1 Lecture Presentation Chapter 9 Acids, Bases and Buffers in the Body Julie Klare Fortis College Smyrna, GA Outline 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions 9.2 Strong Acids and Bases 9.3 Chemical Equilibrium 9.4 Weak Acids and Bases 9.5 ph and the ph Scale 9.6 pk a 9.7 Amino Acids Common Biological Weak Acids 9.8 Buffers and Blood The Bicarbonate Buffer System 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions Acids Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius described acids as substances that dissociate, producing hydrogen ions (H + ) when dissolved in water. The presence of hydrogen ions gives acids their sour taste and allows acids to corrode some metals. In the early twentieth century Johannes Brønsted and Thomas Lowry, working independently, expanded the definition of an acid: an acid is a compound that donates a proton.
2 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions A proton is a subatomic particle and H + is an ion. Hydrogen atoms contain one proton and one electron. A hydrogen ion a hydrogen atom that has lost its electron and a proton are one and the same. In an aqueous solution, the partial negative charge on the oxygen atom in water is strongly attracted to the positive charge of a proton. The proton and the oxygen atom in water form a covalent bond, creating a hydronium ion, H 3 O +. Page 346 water + proton = hydronium 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions Bases According to Arrhenius, bases are ionic compounds that, when dissolved in water, dissociate to form a metal ion and a hydroxide ion (OH ). Most Arrhenius bases are formed from Group 1A and 2A metals, such as NaOH, KOH, LiOH, and Ca(OH) 2. Hydroxide bases are characterized by a bitter taste and a slippery feel. 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions Bases A Brønsted Lowry base is a compound that accepts a proton.
3 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions Water can act as an acid or a base by donating or accepting a proton. Amphiprotic 9.2 Strong Acids and Bases Strong acids break up completely into ions when placed in water, forming hydronium ions and anions. 100% Dissociated 9.2 Strong Acids and Bases Acids that only partially dissociate (~5%) are weak acids. One example is acetic acid (CH 3 COOH), which is the main component of vinegar.
4 9.2 Strong Acids and Bases Strong bases, like NaOH (also known as lye), are used in household products such as oven cleaners and drain openers. Arrhenius bases such as LiOH, KOH, NaOH, and Ca(OH) 2 are strong bases that dissociate completely (100%) in water to give an aqueous solution of a metal ion and a hydroxide ion. Bases that only partially dissociate (~5%) are weak bases. Many common weak bases contain ammonia (NH 3 ). 9.2 Strong Acids and Bases Neutralization What happens when a strong acid and strong base are mixed? Because both completely dissociate, the water contains metal cations and nonmetal anions as well as hydronium and hydroxide ions. The hydronium and hydroxide ions combine to form water molecules, producing a lot of heat. The metal cations and the anions remain in solution. If the water were removed, an ionic compound would remain. 9.2 Strong Acids and Bases Neutralization The reaction of a strong acid and strong base always produces water and a salt. This reaction is called neutralization.
5 9.2 Strong Acids and Bases Completing Neutralization Reactions Step 1: Form the products. The products will always be (a) a salt and (b) H 2 O. The salt produced must be a neutral ionic compound. Step 2: Balance the chemical equation. This is done by adding coefficients in front of the product or reactant compounds where appropriate. The same number of atoms must appear in both the reactants and products. 9.2 Strong Acids and Bases Antacids Antacids are used to neutralize excess stomach acid (HCl). Some antacids are mixtures of aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide. Aluminum hydroxide produces constipation and binds phosphate in the intestinal tract, which may cause weakness and loss of appetite. Magnesium hydroxide has a laxative effect. When carbonates are used to neutralize acid, the reaction produces a salt, water, and carbon dioxide gas. When calcium carbonate is used, about 10% of the calcium is absorbed into the bloodstream. Calcium carbonate is not recommended for people who have peptic ulcers or a tendency to form kidney stones. Sodium bicarbonate can affect the acidity level of the blood and elevate sodium levels in the body fluids. It is also not recommended in the treatment of peptic ulcers. 9.3 Chemical Equilibrium The generation of ammonia is a reversible reaction. Once ammonia is formed, the reaction will reverse, re-forming nitrogen and hydrogen. Eventually, the rate of the formation of ammonia and the rate of reformation of nitrogen and hydrogen gases become equal. This balance of the rates of the reactions is chemical equilibrium. An equilibrium arrow is used to indicate that both the forward and reverse reactions take place simultaneously. Because the rates of the reactions are equal, there is no net change in amounts.
6 9.3 Chemical Equilibrium If we measure the concentrations of ammonia, nitrogen, and hydrogen present, the fraction of products to reactants would be a constant. This is the equilibrium constant, K, and it is a characteristic of equilibrium reactions at a given temperature. The equilibrium constant, K, is equal to the molar concentration of the products divided by the molar concentration of the reactants. 9.3 Chemical Equilibrium If there is more than one reactant or product, the concentrations are multiplied together. The superscripts in the expression come from the coefficients (number of moles of each) found in the balanced chemical equation. For an equilibrium reaction of the form aa + bb cc + dd the general equilibrium expression is given as 9.3 Chemical Equilibrium Only substances whose concentrations change appear in an equilibrium expression. Solids (s) and pure liquids (l) have constant concentrations so do not appear in the equilibrium expression. If K is equal to 1, the ratio of products:reactants is 1:1 or [products] = [reactants]. A value of K greater than (>) 1 indicates that [products] > [reactants]. A value of K less than (<) 1 indicates that [products] < [reactants].
7 9.3 Chemical Equilibrium According to Le Châtelier s principle, applying stress to the equilibrium will cause the rate of the forward or reverse reaction to change to offset the stress and regain equilibrium. If one side of the reaction gains a substance, the reaction shifts to the other side to regain its equilibrium. If one side of the reaction loses a substance, the reaction will shift toward that side in order to regain its equilibrium. 9.3 Chemical Equilibrium If heat is a product of the reaction, if the temperature of the reaction is raised (heat added), the rate of the reverse reaction increases to offset the stress of adding heat. This causes the equilibrium to shift to the left. If the reaction were cooled down (heat removed), the rate of the forward reaction would increase to replenish the heat produced, shifting the equilibrium to the right. 9.3 Chemical Equilibrium Table 9.4
8 9.4 Weak Acids and Bases All the principles of equilibrium apply to weak acids and bases because weak acids and bases only partially dissociate, establishing an equilibrium in aqueous solution. 9.4 Weak Acids and Bases All weak acids dissociate by donating a proton to form a hydronium ion. Each weak acid has an acid dissociation constant, or K a. The larger the K a, the stronger the acid. 9.4 Weak Acids and Bases
9 9.4 Weak Acids and Bases According to the Brønsted Lowry theory, the reaction between an acid and base involves a proton transfer. If a weak acid is mixed with water, water will act as a base. Consider the dissociation of acetic acid, CH 3 COOH: 9.4 Weak Acids and Bases The acid CH 3 COOH donates a proton to a molecule of water, forming a hydronium ion, H 3 O +. What remains of the acid after the donation, CH 3 COO -, an acetate anion, is the conjugate base of CH 3 COOH. In the reverse reaction, the CH 3 COO - acts as a base and accepts the proton from the hydronium ion. Molecules or ions related by the loss or gain of one H + are conjugate acid base pairs. 9.4 Weak Acids and Bases Rules for writing products of a weak acid base equation When a proton is donated, the conjugate base formed will have one more negative charge than the acid from which it was formed. When a proton is accepted, the conjugate acid formed will have one more positive charge than the base from which it was formed. The total charge of the reactants equals the total charge of the products.
10 9.4 Weak Acids and Bases Weak Acids, Oxygen Transport, and Le Châtelier s Principle The binding and release of oxygen in the body are controlled by weak acid base equilibria. The protein hemoglobin (Hb) carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues via the bloodstream. Both protons (H + ) and oxygen (O 2 ) bind to hemoglobin, but with opposite affinity. If the concentrations of acid or oxygen change, the equilibrium will shift. 9.5 ph and the ph Scale This reaction, which is always present in water, is the autoionization of water. The equilibrium constant expression for water, K w (keeping in mind that pure liquid water will not appear), is Ion Product of Water 9.5 ph and the ph Scale In pure water, both the hydroxide and hydronium ion are being formed equally, so in pure water [H 3 O + ] = [OH - ]. This is referred to as the autoionization of water. At 25 C, both these values are 1 x 10-7 M, and the solution is neutral. What is the value of K w?
11 9.5 ph and the ph Scale If an acid is added to water, there is an increase in [H 3 O + ] and a decrease in [OH - ], which makes the solution acidic. If base is added, [OH - ] increases and [H 3 O + ] decreases, making a basic solution. Most aqueous solutions are not neutral and have unequal concentrations of H 3 O + and OH ph and the ph Scale The amount of H 3 O + in an aqueous solution defines the acidity of the solution. Concentrations of H 3 O + usually range from about 1 M to 1 x M (really close to zero). Because of this extremely wide range, it is more useful to compare [H 3 O] by the log function because it gives a set of numbers that usually falls between 0 and 14. This set of numbers describes the ph scale. ph can be determined from the [H 3 O] as 9.5 ph and the ph Scale Living things prefer a constant ph. Normal blood ph is strictly regulated between 7.35 and The ph of a solution is commonly measured either electronically by using an instrument called a ph meter or visually using ph paper.
12 9.5 ph and the ph Scale Calculating ph Given a M HCl solution, it is straightforward to calculate ph. Because strong acids fully ionize in solution, [HCl] = [H 3 O + ]. ph can be directly calculated for a strong acid: 9.5 ph and the ph Scale Calculating [H 3 O + ] If the ph of a solution is 3.00, the corresponding [H 3 O + ] can be found by multiplying by -1 and finding the inverse log. Inverse log is 10 x, so this can also be solved directly. 9.5 ph and the ph Scale The amount of H 3 O + in an aqueous solution determines acidity. Water ionizes slightly, producing hydronium (H 3 O + ) and hydroxide (OH - ) ions. An excess of H 3 O + in a solution makes a solution acidic. An excess of OH - makes a solution basic. When the concentrations of hydronium and hydroxide ions are equal, a solution is neutral. The ph scale is a measure of acidity with values typically falling between Neutral solutions have a ph value of 7, acidic solutions have values less than 7, and basic solutions have ph values higher than 7. The ph is mathematically related to the concentration of H 3 O + by the following equation: ph = -log[h 3 O + ].
13 9.6 pk a Acid strength can be compared by comparing K a values. Values closer to 1 indicate a stronger acid. As seen with the ph scale, it is easier to compare whole numbers than those in scientific notation. To make this comparison for acid strength, we can use pk a values, which range from 0 to about 60. The smaller the pk a, the stronger the acid. 9.6 pk a 9.6 pk a
14 9.6 pk a The ph value changes with [H 3 O + ], yet the pk a value is constant for a specific weak acid at a certain temperature The smaller the pk a value for a weak acid, the stronger the acid. 9.7 Amino Acids Common Biological Weak Acids This molecule is alanine, an amino acid. The amino acid shown is in the form that predominates at a physiological ph of 7.4. This ionic form containing no net charge (+ and cancel each other out) is called a zwitterion. 9.7 Amino Acids Common Biological Weak Acids Each molecule has a unique ph value at which only the zwitterion is present. This is the isoelectric point (pi). At the pi, the negative charge on the carboxylate is balanced by the positive charge on the ammonium ion, and the net charge is zero.
15 9.7 Amino Acids Common Biological Weak Acids An amino acid is a biological molecule that contains the acid-base functional groups amine and carboxylic acid. The charge of functional group changes as the ph changes. At acidic ph, the acid forms of these functional groups is the main form present (protonated amine and carboxylic acid, net charge = 1+). At basic ph, the conjugate base form predominates (amine and carboxylate, net charge = 1-). The isoelectric point (pi) exists when the solution contains no net charge. 9.8 Buffers and Blood The Bicarbonate Buffer System A solution that contains a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid is a buffer. A buffer solution will resist a change in its ph if small amounts of acid or base are added. Blood is buffered by the bicarbonate buffer system. Dissolved CO 2 produced during cellular respiration travels through the bloodstream to the lungs. This dissolved CO 2 is rapidly equilibrated through carbonic acid into bicarbonate ions. 9.8 Buffers and Blood The Bicarbonate Buffer System The ability of an organism to regulate its internal environment by adjusting factors such as ph, temperature, and solute concentration is called homeostasis. A person who hypoventilates causes CO 2 gas to build up in the bloodstream. A buildup of CO 2 ultimately produces more H 3 O + in the bicarbonate equilibrium, making the blood more acidic. This condition is respiratory acidosis. It can be treated with intravenous bicarbonate.
16 9.8 Buffers and Blood The Bicarbonate Buffer System A person who hyperventilates exhales too much CO 2 from the lungs. This has the effect of drawing H 3 O + from the bloodstream, making the blood more basic. This condition is respiratory alkalosis. This can easily be reversed by having the person breathe into a paper bag, which keeps some of the previously exhaled CO 2 available for the next breath. 9.8 Buffers and Blood The Bicarbonate Buffer System 9.8 Buffers and Blood The Bicarbonate Buffer System Chemical reactions that occur in our bodies can change the ph of blood by producing too much or too little H 3 O +. Diabetics often use fatty acids as a carbon source for energy production. A by-product of fatty acid chemical breakdown is acid production. This causes metabolic acidosis. This can be reversed with intravenous bicarbonate. Metabolic alkalosis can occur with excessive vomiting. To lower the ph, ammonium chloride can be given.
17 9.8 Buffers and Blood The Bicarbonate Buffer System Buffer solutions consist of approximately equal amounts of a weak acid and its conjugate base. Buffers resist changes in ph when acid or base is added to a solution. The bicarbonate buffer is an important buffer system in the blood. Blood ph is maintained in a narrow range of If the blood ph drops below this range, a condition called acidosis occurs. If the blood p becomes elevated, a condition called alkalosis exists. Chapter Nine Summary 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions The Arrhenius definition states that acids produce H + and bases produce OH - when dissolved in water. The Brønsted Lowry definition builds on the Arrhenius definition by stating that an acid donates an H + and a base accepts an H +. An H + or proton in solution exists in contact with a water molecule, thereby forming the hydronium ion, H 3 O Strong Acids and Bases When a strong acid combines with a strong base, a neutralization reaction occurs. The products of neutralization are a salt (ionic compound) and water. Neutralization reactions are typically exothermic. The use of an antacid provides a common example of a neutralization reaction. Antacids are basic compounds that neutralize excess stomach acid. Strong acids and bases completely ionize or dissociate in solution. There are six common strong acids: HClO 4, H 2 SO 4, HI, HBr, HCl, and HNO 3. Water can act as either an acid or a base in a chemical reaction. Chapter Nine Summary 9.3 Chemical Equilibrium Many chemical reactions are reversible, operating in the forward direction up to a point when some of the products revert back to reactants. A chemical equilibrium is established when forward and reverse reactions occur at the same rate. The equilibrium constant, K, defines the extent of a chemical reaction as a ratio of the concentration of the products to the concentration of the reactants. If a chemical reaction at equilibrium is disturbed, the reaction can regain its equilibrium according to Le Châtelier s principle by shifting to offset the disturbance. If more reactants are added to a chemical reaction at equilibrium, the equilibrium will shift to the right, forming more products. An equilibrium can also be affected by changes in temperature.
18 Chapter Nine Summary 9.4 Weak Acids and Bases Weak acids can establish equilibrium because they only partially dissociate (~5%) in solution. The equilibrium constant for a weak acid is the acid dissociation constant, K a. When a weak acid dissociates, it produces a conjugate base, and when a weak base dissociates, it produces a conjugate acid. These are referred to as conjugate acid base pairs and differ by one H +. The more a weak acid dissociates, the higher its K a value, and the stronger the acid. Chapter Nine Summary 9.5 ph and the ph Scale The amount of H 3 O + in an aqueous solution determines acidity. Water ionizes slightly, producing hydronium (H 3 O + ) and hydroxide (OH ) ions. An excess of H 3 O + in a solution makes a solution acidic. An excess of OH makes a solution basic. When the concentrations of hydronium and hydroxide ions are equal, a solution is neutral. The ph scale is a measure of acidity with values typically falling between Neutral solutions have a ph value of 7, acidic solutions have values less than 7, and basic solutions have ph values higher than 7. The ph is mathematically related to the concentration of H 3 O + by the following equation: ph = log[h 3 O + ]. Chapter Nine Summary 9.6 pk a The ph value changes with [H 3 O + ], yet the pk a value is constant for a specific weak acid at a certain temperature The smaller the pk a value for a weak acid, the stronger the acid.
19 Chapter Nine Summary 9.7 Amino Acids: Common Biological Weak Acids An amino acid is a biological molecule that contains the acid-base functional groups amine and carboxylic acid. The charge of functional group changes as the ph changes. At acidic ph, the acid forms of these functional groups is the main form present (protonated amine and carboxylic acid, net charge = 1+). At basic ph, the conjugate base form predominates (amine and carboxylate, net charge = 1-). The isoelectric point (pi) exists when the solution contains no net charge. Chapter Nine Summary 9.8 Buffers and Blood: The Bicarbonate Buffer System Buffer solutions consist of approximately equal amounts of a weak acid and its conjugate base. Buffers resist changes in ph when acid or base is added to a solution. The bicarbonate buffer is an important buffer system in the blood. Blood ph is maintained in a narrow range of If the blood ph drops below this range, a condition called acidosis occurs. If the blood p becomes elevated, a condition called alkalosis exists. Chapter Nine Study Guide 9.1 Acids and Bases Definitions Define acid and base. Describe the physical characteristics of an acid and a base. 9.2 Strong Acids and Bases Recall the six strong acids. Compare a strong acid to a weak acid. Write and balance a neutralization reaction. 9.3 Chemical Equilibrium Define chemical equilibrium. Write an equilibrium expression in terms of K. Apply Le Châtelier s principle to a chemical equilibrium.
20 Chapter Nine Study Guide 9.4 Weak Acids and Bases Apply the principles of chemical equilibrium to weak acids and bases. Determine strengths of weak acids based on their pk a values. Identify conjugate acid base pairs. Complete a chemical equation for a conjugate acid base in water. 9.5 ph and the ph Scale Given the ph, determine whether a solution is acidic, basic, or neutral. Calculate the ph given the [H 3 O + ]. Calculate the [H 3 O + ] given the ph. Chapter Nine Study Guide 9.6 pk a Predict the relative strength of a weak acid from its pk a value. 9.7 Amino Acids Common Biological Weak Acids Define pi. Predict the charge of an amino acid below, at, and above the pi value. 9.8 Buffers and Blood The Bicarbonate Buffer System Describe the properties of a buffer. Predict the direction the bicarbonate buffer equilibrium will shift with changes in ventilation rate.
9.5 ph and the ph Scale Living things prefer a constant ph. Normal blood ph is strictly regulated between 7.35 and 7.45. The ph of a solution is commonly measured either electronically by using an instrument
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CHEM 102: Sample Test 5 CHAPTER 17 1. When H 2 SO 4 is dissolved in water, which species would be found in the water at equilibrium in measurable amounts? a. H 2 SO 4 b. H 3 SO + 4 c. HSO 4 d. SO 2 4 e.
acid-base balance in the body 1 why acid/base balance is important a major homeostatic challenge is keeping [H+] (ph) of body fluids at an appropriate level. maintenance of acidbase balance is of critical
1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a weak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is: a) K = [H+ ][NO 2 ] [HNO 2 ] b) K = [H+ ][N][O] 2 [HNO 2 ] c) K =
Chapter 17 2) a) HCl and CH 3 COOH are both acids. A buffer must have an acid/base conjugate pair. b) NaH 2 PO 4 and Na 2 HPO 4 are an acid/base conjugate pair. They will make an excellent buffer. c) H
Definitions acid-an ionic compound that releases or reacts with water to form hydrogen ion (H + ) in aqueous solution. They taste sour and turn litmus red. Acids react with certain metals such as zinc,
Intermolecular forces, acids, bases, electrolytes, net ionic equations, solubility, and molarity of Ions in solution: 1. What are the different types of Intermolecular forces? Define the following terms:
Acid-Base Indicators and Titration Curves Titrations In a titration a solution of accurately known concentration is added gradually added to another solution of unknown concentration until the chemical
Practice Problems for Chem. 1B Exam 1 F2011 These represent the concepts covered for exam 1. There may be some additional net ionic equations from chem. 1A. This is not the exact exam! Sections 16.1-16.3
6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Water is by far the most common medium in which chemical reactions occur naturally. It is not hard to see this: 70% of our body mass is water and about 70% of the surface