Notes: Acids and Bases

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Notes: Acids and Bases"

Transcription

1 Name Chemistry Pre-AP Notes: Acids and Bases Period I. Describing Acids and Bases A. Properties of Acids taste ph 7 Acids change color of an (e.g. blue litmus paper turns in the presence of an acid) React with metals (check activity series) to produce gas React with to produce a salt ( compound) and water. This is known as a reaction. Are (strong or weak) B. Properties of Bases taste Feel ph 7 Bases change color of an (e.g. red litmus paper turns in the presence of a base) React with to produce a salt and water Are (strong or weak, if soluble) C. Review of Acid Nomenclature acids contain only hydrogen and one other element - They are named hydro root- ic acid HCl is named acid acids contain hydrogen and 2 other elements Most of these are also known as because of the presence of oxygen 1

2 Ternary acids are named based on the name -if the polytatomic ends in -ate, the acid name ends in H 2SO 4 is named acid -if the polyatomic ends in -ite, the acid name ends in II. Acid-Base Theories A. Arrhenius (Swedish chemist, ) H 2SO 3 is named acid Arrhenius defined acids as compounds that ionize to yield ions ( ) in aqueous solution Arrhenius defined bases as compounds that ionize to yield ions ( ) in aqueous solution Although Arrhenius described hydrogen ions as bare ions (H + ), we now know that they are hydrated in aqueous solution and exist as H + (H 2O) n, where n is a small integer. For simplicity, we represent the hydrated hydrogen ion as H 3O +. This hydrated form of the hydrogen ion is known as the ion. From now on, whether we use the formula H + (aq) or H 3O + (aq), we are always referring to the hydrated hydrogen ion. The Arrhenius theory is limited in scope, but it led to the development of other acidbase theories. B. Bronsted-Lowry (Bronsted: Danish chemist, /Lowry: English chemist, ) The Bronsted-Lowry theory defines an acid as a hydrogen ion and a base as a hydrogen ion HCl + H 2O H 3O + + Cl NH 3 + H 2O + NH 4 + OH A acid is the particle formed when a base has accepted H +. Every base has a conjugate acid. A base is the particle formed when an acid has donated H +. Every acid has a conjugate base. A conjugate acid-base pair consists of the two substances related by loss or gain of single hydrogen ion. In the above examples, list the conjugate acid-base pairs: 2

3 Practice 1 1. Identify the Bronsted-Lowry acid, the Bronsted-Lowry base, the conjugate acid, and conjugate base in the following. a) HCl + H 2O H 3O + + Cl - b) the ionization of nitric acid in water (similar to a) 2- c) CO 3 + H 2O - HCO 3 + OH - A substance that can act as either an acid or a base is called. The term is used to refer specifically to a substance that can either donate or accept protons (H + ). What substance in the Bronsted-Lowry examples on p. 2 is clearly amphiprotic? III. Strength of Acids and Bases A. Ionization of Acids The ion is responsible for the properties of acids Acids are classified as strong or weak based on the degree to which they in water (how many ions are formed) acids are completely ionized in aqueous solution List of 7 strong acids: HCl, HBr, HI, HClO 3,HClO 4, HNO 3, H 2SO 4 (if it s not in this list, it s a weak acid) acids ionize only slightly in aqueous solution B. Dissociation/Ionization of Bases Strong bases completely into ions and ions in aqueous solution Note: these are all the soluble hydroxides on your solubility chart (alkali metal hydroxides, Ca(OH) 2, Sr(OH) 2, Ba(OH) 2 ). NOTE: NH 4OH is produced from ammonia and is not a strong base. 3

4 Weak bases ionize partially/slightly when they react with water to form the ion and the conjugate of the base. You should be familiar with ammonia and related compounds as classic examples of weak bases. NH 3 + H 2O CH 3NH 2 + H 2O Note: strong acids/bases are electrolytes. WHY? weak acids/bases are electrolytes. WHY? IV. Ionization Constant of Water A. Concentration of H + and OH - ions Water self-ionizes to a small degree via this reversible reaction: This reaction happens continually in water. In pure water, the concentration of ions equals the concentration of ions [H + ] = [OH - ] = 1.0 x 10 7 brackets represent concentration in moles/l (M) The product of the concentration of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions in any solution that contains water is always. The value for this constant is 1.0 x It is known as K w, the ionization constant of water. K w = [H + ] x [OH - ] = 1.0 x Since the product of [H + ] and [OH - ] is constant, if [H + ] increases, then [OH - ] (and vice-versa). The [H + ] of a solution is 1 x 10-8 M. What is [OH - ]? Practice 3 1. Determine the [H 3O + ] a) [OH - ] = 1 x M c) 0.1 M HCl b) [OH - ] = 2.0 x 10-3 M 2. Determine the [OH - ] a) [H 3O + ] = 6.0 x 10-4 M c) 0.1 M NaOH b) [H 3O + ] = 5.0 x M d) 0.1 M strontium hydroxide If [H 3O + ] > [OH - ] the solution is. If [H 3O + ] < [OH - ] the solution is. If [H 3O + ] = [OH - ] the solution is. 4

5 Determine if the solution is acidic, basic, or neutral. a) [H 3O + ] = 1.0 x 10-4 M b) [H 3O + ] = 6.0 x M c) [OH - ] = 4.0 x M Practice 4 1. Determine if the solutions in Practice 3 are acidic, basic, or neutral V. ph Expressing hydrogen ion concentration in can be cumbersome. A widely used system for expressing [H 3O + ] is the scale. The of a solution is the negative base 10 logarithm of the ion concentration. The base 10 logarithm of a number is the power to which 10 must be raised to equal that number. log = 2 (because 100 = 10 2 ) What is log ? ph = Remember, for pure water, [H 3O + ] is 1 x 10-7 M. So what s the ph of pure water? What is the ph of a solution with a hydronium ion concentration of 1.0 x M? Practice 5 1. What is the ph of the following solutions? State whether acidic, basic, or neutral. a) [H 3O + ] = 1.0 x 10-2 M e) 1 M HCl b) [H 3O + ] = 1.0 x 10-9 M c) [H 3O + ] = M d) [OH - ] = 1 x 10-3 M The ph scale typically ranges from 0 ([H 3O + ] = 1 M) to 14 ([H 3O + ] = M).Note that as ph increases, [H 3O + ] and [OH - ]. 5

6 Note the relationship between [H 3O + ] and [OH - ]. Remember, the product of these must always equal for aqueous solutions. The poh of a solution equals the negative base 10 logarithm of the ion concentration. poh = ph + poh = Practice 6 1. Calculate the ph of each solution a) [H 3O + ] = 5.0 x 10-6 M d) 0.15 M HClO 4 b) [H 3O + ] = 8.3 x M e) 0.15 M barium hydroxide (tricky!) c) [OH - ] = 4.3 x 10-5 M Practice 7 1. Calculate the [H 3O + ] for each solution. a) ph = 5.0 b) ph = 7.0 c) ph = 12.0 Practice 8 1. Calculate the [H 3O + ] for each of the following solutions a) ph= 7.30 b) ph = 1.80 c) poh = 11.2 d) poh = Determine the molarity of a) a potassium hydroxide solution with a ph of 11.6 b) a hydrochloric acid solution with a poh of 11.6 VI. Net Ionic Equations part 2: Neutralization Reactions A neutralization reaction is the reaction between an acid and a base to yield a salt and water. Neutralization reactions, like precipitation reactions, are double replacement reactions. We will learn to write net ionic equations for neutralization reactions. Helpful hints applicable to neutralization: 1. Remember to always write the balanced molecular equation first. Based upon the molecular equation, you will write the complete ionic and then the net ionic equation. 6

7 2. All soluble ionic compounds are written in their dissociated form, showing the ions and their charges with the symbol (aq) by each. Example: NaCl(aq) is written Na + (aq) + Cl-(aq). 3. All strong acids and bases are written in their ionized form (acids) or their dissociated form (bases). You must memorize a list of strong acids and bases so that you will know which to write ionized/dissociated. (See p. 3 of these notes) Examples: HClO 4(aq) is written H + - (aq) + ClO 4 (aq) H 2SO 4(aq) is written 2H + 2- (aq) + SO 4 (aq) HNO 3(aq) is written H + - (aq) + NO 3 (aq) HI(aq) is written H + (aq) + I - (aq) KOH(aq) is written K + (aq) + OH - (aq) Sr(OH) 2(aq) is written Sr 2+ (aq) + 2OH - (aq) These acids are written ionized because they are considered to be 100% ionized in solution. The bases are strong because they are soluble and 100% dissociated in solution. 4. All other acids and bases are considered weak and written in their unionized or undissociated forms. Examples are: NH 3(aq) written NH 3(aq) H 3PO 4(aq) written H 3PO 4(aq), no charges shown HC 2H 3O 2(aq) written HC 2H 3O 2(aq), no charges shown 5. Water is a pure liquid and is written with its formula, the symbol (l), with no charges shown: H 2O(l) VII. Neutralization and Titrations A. Neutralization A neutralization reaction is one in which an acid and base react to produce a and water. Remember, to a chemist, a salt is any compound that is not a base. HC 2H 3O 2 + NaOH Complete and net ionic equations for this neutralization reaction: Note in the reaction above, the acid:base mole ratio is 1:1. However, in the reaction between H 2SO 4 and NaOH: it takes moles of base to neutralize 1 mole of acid. The reacting ratios of acid and base will be important in solving problems related to neutralization reactions. 7

8 B. Titrations A is a laboratory technique that uses a neutralization reaction to determine the concentration of an unknown acid or base. An is used to show when neutralization has occurred. An indicator is a substance that changes color in response to changes in ph. Indicators are actually weak or that change color in response to ph change. In acidic solutions, indicators act as Bronsted-Lowry. As the indicator molecules accept H +, they change color. In basic solutions, indicators act as Bronsted-Lowry. As the indicator molecules donate H +, they change color. Steps in a titration: 1. A measured volume of a solution of unknown concentration (acid or base) is added to an flask. 2. A solution of known molarity (acid or base) is added to a. 3. Several drops of an are added to the unknown solution. 4. A measured volume of the solution of known molarity (acid or base) is added to the unknown solution until the indicator just barely changes. The point at which all the acid and base have exactly neutralized each other according to the mole:mole ratio from the balanced equation is called the point. The point at which the indicator changes color is the point of the titration. The indicator needs to be chosen wisely so that it changes color as close to the equivalence point of the titration as possible. 8

9 Examples of Common Indicators: Indicator Acid Color Base Color ph range* Titration Type Methyl red Red Yellow Strong acid/weak base Bromthymol Blue Yellow Blue Strong acid/strong base Phenolphthalein Colorless Magenta Weak acid/strong base *where indicator changes color C. Solving Titration Problems To solve titration problems: 1. Write a balanced neutralization reaction. 2. Use the following formula: nbmava = nambvb nb = coefficient of base in reaction na = coefficient of acid in reaction Ma = Molarity of acid Mb = Molarity of base Va = Volume of acid Vb = Volume of base Ex 1: A 25 ml solution of nitric acid is completely neutralized by 18 ml of 1.0 M calcium hydroxide. What is the concentration (M) of the acid solution? Practice 9 1. What is the molarity of sulfuric acid if 15.0 ml of the solution is completely neutralized by 38.5 ml of M sodium hydroxide? 2. What is the ph of a sodium hydroxide solution if 20.0 ml of the solution is neutralized by 28.0 ml of 0.60 M hydrochloric acid? 3. What volume of 0.45M hydrochloric acid must be added to 25.0 ml of 1.00 M barium hydroxide to make a neutral solution? 9

Note: (H 3 O + = hydronium ion = H + = proton) Example: HS - + H 2 O H 3 O + + S 2-

Note: (H 3 O + = hydronium ion = H + = proton) Example: HS - + H 2 O H 3 O + + S 2- AcidBase Chemistry Arrhenius acid: Substance that dissolves in water and provides H + ions Arrhenius base: Substance that dissolves in water and provides OH ions Examples: HCl H + and Cl Acid NaOH Na +

More information

ACID-BASE NEUTRALIZATION

ACID-BASE NEUTRALIZATION ACID-BASE NEUTRALIZATION ACID-BASE NEUTRALIZATION REACTIONS A second type of chemical reaction that occurs in aqueous solution is an acid-base neutralization reaction So, what are acids and bases? ACIDS

More information

ACIDS AND BASES. Chapter 4 Section 4.4 Acid Base Reactions ( ) Chapter 18 Section 18.1, 18.2, 18.3 Naming Acids 70

ACIDS AND BASES. Chapter 4 Section 4.4 Acid Base Reactions ( ) Chapter 18 Section 18.1, 18.2, 18.3 Naming Acids 70 ACIDS AND BASES Chapter 4 Section 4.4 Acid Base Reactions (150 157) Chapter 18 Section 18.1, 18.2, 18.3 Naming Acids 70 Problems: Chapter 18: 5, 7, 21, 23, 24, 43, 44 Chapter 4: 49, 53, 54 Concepts: Definitions

More information

UNIT 14 - Acids & Bases

UNIT 14 - Acids & Bases COMMON ACIDS NOTES lactic acetic phosphoric citric malic PROPERTIES OF ACIDS 1. 1. PROPERTIES OF BASES 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. NAMING ACIDS NOTES Binary acids (H + one element) Practice: 1. hydro- - HF

More information

CHM1 Review for Exam 12

CHM1 Review for Exam 12 Topics Solutions 1. Arrhenius Acids and bases a. An acid increases the H + concentration in b. A base increases the OH - concentration in 2. Strong acids and bases completely dissociate 3. Weak acids and

More information

TOPIC 11: Acids and Bases

TOPIC 11: Acids and Bases TOPIC 11: Acids and Bases ELECTROLYTES are substances that when dissolves in water conduct electricity. They conduct electricity because they will break apart into Ex. NaCl(s)! Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq), and

More information

Unit 9: Acids, Bases, & Salts

Unit 9: Acids, Bases, & Salts Unit 9: Acids, Bases, & Salts Unit Vocabulary: Amphoteric Arrhenius acid Arrhenius base Bronsted-Lowry acid Bronsted-Lowry base Electrolyte hydronium ion hydroxide ion indicator (acid/base) neutralization

More information

Acids. Names of Some Common Acids. Names of Acids. Learning Check. Solution 8.1. Acids and Bases

Acids. Names of Some Common Acids. Names of Acids. Learning Check. Solution 8.1. Acids and Bases Chapter 8 Acids and Bases Acids 8.1 Acids and Bases Arrhenius acids produce H + ions in water. H 2 O HCl(g) H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) are electrolytes. have a sour taste. turn litmus red. neutralize bases.

More information

UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES

UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES 6.1 Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases Definitions for acids and bases were proposed by the Swedish chemist Savante Arrhenius in 1884. Acids were defined as compounds that

More information

Acids and Bases. A key to chemistry in your daily life. Foods Car batteries Bee stings Cleaning products. Soda pop Biological processes Antacids

Acids and Bases. A key to chemistry in your daily life. Foods Car batteries Bee stings Cleaning products. Soda pop Biological processes Antacids Acids and Bases A key to chemistry in your daily life. Foods Car batteries Bee stings Cleaning products Soda pop Biological processes Antacids Etc 1 Acid & Base Properties Acids: Strong or weak electrolytes

More information

Chemistry B2A Chapter 16 Acids and bases

Chemistry B2A Chapter 16 Acids and bases Chemistry B2A Chapter 16 Acids and bases Arrhenius definitions: an acid is a substance that produces H 3 O + ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution.

More information

AP Chemistry- Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases. Bases- originally defined as any substance that neutralized an acid

AP Chemistry- Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases. Bases- originally defined as any substance that neutralized an acid AP Chemistry Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases Acids Electrolyte Taste Litmus Phenolphthalein React with metals to give off H 2 gas H 2 SO 4 (aq) + Mg (s) MgSO 4 (aq) + H 2 (g) Ionize

More information

ACIDS AND BASES. Chapter 14, 15

ACIDS AND BASES. Chapter 14, 15 ACIDS AND BASES Chapter 14, 15 PROPERTIES Properties of Acids Properties of Bases 1. Sour taste (vinegar, lemon) 1. Bitter taste (soaps, detergents) 2. ph paper turns red 2. ph paper turns blue 3. Acids

More information

This section lists the properties of acids and bases. It also explains how to name an acid or base when given the formula.

This section lists the properties of acids and bases. It also explains how to name an acid or base when given the formula. Chapter 8 Acids and Bases This section lists the properties of acids and bases. It also explains how to name an acid or base when given the formula. 1. Circle the letters of all the terms that complete

More information

TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTION

TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTION TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTION I. METATHESIS REACTIONS (or DOUBLE DISPLACEMENT RXNS) In these reactions the ions of the reactants are exchanged: A + B (aq) + C + D (aq) AD (?) + CB (?) Double Displacement

More information

Chapter 16 Acids and Bases

Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Properties of Acids and Bases 1. Circle the letters of all the terms that complete the sentence correctly. 2. The properties of acids include _. a. reacting with metals to produce

More information

ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures miscible two liquids that and form a immiscible two liquids that form a e.g.

ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures miscible two liquids that and form a immiscible two liquids that form a e.g. Unit 7 Solutions, Acids & Bases Solution mixture + solvent - substance present in the amount solute - in the solvent solvent molecules solute particles ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures

More information

Note Packet # 17. Acids and Bases. What is the Arrhenius definition of acid? Describe: hydrogen ion

Note Packet # 17. Acids and Bases. What is the Arrhenius definition of acid? Describe: hydrogen ion 1 Acids and Bases Arrhenius is the name of a scientist who studied acids and bases. His name appears a lot in this topic. Don t be frightened. Acid: According to the Arrhenius definition, an acid is any

More information

Chapter 14: Acids and Bases

Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Ch 14 Page 1 Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Properties of Acids Sour taste React with some metals Turns blue litmus paper red React with bases Some Common Acids HCl, hydrochloric acid H 2 SO 4, sulfuric acid

More information

Unit 2 ACIDS AND BASES

Unit 2 ACIDS AND BASES Unit 2 ACIDS AND BASES Operational Definition One that is used to classify a substance Acids are aqueous solutions that: 1. turn blue litmus red (ph less than 7 at 25 C) 2. neutralize basic solutions 3.

More information

Chemistry 51 Chapter 10 ACIDS & BASES. The most common definition of acids and bases was formulated by the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius in 1884.

Chemistry 51 Chapter 10 ACIDS & BASES. The most common definition of acids and bases was formulated by the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius in 1884. ACIDS & BASES Many common substances in our daily lives are acids and bases. Oranges, lemons and vinegar are examples of acids. In addition, our stomachs contain acids that help digest foods. Antacid tablets

More information

ACIDS AND BASES. Nonelectrolytes - substances which do not conduct electricity in water solutions.

ACIDS AND BASES. Nonelectrolytes - substances which do not conduct electricity in water solutions. ACIDS AND BASES Electrolytes substances which will conduct electricity when dissolved in water. Typical electrolytes are strong acids and salt solutions; e.g., NaCl(aq), HCl(aq), etc. Nonelectrolytes substances

More information

Reactions in Solution (Acids and Bases): Chapter 10. Chapter Outline. Chapter Outline

Reactions in Solution (Acids and Bases): Chapter 10. Chapter Outline. Chapter Outline Reactions in Solution (Acids and Bases): Chapter 0 Chapter Outline Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases The Arrhenius Theory The Hydronium Ion (Hydrated Hydrogen Ion) The BrØnstedLowry Theory

More information

Chapter 15: Properties of Acids. Properties of Bases

Chapter 15: Properties of Acids. Properties of Bases : Properties of Acids An acid is any substance that releases hydrogen ions, H +, into water. Blue litmus paper turns red in the presence of hydrogen ions. Blue litmus is used to test for acids. Acids have

More information

CHEMISTRY NOTES CHAPTERS 20 AND 21. Acids and Bases - Neutralization

CHEMISTRY NOTES CHAPTERS 20 AND 21. Acids and Bases - Neutralization NOTES: Goals : To gain an understanding of : Properties of acids : Properties of bases : 1. The properties of acids and bases 2. ph and poh calculations 3. Definitions of acids and bases 4. Neutralization

More information

CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solutions (continued) Lect-07

CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solutions (continued) Lect-07 CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solutions (continued) Lect-07 aqueous acid/base reactions a. a little bit more about water Water is a polar substance. This means water is able to "solvate" ions rather well. Another

More information

Acids, Bases, & Neutralization Chapter 20 & 21 Assignment & Problem Set

Acids, Bases, & Neutralization Chapter 20 & 21 Assignment & Problem Set Acids, Bases, & Neutralization Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Acids, Bases, & Neutralization 2 Study Guide: Things You Must Know

More information

HSO 4 H 3 PO 4 F -1 NO 3 H 2 PO 4 H 2 O SO 4 HPO 4 NH 4. Unit 14 Acids & Bases

HSO 4 H 3 PO 4 F -1 NO 3 H 2 PO 4 H 2 O SO 4 HPO 4 NH 4. Unit 14 Acids & Bases BRONSTED - LOWRY ACIDS & BASES WORKSHEET According to Bronsted-Lowry theory, an acid is a proton (H +1 ) donor, and a base is a proton acceptor. Label the Bronsted-Lowry acids (A), bases (B), conjugate

More information

Lecture 6. Classes of Chemical Reactions

Lecture 6. Classes of Chemical Reactions Lecture 6 Classes of Chemical Reactions Lecture 6 Outline 6.1 The Role of Water as a Solvent 6.2 Precipitation Reactions 6.3 Acid-Base Reactions 1 Electron distribution in molecules of H 2 and H 2 O The

More information

CHAPTER 16: ACIDS AND BASES

CHAPTER 16: ACIDS AND BASES CHAPTER 16: ACIDS AND BASES Active Learning: 4, 6, 14; End-of-Chapter Problems: 2-25, 27-58, 66-68, 70, 75-77, 83, 90-91, 93-104 Chapter 15 End-of-Chapter Problems: 69-74, 125, 129, 133 16.1 ACIDS AND

More information

Name: Per: Date: Unit 11 - Acids, Bases and Salts Chemistry Accelerated Chemistry I Define each of the following: 1. Acidic hydrogens.

Name: Per: Date: Unit 11 - Acids, Bases and Salts Chemistry Accelerated Chemistry I Define each of the following: 1. Acidic hydrogens. Name: Per: Date: Unit 11 - Acids, Bases and Salts Chemistry Accelerated Chemistry I Define each of the following: 1. Acidic hydrogens 2. Binary acids 3. Oxyacids 4. Carboxylic acid 5. Amines Name the following

More information

Talk in. Arrhenius Acid- Base Definition and ph

Talk in. Arrhenius Acid- Base Definition and ph Talk in. Arrhenius Acid Base Definition and ph When we think of acids, we typically think of the Arrhenius definition. Svante Arrhenius (18591927) Arrhenius Acid = Any compound that increases the hydronium

More information

Acid/base Definitions. Acid/Base Definitions. Acid / Base Chemistry. Acid/Base Definitions. Identifying Acids and Bases

Acid/base Definitions. Acid/Base Definitions. Acid / Base Chemistry. Acid/Base Definitions. Identifying Acids and Bases Acids Identifying Acids and Bases Acid (anhydrides) contains H+ ions as the cation, with and other element as the anion Non-metal oxide H2SO4 HI P2O5 Bases Base (anhydrides) Contains OH- as the anion Combined

More information

[H + ] =10 ph poh = -Log [OH - ] [OH - ]=10 poh

[H + ] =10 ph poh = -Log [OH - ] [OH - ]=10 poh Self Ionization of Water H 2 O H + + OH - Acids & Bases ph poh [H + ] [OH - ] Pure Water [H + ] = [OH - ], remember: [ ] means concentration 1 x 10 7 = 1 x 10 7 [H + ] > [OH - ], there is an acidic solution

More information

Chapter 16 Acid and Bases. There is an equilibrium between these two ions in water or in any aqueous solution:

Chapter 16 Acid and Bases. There is an equilibrium between these two ions in water or in any aqueous solution: 1 I. Acidic and Basic water solutions: Chapter 16 Acid and Bases A. Dissociation of water The H + ion (or the H 3 O + ion) is characteristic of acidic water solutions. The OH - ion gives basic solutions

More information

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems Acids and Bases 10 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 10.1 According to the Arrhenius theory: a. acids taste sour. b. acids neutralize bases. c. acids produce H 3 O + ions in water. d. potassium hydroxide

More information

Chapter 19: Acids and Bases Homework Packet (50 pts) Name: Score: / 50

Chapter 19: Acids and Bases Homework Packet (50 pts) Name: Score: / 50 Chapter 19: Acids and Bases Homework Packet (50 pts) Topic pg Section 19.1 1-3 Section 19.2 3-6 Section 19.3 6-7 Section 19.4 8 Naming Acids 9 Properties of Acids/Bases 10-11 Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs

More information

Acids and Bases. 1. The ph of a solution is 2 at 25 C. What is the poh of this solution? (1) 0; (2) 2; (3) 12; (4) 14.

Acids and Bases. 1. The ph of a solution is 2 at 25 C. What is the poh of this solution? (1) 0; (2) 2; (3) 12; (4) 14. Acids and Bases 1 The ph of a solution is 2 at 25 C What is the poh of this solution? (1) 0; (2) 2; (3) 12; (4) 14 2 In a solution with a ph of 3 the color of (1) litmus is red; (2) litmus is blue; (3)

More information

Name Hour. Acids, Bases, Salts & Neutralization. Solution Stoichiometry Notepack

Name Hour. Acids, Bases, Salts & Neutralization. Solution Stoichiometry Notepack Name Hour Acids, Bases, Salts & Neutralization Solution Stoichiometry Notepack The Concentration of a Solution Molarity, Page 509: 1. Define concentration: 2. Define concentrated: 3. Define dilute: 4.

More information

11. Introduction to Acids, Bases, ph, and Buffers

11. Introduction to Acids, Bases, ph, and Buffers 11. Introduction to Acids, Bases, ph, and Buffers What you will accomplish in this experiment You ll use an acid-base indicating paper to: Determine the acidity or basicity of some common household substances

More information

Chapter 17. How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties. Base. Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases

Chapter 17. How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties. Base. Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases Chapter 17 Acids and Bases How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties Base Physical properties Tastes sour Tastes bitter Feels slippery or slimy Chemical properties Chemical properties

More information

10.1 & 10.2 ACIDS AND BASES

10.1 & 10.2 ACIDS AND BASES 10.1 & 10.2 ACIDS AND BASES PROPERTIES OF ACIDS AND BASES Acids Bases ph Electrical conductivity Taste Feel Colour with litmus paper Colour with phenolphthalein PROPERTIES OF ACIDS AND BASES Acids Bases

More information

Strong Acids (Know These) Announcements & Agenda (02/23/07) Strengths of Acids/Bases - Ionization. Last Time: Last Time: nsted-lowry Acids & Bases

Strong Acids (Know These) Announcements & Agenda (02/23/07) Strengths of Acids/Bases - Ionization. Last Time: Last Time: nsted-lowry Acids & Bases Announcements & Agenda (0//07) You should be reading Ch 0 this weekend! Quiz Today! Open Review Sessions @ pm on Wed. Low attendance this week Last Time: Bronsted nsted-lowry Acids & Bases acids donate

More information

Chapter 15: Acids and Bases

Chapter 15: Acids and Bases Chapter 15: Acids and Bases Essentials of General Chemistry Ebbing Gammon Ragsdale 2nd Edition Dr. Azra Ghumman Memorial University of Newfoundland 1 Acids and Bases 15.1 Arrhenius Concept of Acids and

More information

acid base salt water Date: April 18, 2016 Obj: Observe and describe neutralization reactions.

acid base salt water Date: April 18, 2016 Obj: Observe and describe neutralization reactions. Do Now Date: April 18, 2016 Obj: Observe and describe neutralization reactions. Copy: Neutralization is when an acid and base react to product a salt and water. e.g. HCl + NaOH NaCl + H 2 O acid base salt

More information

Chapter 18. Acids and Bases

Chapter 18. Acids and Bases Chapter 18 Acids and Bases Warm Up Name any acids that you have at home. What are they usually used for? Name any bases that you have at home. What are they usually used for? Today s Agenda QOTD: What

More information

Chem101: General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases

Chem101: General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases : General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases I. Introduction A. In chemistry, and particularly biochemistry, water is the most common solvent 1. In studying acids and bases we are going to see that water

More information

Arrhenius Model. Hydronium Ion. Chapter 13 Acids and Bases

Arrhenius Model. Hydronium Ion. Chapter 13 Acids and Bases Chapter 13 Acids and Bases What are Acids and Bases? Strong and Weak Acids and Bases Relative Strengths of Weak Acids Acidic, Basic, and Neutral Solutions The ph Scale Buffered Solutions 131 Copyright

More information

Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases

Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases 14.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases A. Arrhenius Model 1. Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions 2. Bases produce hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions B. Bronsted-Lowry

More information

H + (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 2 O(l) H + (aq) + OH (aq) H 2 O(l) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + OH (aq)

H + (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 2 O(l) H + (aq) + OH (aq) H 2 O(l) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + OH (aq) PURPOSE: To standardize a solution of sodium hydroxide by titration with a primary standard, potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHC 8 H 4 O 4 ) PRINCIPLES: Acid base reactions in aqueous solution represent

More information

Solutions for Ch. 14 Acids and Bases Practice Questions

Solutions for Ch. 14 Acids and Bases Practice Questions s for Ch. 14 Acids and Bases Practice Questions 1. In the following reactions, label the Acid, Base, Conjugate Acid, and Conjugate Base. Also indicate the two conjugate acid-base pairs Plan Your Strategy

More information

Brønsted-Lowry Acid/Base. 1. What's the Brønsted definition of an acid?...of a base?

Brønsted-Lowry Acid/Base. 1. What's the Brønsted definition of an acid?...of a base? Brønsted-Lowry Acid/Base Name 1. What's the Brønsted definition of an acid?...of a base? 2. In 1923, Johannes Brønsted (Danish) and Thomas Lowry (British) independently expanded definition of Arrhenius

More information

LESSON ASSIGNMENT. After completing this lesson, you should be able to: 9-2. Calculate buffers problems.

LESSON ASSIGNMENT. After completing this lesson, you should be able to: 9-2. Calculate buffers problems. LESSON ASSIGNMENT LESSON 9 ph and Buffers. TEXT ASSIGNMENT Paragraphs 9-1 through 9-23. LESSON OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson, you should be able to: 9-1. Calculate the ph and poh of a molar acid

More information

Acids, Bases, and Salts

Acids, Bases, and Salts Acids, Bases, and Salts General Chemistry Ron Robertson I. Definitions The terms acid, base and salt are attempts to classify and organize reactions - these terms are used to model the behavior of species

More information

Auto-ionization of Water

Auto-ionization of Water 2H 2 O H 3 O + + OH Hydronium ion hydroxide ion Q: But how often does this happen? This is the fundamental concept of all acid-base chemistry In pure water, how much of it is water and how much is ions?

More information

Problem Solving. ] Substitute this value into the equation for poh.

Problem Solving. ] Substitute this value into the equation for poh. Skills Worksheet Problem Solving In 1909, Danish biochemist S. P. L Sørensen introduced a system in which acidity was expressed as the negative logarithm of the H concentration. In this way, the acidity

More information

Things To Do Now: What s an Acid? What s a Base? 5/18/2015

Things To Do Now: What s an Acid? What s a Base? 5/18/2015 Things To Do Now: 1 Unit 13: Acids & Bases Lesson 13.1: Properties of Arrhenius Acids & Bases 2 What s an Acid? What s a Base? They ve been known for a long time. They were unexplained for a long time.

More information

A Note on phase symbols, solubility and soluble compounds. Ch 4. Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry. Dissociation.

A Note on phase symbols, solubility and soluble compounds. Ch 4. Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry. Dissociation. Ch 4. Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Understand the nature of ions in solutions Recognize and write common chemical reactions Use the activity series to predict products of reactions Write

More information

Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten. Acids and Bases

Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten. Acids and Bases Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Acids and Bases Three definitions of acid Who Theory: Acid= When Arrhenius increases H + 1880

More information

Ch. 15 Solutions Problem Set 15.1 Problem Set 15.2 Problem Set 15.3 Ch. 19 Acids and Bases

Ch. 15 Solutions Problem Set 15.1 Problem Set 15.2 Problem Set 15.3 Ch. 19 Acids and Bases Ch. 15 Solutions Problem Set 15.1 Solution terminology Why/how dissolving occurs Factors affecting rate of solvation vs. solubility Heats of solution Problem Set 15.2 Concentration (Molarity) problems

More information

VONDRACEK WKS 13.1 Conjugates Using Brönsted-Lowry s Definition (2 pages)

VONDRACEK WKS 13.1 Conjugates Using Brönsted-Lowry s Definition (2 pages) VONDRACEK WKS 13.1 Conjugates Using Brönsted-Lowry s Definition (2 pages) Give the conjugate acid of the following bases: BASE CONJUGATE ACID BASE CONJUGATE ACID H2O ClO acetate H2PO4 NH3 HSO4 hydroxide

More information

Chapter 15: Acids, Bases, and Salts. 15.1: Acids and Bases

Chapter 15: Acids, Bases, and Salts. 15.1: Acids and Bases Chapter 15: Acids, Bases, and Salts Name: 15.1: Acids and Bases Define an Acid: Define a Base: Ex of an acid in aqueous solution: Ex of a base in aqueous solution: List some of the properties of acids

More information

Chapter 13. Acids and Bases. Introduction. Acids and Bases Affect Our Lives. Chapter 13 Topics What are Acids and Bases?

Chapter 13. Acids and Bases. Introduction. Acids and Bases Affect Our Lives. Chapter 13 Topics What are Acids and Bases? Introduction Chapter 13 Acids and Bases How do acids and bases differ from other substances? What determines the ph of a solution? 1 2 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for

More information

Acid and Base Chemistry

Acid and Base Chemistry Acid and Base Chemistry Arrhenius Theory of Acids An acid is a substance that gives off H+ in water. This is a hydronium ion or proton. H2SO4 is sulfuric acid. H2SO4 2H+ + SO4 2- has one proton and one

More information

CHAPTER 9. ANS: a. ANS: d. ANS: c. ANS: a. ANS: c

CHAPTER 9. ANS: a. ANS: d. ANS: c. ANS: a. ANS: c CHAPTER 9 1. Which one of the following is the acid in vinegar? a. acetic acid b. citric acid c. muriatic acid d. ascorbic acid 2. Which is a basic or alkaline substance? a. gastric fluid b. black coffee

More information

Student Exploration: Titration

Student Exploration: Titration Name: Date: Student Exploration: Titration Vocabulary: acid, analyte, base, dissociate, equivalence point, indicator, litmus paper, molarity, neutralize, ph, strong acid, strong base, titrant, titration,

More information

6) Which compound is manufactured in larger quantities in the U.S. than any other industrial chemical?

6) Which compound is manufactured in larger quantities in the U.S. than any other industrial chemical? MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which statement concerning Arrhenius acid-base theory is not correct? A) Acid-base reactions must

More information

Strong acids and weak acids. Weak acid dissociation. HCl (aq) H + (aq) + Cl (aq)

Strong acids and weak acids. Weak acid dissociation. HCl (aq) H + (aq) + Cl (aq) Strong acids and weak acids Strong acids dissociate completely (~100%) in solution strong acids readily give up protons Example: Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is a strong acid HCl (aq) H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Virtually

More information

Chapter 7 Acids and Bases

Chapter 7 Acids and Bases Chapter 7 Acids and Bases 7.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases 7.2 Acid Strength 7.3 The ph Scale 7.4 Calculating the ph of Strong Acid Solutions Midterm Exam 2 7.5 Calculating the ph of Weak Acid Solutions

More information

CHEM 12 Acids and Bases 3/22/2016

CHEM 12 Acids and Bases 3/22/2016 Acids and Bases Name: Expected background knowledge from acids and bases introductory reading: Definitions (Arrhenius, BL) of an acid and base Definitions of conjugate acid and base pairs Properties of

More information

Aqueous Equilibria: Chemistry of the Water World. Chapter Outline

Aqueous Equilibria: Chemistry of the Water World. Chapter Outline Aqueous Equilibria: Chemistry of the Water World Chapter Outline 15.1 Acids and Bases: The BrØnsted Lowry Model 15.2 Acid Strength and Molecular Structure 15.3 ph and the Autoionization of Water 15.4 Calculations

More information

If we write these equations in ionic form, in each case the net ionic equation is the same; H 3 O + (aq) + OH - (aq) H 2H 2 O(l)

If we write these equations in ionic form, in each case the net ionic equation is the same; H 3 O + (aq) + OH - (aq) H 2H 2 O(l) CHEM 1105 ACIDS AND BASES 1. Early Definitions Taste: Effect on Indicators: Neutralization: acids - sour; bases - bitter acids turn blue litmus red; bases turn red litmus blue phenolphthalein is colourless

More information

Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases. CHAPTER 10 Acids, Bases and Salts. Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases

Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases. CHAPTER 10 Acids, Bases and Salts. Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases CAPTER Acids, Bases and Salts Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases Strong and Weak Acids Acids are substances that generate in aqueous solutions. Strong acids ionize 0% in water. That is,

More information

Chapter 10. Acids, Bases, and Salts

Chapter 10. Acids, Bases, and Salts 1 Chapter 10 Acids, Bases, and Salts 2 Ch 10.1 Arrhenius Acid-Base Theory (also in Chapter Medley) Arrhenius Acids produce Arrhenius Bases produce H + in water OH - in water HCl hydrochloric acid KOH HNO

More information

Acids and Bases. PreAP Chemistry Chap. 14

Acids and Bases. PreAP Chemistry Chap. 14 Acids and Bases PreAP Chemistry Chap. 14 Introduction to Acids and Bases Acids and bases are both aqueous solutions. A substance (solid or liquid) may be identified as an acid or base BUT, does not have

More information

Chemistry 52. Reacts with active metals to produce hydrogen gas. Have a slippery, soapy feeling. React with carbonates to produce CO 2

Chemistry 52. Reacts with active metals to produce hydrogen gas. Have a slippery, soapy feeling. React with carbonates to produce CO 2 ACID AND BASE STRENGTH Experiment #2 PURPOSE: 1. To distinguish between acids, bases and neutral substances, by observing their effect on some common indicators. 2. To distinguish between strong and weak

More information

Unit 7: Acids & Bases

Unit 7: Acids & Bases Definitions of Acids & Bases Unit 7: Acids & Bases Chapter 16 Arrhenius Acid: Substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions. Base: Substance that, when dissolved

More information

The Major Classes of Chemical Reactions

The Major Classes of Chemical Reactions The Major Classes of Chemical Reactions 4.1 The Role of Water as a Solvent Water participates actively in the dissolution process The dissolution process Hydration (solvation) of the solute particles in

More information

Aqueous Reactions & Sol n Stoichiometry

Aqueous Reactions & Sol n Stoichiometry Aqueous Reactions & Sol n Stoichiometry Chapter 5 Properties of Aqueous Solutions Electrolytic Properties ionic - conduct electricity (electrolytes) non-ionic - do not conduct electricity (non-electrolytes)

More information

Soluble salts in solution!

Soluble salts in solution! 5 Chemical Reactions 5.1 Exchange Reactions: Precipitation and Net Ionic Equations (p. 165) An is a compound whose aqueous solution conducts electricity. electrolytes are solutes that exist in solution

More information

SOLUTIONS. Definitions. Other types of solutions. Types of solutions: solid-liquid. Gas-gas Example: Air

SOLUTIONS. Definitions. Other types of solutions. Types of solutions: solid-liquid. Gas-gas Example: Air SOLUTIONS Definitions A solution is a system in which one or more substances are homogeneously mixed or dissolved in another substance homogeneous mixture -- uniform appearance -- similar properties throughout

More information

Table 1. give a slippery feel. produce a piercing pain in a wound. are colorless when placed in phenolphthalein (an indicator).

Table 1. give a slippery feel. produce a piercing pain in a wound. are colorless when placed in phenolphthalein (an indicator). Acid/Base Basics How does one define acids and bases? In chemistry, acids and bases have been defined differently by two sets of theories. One is the Arrhenius definition, which revolves around the idea

More information

EXPERIMENT 11 Acids, Bases, and ph

EXPERIMENT 11 Acids, Bases, and ph EXPERIMENT 11 Acids, Bases, and ph INTRODUCTION The concept of acidity and alkalinity dates from ancient times. The word acid is derived from the Latin word acidus, meaning sour. A common acid, acetic

More information

Name Date Class STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY. Acids and Bases: An Introduction In your textbook, read about the properties of acids and bases.

Name Date Class STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY. Acids and Bases: An Introduction In your textbook, read about the properties of acids and bases. Acids and Bases Section 19.1 Acids and Bases: An Introduction In your textbook, read about the properties of acids and bases. For each description below, write acid if it tells about a property of an acid

More information

ACIDS, BASES, AND SALTS

ACIDS, BASES, AND SALTS Name Date Class 19 ACIDS, BASES, AND SALTS SECTION 19.1 ACID BASE THEORIES (pages 587 593) This section compares and contrasts acids and bases as defined by the theories of Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, and

More information

Chapter 4. Aqueous Solutions

Chapter 4. Aqueous Solutions Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Aqueous Solutions Solvent: the dissolving medium Solute: the substance dissolved Solution: the homogeneous mixture of the two Saltwater: Solvent = water Solute

More information

Chem12 Buffer/Titration : Probs - 250

Chem12 Buffer/Titration : Probs - 250 Chem12 Buffer/Titration : Probs - 250 1) Which equation represents an acid-base titration? a) Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) + H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) -> H 2 O(l) + Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) b) CH 3 COOH(l) + H 2 O(l)

More information

Titrations. Acid-Base Indicators and Titration Curves. Shapes of Titration Curves. A titration curve is a graphical history of a titration

Titrations. Acid-Base Indicators and Titration Curves. Shapes of Titration Curves. A titration curve is a graphical history of a titration Acid-Base Indicators and Titration Curves Titrations In a titration a solution of accurately known concentration is added gradually added to another solution of unknown concentration until the chemical

More information

Acids:...COOH or H... exception being water. Hydrogen at the start of compound represent inorganic acid

Acids:...COOH or H... exception being water. Hydrogen at the start of compound represent inorganic acid Acid/Base Reactions Can you identify an acid or base by name? By formula? How do you know you have an acid or a base? Acids:...COOH or H... exception being water carboxyl group = organic acid Hydrogen

More information

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria. Acids and Bases. What happens when an acid dissolves in water? Acid and base strength. Conjugate acids and bases

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria. Acids and Bases. What happens when an acid dissolves in water? Acid and base strength. Conjugate acids and bases Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Learning goals and key skills: Understand the nature of the hydrated proton, represented as either H + (aq) or H 3 O + (aq) Define and identify Arrhenuis acids and bases.

More information

Acids, Bases, and ph

Acids, Bases, and ph Acids, Bases, and ph by Dr. Lara Baxley Cuesta College, San Luis Obispo, CA Outline I. Acids II. Acids in Water III. Strong vs. Weak Acids IV. Bases V. The ph Concept VI. ph of Strong Acid and Strong Base

More information

Chapter 4 - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry AP Chemistry

Chapter 4 - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry AP Chemistry Chapter 4 - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry AP Chemistry Water, the Common Solvent Water behaves as a great solvent for many substances due to its unique molecular structure. Solvent

More information

Acids and Bases: Definitions. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases CHEMISTRY THE CENTRAL SCIENCE

Acids and Bases: Definitions. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases. Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases CHEMISTRY THE CENTRAL SCIENCE CHEMISTRY THE CENTRAL SCIENCE Professor Angelo R. Rossi Department of Chemistry Spring Semester Acids and Bases: Definitions Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases Acids are substances which increase

More information

Chapter 16. Properties of Bases 5/21/2013. also known as alkalis taste bitter solutions feel slippery. change color of vegetable dyes

Chapter 16. Properties of Bases 5/21/2013. also known as alkalis taste bitter solutions feel slippery. change color of vegetable dyes Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 16 John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College St. Peters, MO 2006, Prentice Hall, Inc.

More information

Name Class Date. In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question.

Name Class Date. In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. Assessment Chapter Test A Chapter: Acids and Bases In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. 1. Which of the properties

More information

Monday, April 16 th : A Day Tuesday, April 17 th : B Day Agenda

Monday, April 16 th : A Day Tuesday, April 17 th : B Day Agenda Monday, April 16 th : A Day Tuesday, April 17 th : B Day Agenda ACT Practice Passages 5 & 6 Hand back/go over Ch. 14 Tests Begin chapter 15: Acids & Bases 15.1: What Are Acids & Bases? Strong/weak acid,

More information

15.1 Acids - Bases in Water

15.1 Acids - Bases in Water 15.1 more equilibrium Dr. Fred Omega Garces Chemistry 201 Miramar College 1 Acids-Bases Characteristics Acids (Properties) Taste Sour Dehydrate Substances Neutralizes bases Dissolves metals Examples: Juices:

More information

Law of Conservation of Matter

Law of Conservation of Matter Chapter 3 Molecules, Moles, and Chemical Equations Law of Conservation of Matter Matter is neither created nor destroyed. In chemistry the number of atoms going into a chemical reaction must be the same

More information

A ph Study of Acids and Salt Solutions

A ph Study of Acids and Salt Solutions Cautions Acetic acid and hydrochloric acid are toxic, irritants and corrosive. Ionic salts may be irritants and toxic. Avoid skin contact from all chemicals and rinse thoroughly with running water if contact

More information