CHEM 12 Acids and Bases 3/22/2016

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1 Acids and Bases Name: Expected background knowledge from acids and bases introductory reading: Definitions (Arrhenius, BL) of an acid and base Definitions of conjugate acid and base pairs Properties of acids and bases Strong Acids and Bases A strong acid or base is a compound that will dissociate completely (100% ionization) when dissolved in water. More specifically, an acid is a compound that releases H +1 in solution with none of the original ionic compound left. For example HCl (aq) H +1 + Cl -1 NaOH (aq) Na +1 + OH -1 all of the HCl (hydrochloric acid) is dissociated into its ions all of the NaOH (sodium hydroxide) is dissociated into its ions There are 7 acids that behave this way. All others must be treated as a weak acid Hydrochlroic Acid - HCl Hydrobromic acid - HBr Hydroiodic Acid - HI Nitric Acid - HNO 3 Sulfuric Acid - H 2 SO 4 perchloric acid - HClO 4 Cloric Acid - HClO 3 There are several strong bases (release OH -1 ) Sodium Hydroxide - NaOH Potassium Hydroxide - KOH Lithium Hydroxide - LiOH Calcium Hydroxide - Ca(OH) 2 ** hydroxide ions bonded with group 1 and group 2 cations ph, a Measure of acidity Chemists, as well as industry, use a logarithmic scale known as the ph scale. The ph scale is a scale which ranges from 0 to 14 and it measures the amount of hydrogen ion, H +1, in a solution. Since it is logarithmic, log 10, we see that an increase of 1 on the ph scale means an increase by factor 10 in hydrogen ion concentration. The ph for a solution is calculated by using: ph = -log[h +1 ] Example 1 if a 0.200M solution of HCl is created, what is the ph?

2 Try These 2 problems (a) a M solution of HBr is placed in a flask, what is its ph? (b) A 1.0M solution of HCl is placed in a flask, what is its ph? What about getting the concentration from ph? If you are given a solution of a certain ph, you can determine the concentration of H +1 in solution using [H +1 ] = 10 -ph Example 2: If a solution of HCl has a ph of 3.0, what is the concentration of H +1 in the solution? Try these: (a) What is the concentration of an acid solution where the ph is 6.9? (b) What is the concentration of H +1 in a solution where ph is 12.00?

3 The Weak Acid If your acid is not one of the 7 strong acids, it is considered a weak acid. A weak acid is an acid that does not have a high ionization percentage, that is it does not completely break apart in a solution. For example: Acetic acid, CH 3 COOH is an organic acid (carboxylic acid). When dissolved in water part of it starts to break apart while other ions and ions recombine to form the acetic acid molecule. This is an equilibrium as shown below: CH 3 COOH (aq) H +1 + CH 3 COO -1 K C = K a = 1.8 x 10-5 K a is simply the equilibrium constant from an acid equilibrium. Since the equilibrium constant is so much below 1.0, it shows that the left side of this reaction is favoured, that is the reactant side where the acetate ion (CH 3 COO -1 ) and hydrogen ion (H +1 ) are bonded together forming acetic acid We treat this equilibrium as we did in the unit before by writing an equilibrium expression for K a: K a [ H ][ CH 3COO ] 5 [ CH 3 COOH ].80 We can solve these equilibrium problems as before using an ICE box and then solving for ph Example 3: What is the ph of a 0.250M solution of acetic acid given that the K a for acetic acid is 1.8 x 10-5?

4 Try this Question: (a) Formic acid, HCOOH, has a K a = 1.8 x If a 0.15M solution is created, what will be its ph? Your biggest challenge: - recognizing the weak acid and writing the proper ionization equation - finding and using the correct equilibrium constant (For polyprotic acids) The Autoionization of Water: Pure water does not exist as only H 2 O when in a container. There are some more complex reactions that form to create several other species: In a beaker of water we expect to find: H 2 O, H 3 O +1, OH -1 because H 2 O (l) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O +1 (aq) + OH -1 (aq) K c = K w = 1.0 x When we write the equilibrium expression for this, omitting pure liquids K w = 1.0 x = [H 3 O +1 ][OH -1 ] or simplifying K w = 1.0 x = [H +1 ][OH -1 ] This means that the concentration of H +1 and OH -1 in solution must always equal 1.0 x 10-14!!!!

5 This makes sense. For example, in a neutral sample of water the ph will be 7.0 we can easily calculate the concentration of OH -1 [H ] 0 ph [H ] 0.00 [OH 1.00 ] We can see that this statement must also be true: ph + poh = 14 where poh = -log[oh -1 ] Example 4: Determine the concentration of OH -1 in a solution with a ph of 5.3 Try These: (a) What is the [H +1 ] if the [OH -1 ] is 1.3 x 10-5? (b) What is the [OH -1 ] if the ph is 3.3?

6 Sample Questions: 1. A sample of 0.250M acetic acid is prepared. (a) What is the ph of this solution? (b) What is the poh? (c) What is [OH -1 ] in this solution (this comes from the water)? 2. Nitrous acid, HNO 2, is made to be ph = 2.0. If the K a for this acid is 4.5 x 10-4, How many grams of nitrous acid would be dissolved in ml to make a solution of this ph?

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