' do not mean at all the same thing. We associate 'mass' with the idea of a fat person

103 Mass, Momentum, Energy,

104 108 ABC of Relativity

105

106 110 ABC of Relativity while its kinetic energy, according to the usual formula, will be

107 Mass, Momentum, Energy, and Action 111 important in relativity physics, as well as in the quantum theory. (The quantum is a small amount of action.) The word 'action'

108 112 ABC of Relativity complete with hills and valleys. Such principles, which play

109 Chapter 11 The Expanding Universe We have been dealing hitherto with experiments and observations most of which concern the earth or the solar

110 114 ABC of Relativity galactic scale, is difficult to estimate, and may be revised in the future. (On the galactic scale, distances are often measured in light-years. A light-year is the distance which light travels in a year: you may calculate it by multiplying the speed of light, which is given on p. 20, by the number of seconds in a year, which is 31,536,000. If you convert the answer into miles, it is nearly six million million miles.) The Milky Way, a bright band of stars across the sky which is easily visible on a clear night, is just our edge-on view of

111 The Expanding Universe 115

112 116 ABC of Relativity

113 The Expanding Universe 117

114 118 ABC of Relativity

115 The Expanding Universe 119

116 120 ABC of Relativity

117

118 122 ABC of Relativity

119 The Expanding Universe 123 on the resolving of some serious mathematical difficulties; which of the available models is to be preferred at any particular time must depend on the astronomical data.

120 Chapter 12 Conventions and

121 Conventions and Natural Laws 125

122 126 ABC of Relativity

123

124 128 ABC of Relativity mathematical expression in question. As a proposition of

125

126 130 ABC of Relativity

127 Conventions and Natural Laws 131 Geography, in this sense, includes everything that, as a matter of crude fact, distinguishes one part of space-time from

128 132 ABC of Relativity

129 Chapter 13 The Abolition of 'Force' In the Newtonian system, bodies under the action of no forces

130 134 ABC of Relativity

131 The Abolition of 'Force' 135 mistake. If you insist on adhering to the Euclidean formula

132 136 ABC of Relativity

133 The Abolition of 'Force' 137 There is, of course, some truth in this; the point is to discover exactly what truth. In the first place, images are not 'imaginary'.

134 138 ABC of Relativity

135 The Abolition of 'Force' 139 us to regard the heavenly bodies, although we can only see and not touch them, as more 'real' than an image in a lookingglass. We can now begin to interpret the common-sense notion

136 140 ABC of Relativity

137 Chapter 14 What is Matter?

138 142 ABC of Relativity respectable when it was found to play the same part in electromagnetic phenomena as in the propagation of light.

139 What is Matter? 143

140 144 ABC of Relativity of the disturbance. It will also count as one event in the biography of the particle of matter which is supposed to occupy the centre of the disturbance. Now we find not only that one light-wave travels outward from a centre according to a certain law, but also that, in

141 What is Matter? 145 theory of relativity to clear away so much useless lumber. Common sense imagines that when it sees a table it sees

142 146 ABC of Relativity What I wish to suggest may be put as follows. Everything that occurs elsewhere, owing to the existence of an atom, can

143 What is Matter? 147

144 Chapter 15 Philosophical Consequences

145 Philosophical Consequences 149

146 150 ABC of Relativity noticeable; the helium atom weighs measurably less than four separate hydrogen atoms.

147 Philosophical Consequences 151 power of proving facts grow less and less. Logic used to be

148 152 ABC of Relativity

149 Philosophical Consequences 153

150 154 ABC of Relativity

151

Newton s First Law of Motion

Newton s First Law of Motion MATHEMATICS 7302 (Analytical Dynamics) YEAR 2016 2017, TERM 2 HANDOUT #1: NEWTON S FIRST LAW AND THE PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY Newton s First Law of Motion Our experience seems to teach us that the natural

More information

11.3 Length Contraction, Simultaneity, and Relativistic Momentum

11.3 Length Contraction, Simultaneity, and Relativistic Momentum 11.3 Length Contraction, Simultaneity, and Relativistic Momentum Figure 1 Particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider, increase particle speeds to nearly the speed of light. The resulting

More information

Special Theory of Relativity. A Brief introduction

Special Theory of Relativity. A Brief introduction Special Theory of Relativity A Brief introduction Classical Physics At the end of the 19th century it looked as if Physics was pretty well wrapped up. Newtonian mechanics and the law of Gravitation had

More information

Einstein s Theory of Special Relativity Made Relatively Simple!

Einstein s Theory of Special Relativity Made Relatively Simple! Einstein s Theory of Special Relativity Made Relatively Simple! by Christopher P. Benton, PhD Young Einstein Albert Einstein was born in 1879 and died in 1955. He didn't start talking until he was three,

More information

WEEK 7: GRAVITATIONAL FORCES

WEEK 7: GRAVITATIONAL FORCES Name Date Partners WEEK 7: GRAVITATIONAL FORCES OBJECTIVES To explore the nature of motion along a vertical line near the Earth s surface. To extend the explanatory power of Newton s laws by inventing

More information

THEORY OF NOTHING IS EVERYTHING

THEORY OF NOTHING IS EVERYTHING THEORY OF NOTHING IS EVERYTHING S HUSSAINSHA 1 * Research Scholar, ECE Department, G PULLAIAH COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, kurnool-51800, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA Abstract: The principal objective

More information

What is Reality? Roger Penrose

What is Reality? Roger Penrose What is Reality? Roger Penrose What do we understand by reality? For those of us who consider ourselves hard-headed realists, there is a kind of common-sense answer: Reality consists of those things tables,

More information

The Special Theory of Relativity explained to children

The Special Theory of Relativity explained to children The Special Theory of Relativity explained to children (from 7 to 107 years old) Charles-Michel Marle marle@math.jussieu.fr Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France Albert Einstein Century International

More information

The bending of light by gravity Lars Wåhlin

The bending of light by gravity Lars Wåhlin The bending of light by gravity Lars Wåhlin The proof that light bends near a gravitational body and the attempts to explain this phenomenon is very interesting, because it led to the impetuous acceptance

More information

GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES

GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES July 14 - Gravitational & Passive Forces 1 Name Date Partners GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES And thus Nature will be very conformable to herself and very simple, performing all the great Motions of the

More information

Gravity and the Motion of the Planets

Gravity and the Motion of the Planets Gravity and the Motion of the Planets Foundations of Modern Science More than 2500 years ago Pythagoras put forth the idea that nature can be described with mathematics. Aristotle asserted that the Universe

More information

History of Gravity. Name: Date: Period:

History of Gravity. Name: Date: Period: History of Gravity Name: Date: Period: I. ANCIENT ASTRONOMY Imagine what it was like for the first humans to look up at the night sky. This is well before the invention of modern technology. There were

More information

Lecture 24 Comparison of Bacon and Copernicus

Lecture 24 Comparison of Bacon and Copernicus Lecture 24 Comparison of Bacon and Copernicus Patrick Maher Scientific Thought I Fall 2009 Copernicus s method Look for an alternative hypothesis [4.37] I began to be annoyed that the movements of the

More information

Relativity and Rocketry. Basic Relativity

Relativity and Rocketry. Basic Relativity Relativity and Rocketry By Phil Charlesworth In 1905 a little known patent clerk and part-time scientist published three scientific papers that laid the foundations of modern physics. The first paper explained

More information

4. Kepler and the Copernican System

4. Kepler and the Copernican System Philosophy and Cosmology: A Revolution (PHIL 20612) Dr K Brading 4. Kepler and the Copernican System Kepler s teacher, Michael Maestlin, taught him about Copernicus s astronomical system. Kepler sought

More information

The Philosophical Importance of Mathematical Logic Bertrand Russell

The Philosophical Importance of Mathematical Logic Bertrand Russell The Philosophical Importance of Mathematical Logic Bertrand Russell IN SPEAKING OF "Mathematical logic", I use this word in a very broad sense. By it I understand the works of Cantor on transfinite numbers

More information

Physics 30. Unit 3 Circular Motion Lesson 3.4 Outline Astronomical Applications Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation Examples

Physics 30. Unit 3 Circular Motion Lesson 3.4 Outline Astronomical Applications Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation Examples Physics 30 Unit 3 Circular Motion Lesson 3.4 Outline Astronomical Applications Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation Examples You will be able to: solve problems involving gravitational force between objects

More information

Chapter One. Peculiar Consequences

Chapter One. Peculiar Consequences Chapter One Peculiar Consequences Imagine that you are an astronaut on a trip to the moon. Actually, this is not too hard to imagine. You ve seen pictures of it happening in real life. But your trip is

More information

Where does E = mc 2 come from?

Where does E = mc 2 come from? Where does E = mc come from? Richard Conn Henry, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore MD The location of an event one beat of your heart, say is given by its three space coordinates, and its time coordinate

More information

Lecture 6: Newton & Kepler. Tycho Brahe ( ) Johannes Kepler

Lecture 6: Newton & Kepler. Tycho Brahe ( ) Johannes Kepler Lecture 6: Newton & Kepler Johannes Kepler (1600) was employed by Tycho to develop a mathematical theory to explain the observations made by Tycho Kepler was a pure theorist; Tycho a pure observer Issac

More information

Special Theory of Relativity. PH101 Lec-2

Special Theory of Relativity. PH101 Lec-2 Special Theory of Relativity PH101 Lec-2 Failure of Newtonian Relativity! Clash with electromagnetism!! we won t go into here Newton s laws reigned supreme in mechanics for more than 200 years However,

More information

Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation

Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation The greatest moments in science are when two phenomena that were considered completely separate suddenly are seen as just two different versions of the same thing.

More information

Lecture 17 Relativity A2020 Prof. Tom Megeath. What are the major ideas of special relativity? Einstein s Theories of Relativity

Lecture 17 Relativity A2020 Prof. Tom Megeath. What are the major ideas of special relativity? Einstein s Theories of Relativity Lecture 17 Relativity A2020 Prof. Tom Megeath What are the major ideas of special relativity? Einstein in 1921 (born 1879 - died 1955) Einstein s Theories of Relativity Special Theory of Relativity (1905)

More information

( ) 2 " c 2 ( time interval) 2. Homework - Exam. From last time. Question. Time dilation, length contraction. Separation between events

( ) 2  c 2 ( time interval) 2. Homework - Exam. From last time. Question. Time dilation, length contraction. Separation between events Homework - Exam HW#7: M Chap : Questions A, C, Exercises 4, 8 M Chap 2: Exercises 4, 6 Hour Exam 2: Wednesday, March 8 In-class, covering waves, electromagnetism, and relativity Twenty multiple-choice

More information

Chapter 13: Universal Gravitation

Chapter 13: Universal Gravitation Chapter 13: Universal Gravitation I. The Falling Apple (13.1) A. Isaac Newton (1642-1727) 1. Formulated ideas based on earlier work by Galileo (concept of inertia) 2. Concept if object undergoes change

More information

The Heliocentric Model of the Solar System

The Heliocentric Model of the Solar System The Heliocentric Model of the Solar System Hypothesis: The Sun is the center of the solar system. Only Moon orbits around Earth; Planets orbit around Sun. Aristarchus of Samos was the first to propose

More information

Einstein s Theory of General Relativity

Einstein s Theory of General Relativity Einstein s Theory of General Relativity The Topic is Gravity Einstein stunned the scientific world again in 1915 with publication of his general theory of relativity it is primarily a theory of gravity

More information

Intermediate Quantum Mechanics Notes for Lecture 1

Intermediate Quantum Mechanics Notes for Lecture 1 The Structure of Physics Intermediate Quantum Mechanics Notes for Lecture 1 Structure of Physics, Classical Physics and Quantum Mechanics vs. Classical Physics The two pillars of physics are the Special

More information

The interested reader can find the details in my websites and

The interested reader can find the details in my websites  and REAL PHYSICS The above title is chosen to contrast what will be presented here with the fantasy physics that has been promulgated during the past century to the present time. This trend has been sanctified

More information

Einstein s Train and other Gedanken experiments

Einstein s Train and other Gedanken experiments VCE Physics Einstein s Train and other Gedanken experiments In his book Relativity: The Special and the General Theory Einstein uses a thought experiment involving lightning flashes striking a railway

More information

Gravity operates by the inverse square law (source Hyperphysics)

Gravity operates by the inverse square law (source Hyperphysics) Gravity operates by the inverse square law (source Hyperphysics) A main objective in this lesson is that you understand the basic notion of inverse square relationships. There are a small number (perhaps

More information

SEMESTER 1 PHYSICAL SCIENCE FINAL STUDY GUIDE

SEMESTER 1 PHYSICAL SCIENCE FINAL STUDY GUIDE SEMESTER 1 PHYSICAL SCIENCE FINAL STUDY GUIDE Science Process Skills Know these vocabulary words and be able to use them to answer higher level questions about experiments and data collection: What do

More information

Lecture 7: Light Waves. Newton s Laws of Motion (1666) Newton s First Law of Motion

Lecture 7: Light Waves. Newton s Laws of Motion (1666) Newton s First Law of Motion Lecture 7: Light Waves Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was born in the year Galileo died He discovered the Law of Gravitation in 1665 He developed the Laws of Mechanics that govern all motions In order to solve

More information

Momentum, Work and Energy

Momentum, Work and Energy previous index next Momentum, Work and Energy Michael Fowler, U. Va. Physics, 11/29/07 Momentum At this point, we introduce some further concepts that will prove useful in describing motion. The first

More information

Chapter 5. Determining Masses of Astronomical Objects

Chapter 5. Determining Masses of Astronomical Objects Chapter 5. Determining Masses of Astronomical Objects One of the most fundamental and important properties of an object is its mass. On Earth we can easily weigh objects, essentially measuring how much

More information

LAB 6: GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES

LAB 6: GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES 55 Name Date Partners LAB 6: GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES And thus Nature will be very conformable to herself and very simple, performing all the great Motions of the heavenly Bodies by the attraction

More information

THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Chapter1 THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD OUTLINE How Scientists Study Nature 1.1 The Scientific Method 1.2 Why Science Is Successful The Solar System 1.3 A Survey of the Sky 1.4 The Ptolemaic System 1.5 The Copernican

More information

Einstein's Theory and Common Sense

Einstein's Theory and Common Sense Einstein's Theory and Common Sense Jeff Alford I believe that Einstein s Theory of Relativity is entirely invalid. The purpose of the papers is to look critically at Einstein s Theory of Relativity, primarily

More information

A Connection Between Gravitation and Electromagnetism

A Connection Between Gravitation and Electromagnetism A Connection Between Gravitation and Electromagnetism Douglas M. Snyder Los Angeles, California 1 It is argued that there is a connection between the fundamental forces of electromagnetism and gravitation.

More information

Unification of the laws of the Earth and the Universe Why do planets appear to wander slowly across the sky?

Unification of the laws of the Earth and the Universe Why do planets appear to wander slowly across the sky? October 19, 2015 Unification of the laws of the Earth and the Universe Why do planets appear to wander slowly across the sky? Key Words Newton s Laws of motion, and Newton s law of universal gravitation:

More information

Laws of Motion and Conservation Laws

Laws of Motion and Conservation Laws Laws of Motion and Conservation Laws The first astrophysics we ll consider will be gravity, which we ll address in the next class. First, though, we need to set the stage by talking about some of the basic

More information

The Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution What is a Revolution? A Revolution is a complete change, or an overthrow of a government, a social system, etc. The Scientific Revolution In the 1500s and 1600s the Scientific

More information

Time and Causation in Gödel s Universe.

Time and Causation in Gödel s Universe. Time and Causation in Gödel s Universe. John L. Bell In 1949 the great logician Kurt Gödel constructed the first mathematical models of the universe in which travel into the past is, in theory at least,

More information

THE FORCE OF GRAVITY

THE FORCE OF GRAVITY THE FORCE OF GRAVITY By looking at phenomena known to everyone, like the motion of bodies in free fall, or object's weight, we will understand the general notion of gravitational field. We will then try

More information

Introduction. According to modern astronomy, the beginning of the universe would be about

Introduction. According to modern astronomy, the beginning of the universe would be about 1 Introduction According to modern astronomy, the beginning of the universe would be about fourteen billion years ago, the universe was born from an explosion of a tiny and tiny point which was called

More information

Waves and Sound. Physical properties

Waves and Sound. Physical properties Waves and Sound There are only two fundamental mechanisms for transporting energy and momentum: a streaming of particles and a flowing of waves. And even these two seemingly opposite conceptions are subtly

More information

Lecture 19: Special Relativity Readings: Section 24-1 and Box 24-1

Lecture 19: Special Relativity Readings: Section 24-1 and Box 24-1 Lecture 19: Special Relativity Readings: Section 24-1 and Box 24-1 Framework Postulates Facts assumed to be true Example: the speed of light is the same for all observers Consequences What happens when

More information

6. What is the approximate angular diameter of the Sun in arcseconds? (d) 1860

6. What is the approximate angular diameter of the Sun in arcseconds? (d) 1860 ASTR 1020 Stellar and Galactic Astronomy Professor Caillault Fall 2009 Semester Exam 1 Multiple Choice Answers (Each multiple choice question is worth 1.5 points) 1. The number of degrees in a full circle

More information

Chapter 13 Newton s Theory of Gravity

Chapter 13 Newton s Theory of Gravity Chapter 13 Newton s Theory of Gravity Chapter Goal: To use Newton s theory of gravity to understand the motion of satellites and planets. Slide 13-2 Chapter 13 Preview Slide 13-3 Chapter 13 Preview Slide

More information

Lecture 41 Chapter 35 Special Theory of Relativity

Lecture 41 Chapter 35 Special Theory of Relativity Lecture 41 Chapter 35 Special Theory of Relativity Final Exam - Monday Dec. 0, 1045-1315 Chapters -8, 10-35 8-Dec-10 Review Lecture - Mon. Dec. 13 Motion is Relative The place from which motion is observed

More information

LAB 6 - GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES

LAB 6 - GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES L06-1 Name Date Partners LAB 6 - GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES OBJECTIVES And thus Nature will be very conformable to herself and very simple, performing all the great Motions of the heavenly Bodies

More information

Chapter 7 Newton s Laws of Motion

Chapter 7 Newton s Laws of Motion Chapter 7 Newton s Laws of Motion 7.1 Force and Quantity of Matter... 1! Example 7.1 Vector Decomposition Solution... 3! 7.1.1 Mass Calibration... 4! 7.2 Newton s First Law... 5! 7.3 Momentum, Newton s

More information

Lecture 4 Fundamentals of Physics Phys 120, Fall 2014 Why things move: Newton s laws

Lecture 4 Fundamentals of Physics Phys 120, Fall 2014 Why things move: Newton s laws Lecture 4 Fundamentals of Physics Phys 120, Fall 2014 Why things move: Newton s laws A. J. Wagner North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102 Fargo, September 3, 2015 Overview Galileo Newton Force and

More information

Isaac Newton & the Newtonian Age

Isaac Newton & the Newtonian Age Newton By William Blake ~1800 Ch 5 pg. 91-95 ++ Lecture 3 Isaac Newton & the Newtonian Age If I have ever made any valuable discoveries, it has been owing more to patient attention, than to any other talent.

More information

The speed of the ball relative to O, which we call u, is found. u u' O'

The speed of the ball relative to O, which we call u, is found. u u' O' Einstein s Theory of relativity The theory of relativity has two parts. The Special Theory of Relativity relates the measurements of the same events made by two different observers moving relative to each

More information

The Newtonian Synthesis

The Newtonian Synthesis The Newtonian Synthesis The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy SC/NATS 1730, XVIII 1 The Falling Apple According to Newton, it was while he was in the orchard at Woolsthorpe during the plague

More information

mm F G r PHYS:1200 LECTURE 3 MECHANICS (2)

mm F G r PHYS:1200 LECTURE 3 MECHANICS (2) 1 PHYS:1200 LECTURE 3 MECHANICS (2) In Lecture 2 we learned that an object will continue in its state of motion unless something acts to change that state. Forces acting on an object can change its state

More information

Theory of Natural Motion

Theory of Natural Motion Theory of Natural Motion Uniform Motion and Acceleration Copyright 1996 Joseph A. Rybczyk Abstract The theory of natural motion reexamines the fundamental nature of the classical principles of uniform

More information

Forces & Newton 1. What Is a Force? A Force is an interaction between two bodies.

Forces & Newton 1. What Is a Force? A Force is an interaction between two bodies. Forces & Newton 1 What Is a Force? A Force is an interaction between two bodies. Convention: F a,b means the force acting on a due to b. A Force is a push or a pull. A Force has magnitude & direction (vector).

More information

AST 101 Lecture 7. Newton s Laws and the Nature of Matter

AST 101 Lecture 7. Newton s Laws and the Nature of Matter AST 101 Lecture 7 Newton s Laws and the Nature of Matter The Nature of Matter Democritus (c. 470-380 BCE) posited that matter was composed of atoms Atoms: particles that can not be further subdivided 4

More information

2 THE BIG BANG HOW AND WHY DO INDIVIDUALS CHANGE THEIR MINDS?

2 THE BIG BANG HOW AND WHY DO INDIVIDUALS CHANGE THEIR MINDS? 2 THE BIG BANG HOW AND WHY DO INDIVIDUALS CHANGE THEIR MINDS? UNIT 2 THE BIG BANG CONTENTS UNIT 2 BASICS 3 Unit 2 Overview 4 Unit 2 Learning Outcomes 5 Unit 2 Lessons 6 Unit 2 Key Concepts LOOKING BACK

More information

Chapter 5 Newton s Laws of Motion

Chapter 5 Newton s Laws of Motion Chapter 5 Newton s Laws of Motion Force and Mass Units of Chapter 5 Newton s First Law of Motion Newton s Second Law of Motion Newton s Third Law of Motion The Vector Nature of Forces: Forces in Two Dimensions

More information

Newton s Laws of Motion How Physics Works

Newton s Laws of Motion How Physics Works Newton s Laws of Motion How Physics Works It is the task of physicists to take physical phenomena and show how they can be reduced to a modest number of basic laws of nature. Physicists also predict phenomena,

More information

Gravitation and Newton s Synthesis

Gravitation and Newton s Synthesis Gravitation and Newton s Synthesis Vocabulary law of unviversal Kepler s laws of planetary perturbations casual laws gravitation motion casuality field graviational field inertial mass gravitational mass

More information

Gravity Lesson Plans

Gravity Lesson Plans Gravity Lesson Plans Shirley Story T. H. Bell Jr. High 165 W. 5100 S 801-452-4600 Washington Terrace, UT 84405 sstory@weber.k12.ut.us Eighth Grade Integrated Science Standard IV : Students will understand

More information

CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS

CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS INTRODUCTION CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS This is a scientific presentation to provide you with knowledge you can use to understand the sky above in relation to the earth. Before

More information

Physics Fall 2011 Exam 3

Physics Fall 2011 Exam 3 Physics 102.001 Fall 2011 Exam 3 1) A subatomic particle in flight is observed to have a lifetime of 2 µs (2 10-6 s). It s moving at a speed corresponding to a relativistic γ factor of 2. If you d observe

More information

Test Name What This Test Measures Form

Test Name What This Test Measures Form The tables that follow are designed to provide information about the content each benchmark modular assessment by grade and subject. In the table you will find the name the benchmark module, a brief description

More information

Chapter 7 Newton s Laws of Motion

Chapter 7 Newton s Laws of Motion Chapter 7 Newton s Laws of Motion 7.1 Force and Quantity of Matter... 1 Example 7.1 Vector Decomposition Solution... 3 7.1.1 Mass Calibration... 4 7.2 Newton s First Law... 5 7.3 Momentum, Newton s Second

More information

LAB 8: WORK AND ENERGY

LAB 8: WORK AND ENERGY Lab 8 - Work and Energy 89 Name Date Partners LAB 8: WORK AND ENERGY Energy is the only life and is from the Body; and Reason is the bound or outward circumference of energy. Energy is eternal delight.

More information

Bending of Starlight by the Sun

Bending of Starlight by the Sun Bending of Starlight by the Sun By Donald Wortzman (wortzman@gmail.com) In 1911, Einstein s first prediction to verify general relativity was the bending of starlight as it passes near a massive object,

More information

Today: Extrasolar planets: Planets orbiting other stars! Our galaxy: The Milky Way

Today: Extrasolar planets: Planets orbiting other stars! Our galaxy: The Milky Way Today: Extrasolar planets: Planets orbiting other stars! Our galaxy: The Milky Way Extrasolar Planets Stars form from collapsing clouds of gas and dust Sometimes the debris in the disks around stars (protoplanetary

More information

Disney s World of Physics: Properties of Motion

Disney s World of Physics: Properties of Motion Disney s World of Physics: Properties of Motion Program Description Disney s World of Physics: Properties of Motion is a three hour program through Disney California Adventure Park where sixth through

More information

Theory of electrons and positrons

Theory of electrons and positrons P AUL A. M. DIRAC Theory of electrons and positrons Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1933 Matter has been found by experimental physicists to be made up of small particles of various kinds, the particles of

More information

Chapter 5. Force and Motion

Chapter 5. Force and Motion Chapter 5 Force and Motion 5.2 Newtonian Mechanics What causes motion? That s the wrong question! The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle believed that forces pushes and pulls caused motion. The Aristotelian

More information

Neil F. Comins Discovering the Essential Universe Fifth Edition CHAPTER 1

Neil F. Comins Discovering the Essential Universe Fifth Edition CHAPTER 1 Neil F. Comins Discovering the Essential Universe Fifth Edition CHAPTER 1 Discovering the Night Sky WHAT DO YOU THINK? 1. What do astronomers define as constellations? 2. Is the North Star Polaris the

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 26. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 26. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 26 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 26 Cosmology Units of Chapter 26 26.1 The Universe on the Largest Scales 26.2 The Expanding Universe 26.3 The Fate of the

More information

Name Class Period. F = G m 1 m 2 d 2. G =6.67 x 10-11 Nm 2 /kg 2

Name Class Period. F = G m 1 m 2 d 2. G =6.67 x 10-11 Nm 2 /kg 2 Gravitational Forces 13.1 Newton s Law of Universal Gravity Newton discovered that gravity is universal. Everything pulls on everything else in the universe in a way that involves only mass and distance.

More information

HERETICAL PHYSICS - A PAPER ON MERCURY S ORBIT

HERETICAL PHYSICS - A PAPER ON MERCURY S ORBIT HERETICAL PHYSICS - A PAPER ON MERCURY S ORBIT Abstract The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that the orbit of Mercury consists of two spheres (of Aether) Where the smaller Aether sphere (carrying

More information

1 Astronomy: The Original Science

1 Astronomy: The Original Science CHAPTER 1 1 Astronomy: The Original Science SECTION Studying Space BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: How do astronomers define a day, a month, and

More information

Waves and Sound. An Introduction to Waves and Wave Properties Wednesday, November 19, 2008

Waves and Sound. An Introduction to Waves and Wave Properties Wednesday, November 19, 2008 Waves and Sound An Introduction to Waves and Wave Properties Wednesday, November 19, 2008 Mechanical Wave A mechanical wave is a disturbance which propagates through a medium with little or no net displacement

More information

Lecture 13 Chapter 26

Lecture 13 Chapter 26 Special Relativity Lecture 13 Chapter 26 Modern Physics 1.Relativity Einstein s Relativity Relativistic Mechanics http://www.physics.wayne.edu/~alan/2140website/main.htm Last lecture: Lightning Review

More information

PH 221-1D Spring Force and Motion. Lecture Chapter 5 (Halliday/Resnick/Walker, Fundamentals of Physics 9 th edition)

PH 221-1D Spring Force and Motion. Lecture Chapter 5 (Halliday/Resnick/Walker, Fundamentals of Physics 9 th edition) PH 221-1D Spring 2013 Force and Motion Lecture 10-11 Chapter 5 (Halliday/Resnick/Walker, Fundamentals of Physics 9 th edition) 1 Chapter 5 Force and Motion In chapters 2 and 4 we have studied kinematics

More information

What Are Stars? continued. What Are Stars? How are stars formed? Stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions.

What Are Stars? continued. What Are Stars? How are stars formed? Stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions. What Are Stars? How are stars formed? Stars are formed from clouds of dust and gas, or nebulas, and go through different stages as they age. star: a large celestial body that is composed of gas and emits

More information

Kepler s Laws & Satellite Motion

Kepler s Laws & Satellite Motion Kepler s Laws & Satellite Motion Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) Tycho Brahe (1546 1601) built the first modern astronomical observatories. His instruments like the mural quandrant enabled him to measure the

More information

Momentum, Impulse, and Collisions

Momentum, Impulse, and Collisions Nicholas J. Giordano www.cengage.com/physics/giordano Momentum, Impulse, and Collisions Introduction Objects have been treated as point particles Mass is located at a single point in space This assumption

More information

A DEFENCE OF COMMON SENSE

A DEFENCE OF COMMON SENSE A DEFENCE OF COMMON SENSE In what follows I have merely tried to state, one by one, some of the most important points in which my philosophical position differs from positions which have been taken up

More information

Modern Physics notes Spring 2007 Paul Fendley Lecture 35

Modern Physics notes Spring 2007 Paul Fendley Lecture 35 Modern Physics notes Spring 2007 Paul Fendley fendley@virginia.edu Lecture 35 Gravity and clocks Curved spacetime Born, chapter III (most of which should be review for you), chapter VII Fowler, Remarks

More information

Newton s laws of motion and gravity

Newton s laws of motion and gravity Newton s laws of motion and gravity Newton s laws of motion 1. Every body continues in a state of rest or uniform motion (constant velocity) in a straight line unless acted on by a force. (A deeper statement

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 2. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 2. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 2 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 2 The Copernican Revolution Units of Chapter 2 2.1 Ancient Astronomy 2.2 The Geocentric Universe 2.3 The Heliocentric Model

More information

Simon P. Balm Astronomy 5, Test #1, Sample Questions

Simon P. Balm Astronomy 5, Test #1, Sample Questions Simon P. Balm Astronomy 5, Test #1, Sample Questions 1. Which of the following do the atoms 14 N and 15 N have in common? A) total number of protons and neutrons B) number of protons C) total number of

More information

Learning Outcomes 2. Key Concepts 2. Misconceptions and Teaching Challenges 3. Vocabulary 3. Lesson and Content Overview 5

Learning Outcomes 2. Key Concepts 2. Misconceptions and Teaching Challenges 3. Vocabulary 3. Lesson and Content Overview 5 UNIT 2 GUIDE Table of Contents Learning Outcomes 2 Key Concepts 2 Misconceptions and Teaching Challenges 3 Vocabulary 3 Lesson and Content Overview 5 BIG HISTORY PROJECT / UNIT 2 GUIDE 1 Unit 2 The Big

More information

Newton s Law of Gravity and Kepler s Laws

Newton s Law of Gravity and Kepler s Laws Newton s Law of Gravity and Kepler s Laws Michael Fowler Phys 142E Lec 9 2/6/09. These notes are partly adapted from my Physics 152 lectures, where more mathematical details can be found. The Universal

More information

Size and Scale of the Universe

Size and Scale of the Universe Size and Scale of the Universe (Teacher Guide) Overview: The Universe is very, very big. But just how big it is and how we fit into the grand scheme can be quite difficult for a person to grasp. The distances

More information

1/10. Descartes 2: The Cogito and the Mind

1/10. Descartes 2: The Cogito and the Mind 1/10 Descartes 2: The Cogito and the Mind Recap: last week we undertook to follow Descartes path of radical doubt in order to attempt to discover what, if anything, can be known for certain. This path

More information

Our Place in the Galaxy

Our Place in the Galaxy Our Place in the Galaxy The Milky Way has been known for thousands of years. Galileo showed that it consisted of a myriad of stars. Kapteyn counted stars and believed he had shown that the galaxy was about

More information

Exercise: Estimating the Mass of Jupiter Difficulty: Medium

Exercise: Estimating the Mass of Jupiter Difficulty: Medium Exercise: Estimating the Mass of Jupiter Difficulty: Medium OBJECTIVE The July / August observing notes for 010 state that Jupiter rises at dusk. The great planet is now starting its grand showing for

More information

Is there life in space? Activity 2: Moving Stars and Their Planets

Is there life in space? Activity 2: Moving Stars and Their Planets Is there life in space? Activity 2: Moving Stars and Their Planets Overview In this activity, students are introduced to the wobble-method of detecting planets. The activity starts with an introduction

More information

Length Contraction. Thinking Physics 9.1

Length Contraction. Thinking Physics 9.1 44421_09_p259-290 11/9/04 10:57 AM Page 269 CONSEQUENCES OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY 269 QUICK QUIZ 9.3 Suppose astronauts are paid according to the amount of time they spend traveling in space. After a long

More information

Chapter 5 Circular Motion, the Planets, and Gravity

Chapter 5 Circular Motion, the Planets, and Gravity Chapter 5 Circular Motion, the Planets, and Gravity Does the circular motion of the moon around the Earth...... have anything in common with circular motion on Earth? A ball is whirled on the end of a

More information