H 2 O + HNO 3 H 3 O + + NO 3

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1 Properties Unit 12 Acids & Bases electrolytes sour taste turn litmus red react with metals to form 2 gas vinegar, soda, citrus fruits electrolytes bitter taste turn litmus blue slippery feel ammonia, lye, antacid, baking soda Arrhenius Acids In aqueous solution Acids form hydronium ions ( 3 + ) Cl Cl Cl acid Cl Arrhenius Bases In aqueous solution Bases form hydroxide ions ( ) N N 4+ + N base N + BrønstedLowry Acids & Bases Acids are proton ( + ) donors. Bases are proton ( + ) acceptors. Identify the Following Acid/Base Pairs: 2 + N N 3 B A CA CB Cl + 2 Cl acid base conjugate base conjugate acid 1

2 Identify the Following Acid/Base Pairs: N N 4+ + B A CA CB The Dual Nature of Water Amphoteric can be an acid or a base. F Practice Give the conjugate base for each of the following: 3 P F 2 P 4 2 Polyprotic an acid with more than one + Br Practice Give the conjugate acid for each of the following: S 4 C 2 3 Br 2 S 4 C 3 Lewis Acids & Bases Acids are electron pair acceptors. Bases are electron pair donors. 1. Bronsted/Lowry Acid & Bases Worksheet 2. Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs Worksheet Lewis base Lewis acid 2

3 ow Do we Define a Strong Acid/Base vs. a Weak Acid/Base? Strong Acids & Bases We ll use the BronstedLowry Theory: Strong electrolytes depends on how much of it breaks into ions in water (% ionization) 100% ionization in strongest acids & bases + Strong Acids & Bases + Using the BronstedLowry Theory: ydrochloric acid: Cl + (aq) + Cl (aq) A Proton This reaction takes place in water, so it can also be written as: Cl + 2 (l) Cl (aq) A ydronium Ion Strong Acids & Bases Undergo Total Dissociation Weak Acids & Bases do not ionize completely Are weak electrolytes Acetic acid: C 3 C C 3 C The acid only partially dissociates into hydronium and acetate ions. Weak Acids & Bases do not ionize completely Are weak electrolytes Acids: F C 3 C 3 P 4 2 C 3 CN + Bases: N 3 A Summary of Acids Strong acid: An acid that completely ionizes in a solution. E.g. Cl, Br, I, N 3 (Nitric Acid), sulfuric acid. N 3(L) + 2 (l) 3 + (aq) + N 3 (aq) Weak acid: An acid that releases few hydrogen ions in aqueous solution e.g. acetic acid, hydrofluoric acid (F), hypochlorous acid (Cl) Cl (aq) + 2 (l) 3 + (aq) + Cl (aq) 3

4 A Summary of Bases Strong base: A base that ionizes completely in a solvent e.g. Na, K, Ca() 2 Na (s) Na + (aq) (aq) + (aq) Weak base: A base releases few hydroxide ions in aqueous solution e.g. N 3, sodium carbonate (Na 2 C 3 ) N 3(aq) + 2 (l) N + 4 (aq) + (aq) Which are Strong? Which are Weak? Acids: Strong acids: Cl, 2 S 4, N 3 Weak acids: C 2 3 2, 2 C 3, 3 P 4, CN Bases: Strong bases: Na, K, Ba() 2 Weak base: N 3 Acid & Base Strength + It is important that you don't confuse the words strong and weak with the terms concentrated and dilute. The strength of an acid is related to the proportion of it which has reacted with water to produce ions. The concentration tells you about how much of the original acid is dissolved in the solution. It is perfectly possible to have a concentrated solution of a weak acid, or a dilute solution of a strong acid. What is Neutralization? Acids and Bases react with one another to form water and an ionic compound called a SALT. This is called the neutralization reaction What is Neutralization? Na + Cl 2 + NaCl K + N KN 3 The salt that is produced in a neutralization reaction consists of the anion and cation that were already present. Neutralization Reactions N 3 + K Cl + Mg() 2 2 S 4 + Na Really just double replacement. 4

5 Does Water Dissociate? The ability of acids to react with bases depends on the tendency of + combining with ions to form water. The tendency is great, however the reaction is slightly reversible some water reverses to and +. In pure water, we get a slight amount of 2 (l) + (aq) + (aq) The + and concentrations are very LW. Does Water Dissociate? The + and concentrations are very LW. [ + ] = [ ] = 1 x 10 7 M 2 (l) + (aq) + (aq) Kw = [ + ][ ] = 10 7 M x 10 7 M = The conc. [+ ] & [] are interdependent. If one increases the other decreases. Kw The Ion Product Constant Kw = [ + ] x [ ] = 1 x If [ + ] > 10 7 then [ ] < 10 7 If [ + ] < 10 7 then [ ] > 10 7 If we know one, we can determine the other. If [ + ] > [ ]: Acidic If [ + ] < [ ]: Basic If [ + ] = [ ] = 10 7 M: Neutral 1. [ + ] = 10 6 M 2. [ + ] = 10 9 M 3. [ ] = Acidic or Basic?? 10 M 4. [ ] = 10 3 M Measuring Acidity & Basicity Based on the ionization of water p Scale 2 (l) + (aq) + (aq) K w = [ + ][ ] = Like K eq, only for WATER A CNSTANT! p = log[ + ] pouvoir hydrogène hydrogen power 5

6 p & p Relationships p & p Relationships p = log[ + ] [ + ] = 10 p p = log[ ] [ ] = 10 p [ + ] x [ ] = Kw = 1 x p + p = pkw = 14 p & p Relationships [ + ] Using K w p Acidic Neutral Basic p Basic Find the hydroxide ion concentration of M Cl. [ + ][ ] = [ ][ ] = [ ] = Acidic or basic? M Acidic [ ] Calculating p What is the p of M N 3? p = log[ + ] p = log[0.050] p = 1.3 Acidic or basic? ACIDIC ow Can We Use p to Determine Concentration? What is the molarity of Br in a solution that has a p of 9.6? p + p = 14 p = 14 p = 4.4 [ + ] = [ + ] = M Br 6

7 ow Can We Use p to Determine Concentration? The concentration of Ca() 2 is 0.045M. Calculate: 1. [ ] 2. [ + ] or [ + 3 ] 3. p 4. p 5. Is the solution Acidic or Basic? 6. What color would it turn Litmus? 7. What color would it turn phenolphthalein (remember acid clear)? p & p Worksheets & p Practice Worksheet 7

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