Strong Acids (Know These) Announcements & Agenda (02/23/07) Strengths of Acids/Bases - Ionization. Last Time: Last Time: nsted-lowry Acids & Bases

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1 Announcements & Agenda (0//07) You should be reading Ch 0 this weekend! Quiz Today! Open Review pm on Wed. Low attendance this week Last Time: Bronsted nsted-lowry Acids & Bases acids donate a proton (H + ) bases accept a proton (H + ) Today Acid & base strength: Quantitative (8.-8.) 8.) the ph scale Acid & base reactions Last Time: Strengths of Acids/Bases - Ionization A strong acid/base completely ionizes (0) in aqueous solutions. HCl(g) ) + H O(l) ) H O + (aq)) + Cl (aq) COMPARE TO STRONG ELECTROLYTES Strong Acids (Know These) make up six (just a few) of all the acids. have weak conjugate bases (the product formed after the proton is transferred). A weak acid/base dissociates only slightly in water to form a few ions in aqueous solutions. H CO (aq)) + H O(l) ) H O + (aq)) + HCO (aq) COMPARE TO WEAK ELECTROLYTES

2 Strong Bases are formed from metals of Groups A () and A (). include LiOH,, NaOH, KOH, and Ca(OH). dissociate completely in water. KOH(s) K + (aq)) + OH (aq) Ionization of Water: A Basis for Understanding ph (H+ concentrations) In water occasionally, H + is transferred from H O molecule to another. one water acts an acid, the another acts as a base. H O + H O H O + + OH :O: H + H:O: H:O:H + + :O:H H H H water water hydronium hydroxide ion (+) ion (-)( 6 Pure Water is Neutral (NOT ACIDIC OR BASIC) the ionization of water molecules produces small, but equal quantities of H O + and OH ions. molar concentrations are indicated in brackets as [H O + ] and [OH ]. [H O + ] =.0 x 0 7 M [OH ] =.0 x 0 7 M 7 Adding an acid to pure water: Acidic Solutions increases the [H O + ]. causes the [H O + ] to exceed.0 x 0-7 M. decreases the [OH ]. 8

3 Basic Solutions Ion Product of Water, K w Adding a base to pure water: increases the [OH ]. causes the [OH ] to exceed.0 x 0 7 M. decreases the [H O + ]. Copyright 00 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 9 The ion product constant, K w, for water is the product of the concentrations of the hydronium and hydroxide ions. K w = [ H O + ] [ OH ] can be obtained from the concentrations in pure water. K w = [ H O + ] [ OH ] K w = [.0 x 0 7 M] x [.0 x 0 7 M] =.0 x 0 0 [H O + ] and [OH ] in Solutions IMPORTANT: K w is always.0 x 0. Calculating [H O + ] What is the [H O + ] of a solution if [OH ] is.0 x 0-8 M? STEP : Write the K w for water. K w = [H O + ][OH ] =.0 x 0 STEP : Rearrange the K w expression. [H O + ] =.0 x 0 - [OH ] STEP : Substitute [OH ]. [H O + ] =.0 x 0 - =.0 x 0-7 M.0 x 0-8

4 If lemon juice has [H O + ] of x 0 M, what is the [OH ] of the solution? Solution ) x 0 M ) x 0 M ) x 0 M ) x 0 M Rearrange the K w to solve for [OH - ] K w = [H O + ][OH ] =.0 x 0 [OH ] =.0 x 0 - = x 0 x 0 - M ph Scale ph of Everyday Substances The ph of a solution is used to indicate the acidity of a solution. has values that usually range from 0 to. is acidic when the values are less than 7. is neutral with a ph of 7. is basic when the values are > 7. NOTE: ph is a logarithmic scale!!! 6

5 Testing the ph of Solutions Calculating ph The ph of solutions can be determined using a) ph meter b) ph paper c) indicators that have specific colors at different ph values. ph is the negative log of the hydronium ion concentration. ph = - log [H O + ] Example: For a solution with [H O + ] = x 0 ph = log [[ x 0 ] ph = - [-.0] ph =.0 Note: The number of decimal places in the ph equals 7 the significant figures in the coefficient of [H O + ]..0 SF in x 0-8 Learning Check A. The [H O + ] of tomato juice is x 0 M. What is the ph of the solution? ).0 ).7 ) 0. B. The [OH ] of a solution is.0 x 0 M. What is the ph of the solution? If an area received inch of rain with a ph of, how much more neutral rain would be needed to have a final ph of 6?.. Approximately inches. Approximately 9 inches. Approximately 0 inches. Approximately 00 inches ).00 ).00 )

6 [H O + ], [OH - ], and ph Values Calculating [H O + ] from ph The [H O + ] can be expressed by using the ph as the negative power of 0. [H O + ] = x 0 -ph For ph =.0, the [H O + ] = x 0 - On a calculator. Enter the ph value.0. Change sign -.0. Use the inverse log key (or 0 x ) to obtain the [H 0 + ]. = x 0 - M Neutralization Rxns of Acids & Bases In a neutralization reaction: a base such as NaOH reacts with an acid such as HCl. HCl + H O H O + + Cl NaOH Na + + OH Bases Used in Some Antacids Antacids are used to neutralize stomach acid (HCl). the H O + from the acid and the OH from the base form water. H O + + OH H O 6

7 In the equation for neutralization, an acid and a base produce a salt and water. acid HCl Neutralization Equations base + NaOH salt HCl + Ca(OH) CaCl water NaCl + H O + H O Balance these like any other reaction! Solving Problems What is the molarity of an HCl solution if 8. ml of a 0. M NaOH are required to neutralize 0.0 ml HCl? HCl(aq aq) ) + NaOH(aq aq) Method: Get into moles with known : Given: 8. ml of 0. M NaOH Do a moles-to to-moles conversion Get out of moles with unknown : NaCl(aq aq) ) + H O(l) 6 Calculate the ml of.00 M H SO required to neutralize 0.0 ml of.00 M KOH. 8. ml NaOH x L NaOH 000 ml NaOH M HCl x 0. mole NaOH L NaOH x mole HCl = mole HCl mole NaOH = mole HCl = 0.6 M HCl L HCl H SO (aq)) + KOH(aq aq) ) K SO (aq)) + H O(l) ). ml ) 0.0 ml ) 00. ml 7 8 7

8 Solution ). ml L KOH x.00 mole KOH x mole H SO L KOH mole KOH x Two More Acid/Base Reactions. Acids react with metals such as K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, and Sn. to produce hydrogen gas and the salt of the metal. L H SO x 000 ml =. ml.00 mole H SO L H SO Molecular equations: K(s) ) + HCl(aq aq) KCl(aq aq) ) + H (g) Zn(s) ) + HCl(aq aq) ZnCl (aq)) + H (g) 9 0 Acids react Acids and Carbonates with carbonates & hydrogen carbonates to produce carbon dioxide gas, a salt, & water. HCl(aq aq) ) + CaCO (s) CO (g)) + CaCl (aq)) + H O(l) HCl(aq aq) ) + NaHCO (s) CO (g)) + NaCl (aq( aq) ) + H O(l) 8

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