b. Calculate these values based on the given information and your calculations in (a). ph poh [H3O +1 ] [OH 1 ] [H3O +1 ] [OH 1 ]

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1 Name Period Date Pre-AP Chemistry Review: Acids & Bases M phenol acid forms this equilibrium: C6H5OH (aq) + H2O(l) C6H5O -1 (aq) + H3O +1 (aq) + Energy ; (K= ) a. Complete the ICE chart to determine the missing values. C6H5OH C6H5O - 1 H3O +1 Initial Concentration 0.18 M 0 0 Change Equilibrium concentration b. Calculate these values based on the given information and your calculations in (a). ph poh [H3O +1 ] [OH 1 ] [H3O +1 ] [OH 1 ] c. Predict how the moles of each chemical would be different after the reaction re- establishes equilibrium for a given change (,, =) Change C6H5OH C6H5O - 1 H3O +1 A strong acid is added Water is added NaOH is added The solution is poured into a larger beaker The beaker containing this reaction is warmed 2. The teacher wants to make 5.00 liters of a M solution of nitric acid for use in lab. The stock solution 12.9 M. a. Calculate the volume of stock solution needed. b. How many moles of nitric acid are in this diluted solution? c. Write the balanced and formatted chemical equation for the disassociation of nitric acid. d. Calculate the ph of the diluted solution. e. What volume of M NaOH would be needed to completely neutralize this 5.0 liter solution of hydrochloric acid? 3. This chemical reaction shows how phosphoric acid can completely react with lithium hydroxide in a neutralization process. 125 ml of M LiOH is reacted with 50.0 ml of phosphoric acid. a. Balance the equation and add correct formatting. _ H3PO4 + _ LiOH _ H2O + _ Li3PO4 a. How many of moles of lithium hydroxide were reacted? b. How many moles of phosphoric acid reacted? c. Calculate the concentration of phosphoric acid. 4. The equilibrium constants for three acids are listed. The ionizable hydrogens are marked. Acetic HC2H3O Lactic HC3H5O Citric (I) H3C6H5O a. Which acid is the strongest acid? b. Starting with the same initial concentration, which acid would produce the lowest concentration of hydrogen ions in solution? c. Given the same starting number of moles, which acid could neutralize the most base? Explain. d. How many grams of citric acid would be needed to make a 250 ml of a 0.20 M solution? Review: Acids & Bases 1 5/21/15

2 5. The bicarbonate ion, HCO3-1, can undergo different reactions depending on the conditions. a. Write the balanced chemical equation to show how the bicarbonate ion will react with hydrochloric acid. Label the acid, base, conjugate acid and conjugate base. b. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction of HCO3 1 with water to form a basic solution containing hydroxide ions. Label the acid, base, conjugate acid and conjugate base. c. Write the balanced chemical reaction to show how NaHCO3 will react with sodium hydroxide in a neutralization reaction An acid in equilibrium in water is stressed by a change to the acid concentration, as graphed. a. Describe what the stress is to the system [HA] b. How did the amount of each chemical change in response to the stress? c. Calculate the equilibrium constant based on the final concentrations. Concentration, M [H+] 0.5 d. Is this a strong acid or a weak acid? How does this graph show this? [A ] 0.3 Time, sec L of chlorine gas is at a pressure of 88.0 kpa and with a temperature of 18.0 C. It is warmed to a new temperature of 45.0 C while keeping the volume the same. a. Convert both temperatures to Kelvin degrees. b. Calculate the new pressure. c. Calculate the number of moles of chlorine present. d. Calculate the mass of this gas 8. Fill in the table for these compounds Name Formula Mass of one mole Dot Structure Molecular Geometry Carbon tetrachloride Electron Pair Geometry Polar/Non- polar Ammonia 9. Fill in this table for these ionic compounds. Use your table of ionic charges. Name Formula Formula weight Grams Moles Significant figures Sodium phosphate g = 4 ZnF g = Potassium permanganate = mole Fe(NO3)2 = 210 moles grams of phosphorus, P4, reacts with 18.0 grams of gaseous chlorine to produce phosphorus trichloride. Assume all compounds are in the gas phase. a. Write the balanced chemical equation for this process. b. Determine the limiting reactant. Review: Acids & Bases 2 5/21/15

3 c. Calculate the moles of phosphorus trichloride formed. Review: Acids & Bases 3 5/21/15

4 Review: Acids & Bases[answers] M phenol acid forms this equilibrium: C6H5OH (aq) + H2O(l) C6H5O -1 (aq) + H3O +1 (aq) + Energy ; (K= ) 0.18 M x x a. Complete the ICE chart to determine the missing values. C6H5OH C6H5O - 1 H3O +1 Initial Concentration 0.18 M 0 0 Change M M M Equilibrium concentration 0.18 M x=? = M x=?= M b. Calculate these values based on the given information and your calculations in (a). ph poh [H3O +1 ] [OH 1 ] [H3O +1 ] [OH 1 ] M M (always) c. Predict how the moles of each chemical would be different after the reaction re- establishes equilibrium for a given change (,, =) Change HNO2 NO2 1 H3O +1 A strong acid is added Water is added NaOH is added The solution is poured into a larger beaker The beaker containing this reaction is warmed 2. The teacher wants to make 5.00 liters of a M solution of nitric acid for use in lab. The stock solution 12.9 M. a. Calculate the volume of stock solution needed. M1V1=M2V2 (0.100M)(5L)=(12.9)(V) (0.100M)(5L)/12.9 = V= liters b. How many moles of nitric acid are in this diluted solution? M1V1=no. moles = (0.100M)(5L)=0.50 moles c. Write the balanced and formatted chemical equation for the disassociation of nitric acid. HNO3(aq) + H2O(l) NO3 1 (aq) + H3O +1 (aq) (use a single arrow,, its NOT in equilibrium. It forms ions completely.) d. Calculate the ph of the diluted solution. ph= log[h3o +1 ] = log[0.1]= 1 e. What volume of M NaOH would be needed to completely neutralize this 5.0 liter solution of hydrochloric acid? Need 0.50 moles; MbVb=MaVa (0.200)(V) = (0.100M)(5L) V=2.5 liters. Half as much base is required because it is twice as concentrated. 3. This chemical reaction shows how phosphoric acid can completely react with lithium hydroxide in a neutralization process. 125 ml of M LiOH is reacted with 50.0 ml of phosphoric acid. ** 125 ml = L, 50.0 ml = L a. Balance the equation and add correct formatting. _ H3PO4 + 3 LiOH 3 H2O + _ Li3PO4 a. How many of moles of lithium hydroxide were reacted? M1V1=no. moles = (0.800M)(0.125 L) = moles of lithium hydroxide b. How many moles of phosphoric acid reacted? One third as much acid is needed because it provides three H s per molecule; = moles c. Calculate the concentration of phosphoric acid. Acid Coefficient moles = M1V1 = M(0.050 L) = M = M; or Base Coefficient Ma=0.667 M MbVb=MaVa 1/3(0.8)(125)=Ma(50), 4. The equilibrium constants for three acids are listed. The ionizable hydrogens are marked. Acetic HC2H3O Lactic HC3H5O Citric (I) H3C6H5O a. Which acid is the strongest acid? The larger the K value the stronger the acid. Strong acids have such large K values that these are not even provided. In this case Lactic acid is the strongest of this list of weak acids. b. Starting with the same initial concentration, which acid would produce the lowest concentration of hydrogen ions in solution? Citric has the smallest K value so it makes the fewest products. c. Given the same starting number of moles, which acid could neutralize the most base? Explain. Citric produces three H s per molecule so it can neutralize more base for each molecule. d. How many grams of citric acid would be needed to make a 250 ml of a 0.20 M solution? MV=no. moles=(0.20m)(0.25l)= 0.05 moles g 1 mole =9.61 grams K= [C6H5O - 1 ][ H3O +1 ]/[ C6H5OH] = x 2 /(0.18) (0.18) =x = x Review: Acids & Bases 4 5/21/15

5 5. The bicarbonate ion, HCO3-1, can undergo different reactions depending on the conditions. a. Write the balanced chemical equation to show how the bicarbonate ion will react with hydrochloric acid. Label the acid, base, conjugate acid and conjugate base. HCO3-1 (aq) + HCl H2CO3(aq) + Cl - 1 (aq) B A CA CB b. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction of HCO3 1 with water to form a basic solution containing hydroxide ions. Label the acid, base, conjugate acid and conjugate base. HCO3-1 (aq) + H2O(l) H2CO3(aq) +OH - 1 (aq) B A CA CB c. Write the balanced chemical reaction to show how NaHCO3 will react with sodium hydroxide in a neutralization reaction. NaHCO3(aq) + NaOH(aq) Na2CO3(aq) + H2O(l) 6. An acid in equilibrium in water is stressed by a change to the acid concentration, as graphed. a. Describe what the stress is to the system. HA was removed [HA] b. How did the amount of each chemical change in response to the stress? The hydrogen ion amount decreased, the anion amount decreased. The acid amount decreased a lot and then rebounded a bit, but not all the way back to its original amount. c. Calculate the equilibrium constant based on the final concentrations. K=products/reactants = [H+ ][A -1 ] [HA] = [0.61][0.42] [0.8] K=0.3 (your value might vary a little, since you need to estimate concentrations from the graph) d. Is this a strong acid or a weak acid? How does this graph show this? It is a weak acid, because large amount of the whole acid are still present at equilibrium. If it were a strong acid, the [HA] would be about zero L of chlorine gas is at a pressure of 88.0 kpa and with a temperature of 18.0 C. It is warmed to a new temperature of 45.0 C while keeping the volume the same. a. Convert both temperatures to Kelvin degrees. 291 K and 318 K P 1 V 1 b. Calculate the new pressure. = P 2V 2 n 88(318)/219 = P2 = 96.2 kpa 1 T 1 n 2 T 2 c. Calculate the number of moles of chlorine present. PV=nRT PV/RT = n = (88)(9)/( ) = moles d. Calculate the mass of this gas moles 70.9 g/mole = 23.2 grams ( its Cl2) 8. Fill in the table for these compounds Name Formula Mass of one mole Dot Structure Molecular Carbon tetrachloride Electron Pair Polar/Non- polar Geometry Geometry CCl grams Tetrahedral Tetrahedral Non- polar Concentration, M [H+] -1 [A ] (88)(/9) /n 1 (291) = P 2(/9) /n 2 (318) Time, sec Ammonia NH g Pyramidal Tetrahedral polar Review: Acids & Bases 5 5/21/15

6 9. Fill in this table for these ionic compounds. Use your table of ionic charges. Name Formula Formula weight Grams Moles Significant figures Sodium phosphate Na3PO g g = mole 4 Zinc fluoride ZnF g = mole Potassium permanganate KMnO g g = mole Iron (II) nitrate Fe(NO3) ,000 g = 210 moles grams of phosphorus, P4, reacts with 18.0 grams of chlorine to produce phosphorus trichloride. Assume all compounds are in the gas phase. a. Write the balanced chemical equation for this process. P4(g) + 6Cl2(g) 4PCl3(g) b. Determine the limiting reactant. 7.0 g 1 mole P 4 = mole P4 6 mole Cl 2 = mol Cl2(needed) 70.9 g = g Cl2 needed; But there is only 18 grams so g 1 mole P 4 1 mole Cl 2 Cl2 is the limiting reactant. c. Calculate the moles of phosphorus trichloride formed. Use Cl2 to determine the reactants formed since it s the limiting reactant 18.0 g 1 mole Cl g =0.254 moles of Cl2 4 mole PCl 3 6 mole Cl 2 =0.169 mole PCl3 Review: Acids & Bases 6 5/21/15

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