1. Identify the Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases and the conjugate acid base pairs in the following reactions.

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1 Exercise #1 Brønsted-Lowry s and Bases 1. Identify the Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases and the conjugate acid base pairs in the following reactions. (a) HCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl (aq) (b) H 2 PO 4 (aq) + NH 3 (aq) NH 4 + (aq) + HPO4 2 (aq) (c) NH 4 + (aq) + CN (aq) HCN(aq) + NH 3 (aq) (d) H 2 SO 4 (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + HSO 4 (aq) 2. Write an equation for the acid-base reaction between NH 4 + and CO 3 2 in aqueous solution and identify the acids and the bases in a reversible reaction. 3. Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid. In a solution of 0.10 M HCl, what are the concentrations of HCl, H 3 O + and Cl? 4. Hydrofluoric acid is a weak acid (K a = 7.2 x 10 4 ). In 0.10 M HF solution, which is the major species, HF, H 3 O +, or F? What is the approximate concentration of hydronium ion H 3 O +? 5. What are the major species present in 0.10 M solutions of each of the following acids? HNO 3, HNO 2, H 2 SO 4, H 3 PO 4, HClO 4, and CH 3 COOH? 6. Given the K a values (in parentheses) for the following acids: HCl (K a is very large); HF (K a = 7.2 x 10 4 ); HCN (K a = 6.2 x ); HNO 2 (K a = 4.0 x 10 4 ); CH 3 COOH (K a = 1.8 x 10 4 ), and C 6 H 5 COOH (K a = 6.3 x 10 4 ). (a) Rank (or list) these acids in order of decreasing strength (strongest first). (b) List their conjugate bases in order of increasing strength (weakest base first) and write the K b value for each conjugate bases. (K w = 1.0 x ) 1

2 7. For each acid-base equilibrium shown below, predict whether the equilibrium shifts to the right (K c > 1) or to the left (K c < 1). (Refer to the K a values given in No.6) (a) HCl(aq) + C 6 H 5 CO 2 (aq) C 6 H 5 COOH(aq) + Cl (aq) (b) CH 3 COOH(aq) + NO 2 (aq) HNO 2 (aq) + CH 3 CO 2 (aq) (c) HF(aq) + CN (aq) HCN(aq) + F (aq) 8. Acetic acid, CH 3 COOH, has K a = 1.8 x Calculate the percent ionization of acetic acid in 1.0 M, 0.10 M, and M solutions, respectively. How does dilution affect the degree of ionization of weak acids? 9. Given that ph = log [H 3 O + ] and poh = log [OH ], calculate the ph of the following solutions: (a) A solution with [H 3 O + ] = 5.0 x 10 3 M (b) A solution with [OH ] = 2.0 x 10 3 M (c) A M HCl solution. (d) A M NaOH solution. (e) A M Ba(OH) 2 solution. 10. What are [H 3 O + ] and [OH ] in solutions with the following ph? (a) ph = 2.85 (b) ph = How many times is a solution with ph = 2 more acidic (has higher [H 3 O + ]) than one with ph = 4? 12. How many times is a solution with ph = 13 more basic (has higher [OH - ]) than one with ph = 10? 13. Pure water has an ionization constant K w = 1.0 x at 25 o C and K w = 5.5 x at 100 o C. What are [H 3 O + ] and [OH ] in pure water at 25 o C and at 100 o C, respectively? What are the ph of water at 25 o C and 100 o C, respectively? Does the ph at 100 o C imply that hot water is neutral, acidic, or basic? 2

3 Exercises #2 1. What the ph of 0.10 M HNO 2 solution? (K a = 4.0 x 10 4 ) 2. What is the ph of 0.10 M NH 3 solution? (NH 3, K b = 1.8 x 10 5 ) 3. If the concentration of acetic acid in vinegar is 0.80 mol/l, calculate the [H 3 O + ] and the ph of vinegar. (K a = 1.8 x 10 5 for acetic acid) 4. A solution of M lactic acid (HC 3 H 6 O 3 ) has a ph = Calculate K a of lactic acid and its degree of ionization at the above concentration. 5. A solution of 0.20 M formic acid (HCOOH) is found to be 3.0% ionized. Write an equation for the ionization of formic acid and calculate the ph of the solution and the K a of formic acid? 6. What is the ph of aqueous solution of 0.10 M ethylamine (C 2 H 5 NH 2 ) (K b = 5.6 x 10 4 ) 7. Calculate the concentrations of H 2 SO 4, HSO 4, SO 4 2, and H 3 O + in 0.10 M H 2 SO 4 and the ph of the solution. 8. What is the expected ph of each of the following solutions? (a) 1.0 x 10 5 M HCl (b) 1.0 x 10 7 M HCl (c) 1.0 x 10 9 M HCl 3

4 Exercise #3 1. Predict whether aqueous solution of each of the following salts (ionic compounds) would be acidic, basic, or neutral. Explain your reasoning or support your statements with appropriate chemical equations. (K a for HC 2 H 3 O 2 = 1.8 x 10 5 ; K a for HCN = 6.2 x ; K b for NH 3 = 1.8 x 10 5 ) (a) NaNO 3 (b) NaCH 3 CO 2 (c) NH 4 Cl (d) NH 4 CH 3 CO 2 (e) NH 4 CN 2. (a) Calculate the dissociation constant, K b, for the hydrolysis of acetate ion according to the following equation. C 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + H 2 O HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + OH (aq). (K a for HC 2 H 3 O 2 = 1.8 x 10 5 ) (b) What is the ph of M sodium acetate solution. 3. (a) Calculate the ionization constant, K b, for the following reaction: PO 4 3 (aq) + H 2 O HPO 4 2 (aq) + OH (aq); (HPO 4 2 has K a = 4.8 x ) (b) Calculate the ph of solution that is 0.10 M Na 3 PO 4 4. (a) Calculate the dissociation constant, K a, for the hydrolysis of ammonium ion according to the following equation. NH 4 + (aq) + H2 O H 3 O + (aq) + NH 3 (aq); (K b for NH 3 = 1.8 x 10 5 ) (b) What is the ph of 0.10 M NH 4 Cl solution? 4

5 5. Identify the Lewis acids and Lewis bases in the following reactions: (a) Cu 2+ (aq) + 4NH 3 (aq) Cu(NH 3 ) 4 2+ (aq) (b) CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 (aq) (c) SO 2 + H 2 O H 2 SO 3 (aq) (d) Co Cl CoCl 4 2 (aq) 6. Rank the following acids in order of increasing strength: (a) HClO 4, H 3 PO 4, H 2 SO 4 ; (b) H 3 PO 4, H 3 AsO 4, H 3 SbO 4 ; (c) HOF, HOCl, HOBr, HOI; (d) HOCl, HClO 2, HClO 3, HClO 4 ; (e) CH 3 COOH, CF 3 COOH, CCl 3 COOH; 7. Rank the following compounds in increasing base strength: (a) NH 3, CH 3 NH 2, C 2 H 5 NH 3, (C 2 H 5 ) 2 NH, and HONH 2 ; (b) Na 2 CO 3, NaNO 2, Na 3 PO 4, NaF, and NaCN. 8. (a) Identify acidic and basic oxides in the following list. (b) Which oxide will form the most acidic solution? (c) Which oxide will form the most basic solution? (d) Which of these oxides has an amphoteric property? (e) Write a balanced equation for the reaction of each of these oxides with water. Na 2 O, MgO, Al 2 O 3, SiO 2, P 4 O 10, SO 3, and Cl 2 O 7 ; 5

6 Answers Exercise #1 1. (a) HCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl (aq) Base Conj. Conj. Base (b) H 2 PO + 4 (aq) + NH 3 (aq) NH 4 (aq) + 2 HPO4 (aq) Base Conj. Conj. Base (c) PO 3 4 (aq) + H 2 O(l) HPO 2 4 (aq) + Cl (aq) Base Conj. Conj. Base (d) HPO 2 4 (aq) + OH (aq) H 2 O(l) + PO 3 4 (aq) Base Conj. Conj. Base 2. + NH 4 (aq) + 2 CO3 (aq) HPO 2 4 (aq) + NH 3 (aq); Base Conj. Conj. Base 3. [HCl] = 0.0 (HCl ionizes completely; [H 3 O + ] = 0.10 M; [OH ] = 0.10 M; 4. HF is the major species (only a small fraction of HF ionizes); [H 3 O + ] = M. 5. Major species in: HNO 3 : H 3 O + and NO 3 (HNO 3 is a strong acid; it ionizes completely); HNO 2 : HNO 2 (a weak acid; only a small fraction of HNO 2 ionizes); H 2 SO 4 : H 3 O + and HSO 4 ; H 2 SO 4 is a strong acid; the first hydrogen dissociates completely, but the second does not; H 3 PO 4 : H 3 PO 4 ; it is a weak acid, a small fraction ionizes; HClO 4 : H 3 O + and ClO 4 (HClO 4 is a strong acid; it ionizes completely); CH 3 CO 2 H: CH 3 CO 2 H (it is a weak acid.) 6. (a) strength: HCl > HF > HNO 2 > C 6 H 5 COOH > CH 3 COOH > HCN; (b) Conjugate base strength: CN > CH 3 COO > C 6 H 5 COO > NO 2 > F > Cl ; 7. (a) HCl(aq) + C 6 H 5 CO 2 (aq) C 6 H 5 COOH(aq) + Cl (aq); equilibrium shifts right; (K c >> 1) (b) CH 3 COOH(aq) + NO 2 (aq) HNO 2 (aq) + CH 3 CO 2 (aq); equilibrium shifts left; (K c < 1) (c) HF(aq) + CN (aq) HCN(aq) + F (aq); equilibrium shift right; (K c >> 1) 8. Percent ionizations = 0.42% in 1.0 M; 1.3% in 0.10 M, and and 4.2% in M. 9. (a) ph = 2.30; (b) ph = 11.30; (c) ph = 1.70; (d) 12.30; (e) ph =

7 10. (a) [H 3 O + ] = 1.4 x 10-3 M; [OH ] = 7.1 x M (b) [H 3 O + ] = 4.0 x M; [OH ] = 2.5 x 10 5 M times more; time higher. 13. At 100 o C, [H 3 O + ] = [OH ] = 2.3 x 10 7 M; ph = 6.63; solution is neutral: [H 3 O + ] = [OH ] Exercises #2 1. ph = 2.20; 2. ph = 11.13; 3. [H 3 O + ] = 3.8 x 10-3 M; ph = 2.42; 4. K a = 1.4 x 10 4 ; % ionization = 3.72%; 5. ph = 2.22; K a = 1.8 x 10 4 ; 6. ph = 11.87; 7. [H 2 SO 4 ] = 0.00 M; [HSO 4 ] = M; [SO 4 2 ] = M; [H 3 O + ] = 0.11 M; ph = 0.96; 8. (a) ph = 5.00; (b) ph = 6.63; (c) ph = 7.00; Exercise #3: 1. (a) Neutral; (b) Basic (c) ic (d) Neutral (e) Basic 2. (a) K b = 5.6 x ; (b) ph = (a) K b = 2.1 x 10 2 ; (b) ph = (a) K a = 5.6 x ; (b) ph = (a) Cu (aq) + 4NH 3 (aq) Cu(NH 3 ) 4 (aq) (b) CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 (aq) (c) SO 2 + H 2 O H 2 SO 3 (aq) (d) Co Cl 2- CoCl 4 (aq) 6. (a) H 3 PO 4 < H 2 SO 4 < HClO 4 ; (b) H 3 SbO 4 < H 3 AsO 4 < H 3 PO 4 ; (c) HOI < HOBr < HOCl < HOF; (d) HOCl < HClO 2 < HClO 3 < HClO 4 ; (e) CH 3 COOH < CCl 3 COOH < CF 3 COOH; 7. (a) HONH 2 < NH 3 < CH 3 NH 2 < C 2 H 5 NH 3 < (C 2 H 5 ) 2 NH; (b) NaF < NaNO 2 < NaCN < Na 2 CO 3 < Na 3 PO (a) ic oxides: SiO 2, P 4 O 10, SO 3, and Cl 2 O 7. Basic oxides: Na 2 O and MgO (b) Most acidic oxide: Cl 2 O 7 ; (c) Most basic oxide: Na 2 O; (d) Amphoteric oxide: Al 2 O 3. (e) Na 2 O(s) + H 2 O 2NaOH(aq); MgO(s) + H 2 O 2Mg(OH) 2 (aq); P 4 O 10 (s) + 6 H 2 O 4 H 3 PO 4 (aq); SO 3 (g) + H 2 O H 2 SO 4 (aq); Cl 2 O 7 (s) + H 2 O 4 HClO 4 (aq); 7

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