Chem 1B Dr. White 1. Chapter 14 Acids and Bases Nature of Acids and Bases. A. Acids. B. Bases

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1 Chem 1B Dr. White 1 Chapter 14 Acids and Bases 14.1 Nature of Acids and Bases A. Acids B. Bases

2 Chem 1B Dr. White 2 C. Arrhenius Definition 1. acid 2. base 3. Acid-base reaction involving Arrhenius acids and bases: 4. Some substances are bases that don t have an OH- in their formulas, so a new definition was needed. B. BrØnsted-Lowry Definition 1. acid - 2. base 3. Acid-Base reaction involving BrØnsted-Lowry acids and bases: HCO 3 - (aq) + HF (aq)

3 Chem 1B Dr. White 3 4. Conjugate acid-base pair 5. Example: Find the conjugate acid/base pairs in the following: a. HNO 2 (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + NO 2 - (aq) b. NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) c. H 2 PO 4 - (aq) + CO 3 2- (aq) HCO 3 - (aq)+ HPO 4 2- (aq) 14.2 Acid Strength A. Acid Dissociation Constant (K a ) 1. Strong acids

4 Chem 1B Dr. White 4 2. Weak acids

5 Chem 1B Dr. White 5 3. The smaller the K a, Table of Monoprotic Acids - 4. Example: Using the figure above, rank the acids HX, HY, and HZ in order from the strongest to the weakest acid. 14.9

6 Chem 1B Dr. White 6 4.9/10 Predicting Acid/Base strengths A. Periodic Trends for Binary Acids (H-X) 1. Factors determining the relative acid strength B. Periodic Trends for Oxyacids (H-O-Y)

7 Chem 1B Dr. White 7 C. Number of Oxygens in an oxoacid (HO) m YO n D. Ex: In each of the following pairs of acids, which is the stronger acid? 1. H2Te or H2Se 2.. H2TeO3 or H2SeO3 3. H2TeO3 or H2TeO2

8 Chem 1B Dr. White Base Strength A. Base Dissociation Constant (K b ) 1. Strong bases 2. Weak bases 3. The smaller the K b,

9 Chem 1B Dr. White 9 4. Example: Identify the following as strong acid, base, or weak acid, base? CH3NH2 HOCH2CH2NH2 KOH H2SeO4 HI HClO - B. Conjugate acid-base pairs and acid-base strength 1. Strong acids have 2. Strong bases have

10 Chem 1B Dr. White 10 C. Water 1. Water is amphoteric 2. Autoionization of water 3. Ion Product constant for water (K w ): 4. From experiments of pure water at 25 C, [OH - ] = [H 3 O + ] = 5. Both ions are 6. What happens when either OH - or H 3 O + are added to the system? 7. Three possible situations: a. [H 3 O + ] = [OH - ] b. [H 3 O + ] > [OH - ] c. [H 3 O + ] < [OH - ]

11 Chem 1B Dr. White Ex: Calculate [H 3 O + ] in a solution at 25 C that has [OH - ] = 6.7 x Is the solution acidic or basic? 9. Ex: What is the [H 3 O + ] and [OH - ] of 0.33M HNO 3 at 25 C? Is the solution acidic or basic? 10. Ex: At 5 C, the value of K w is 1x10-15 at 0 C. Calculate the concentrations of ions at 0 C. Is the ionization of water endothermic or exothermic? 11. K w = K a x K b for a conjugate acid-base pair

12 Chem 1B Dr. White Ex: At 25 C, the K a for acetic acid is 1.8 x 10-5, what is the K b for the acetic acid s conjugate base? 14.3 The ph Scale A. p Scale used to represent small values 1. In aqueous solutions, [H 3 O + ] = 2. ph = sig figs for logarithms 3. poh = 4. ph changes by 1 for ever power of 10 change in [H + ] 5. Ex: Calculate the ph and poh for the following solutions at 25 C. a. 1.2 x 10-3 M H + b. 1.5 x 10-6 M OH -

13 Chem 1B Dr. White Another useful equation: 7. Ex: The ph of a sample of stomach acid is 2.20 at 25 C. Calculate the poh, [H + ], and [OH - ] for the sample.

14 Chem 1B Dr. White /14.6 Calculating the ph of Strong Acid and Base Solutions A. Since strong acids and bases completely dissociate, the ph can easily be found. 1. Ex: What is the [H 3 O + ], [OH - ], ph, and poh of 0.25M HCl at 25 C? 2. Ex: What is the [H 3 O + ], [OH - ], ph, and poh of 0.50 M NaOH at 25 C?

15 Chem 1B Dr. White Calculating the ph of Weak Acid/Weak Base Solutions A. Since weak acids DO NOT completely dissociate, 1. Ex: A solution of nicotinic acid, HC 6 H 4 NO 2 is 0.012M and has a ph of 3.39 at 25 C. What is the K a? What percent has dissociated? Step 1: Write equation. Step 2: Make an ICE table. Assumptions to make math easier: a. [H 3 O + ] from auto ionization of water b. Weak acid has a small K a Step 3: Solve for K a

16 Chem 1B Dr. White 16 Step 4: If any assumptions were made, check that these assumptions are valid. 2. Ex: A 0.10 M solution of nicotinic acid is prepared at 25 C. What are the equilibrium concentrations of each substance? What is the percent dissociation? K a = 1.4 x 10-5

17 Chem 1B Dr. White Ex: What is the ph (at 25 C) of a solution made by dissolving a g tablet of aspirin (HC 9 H 7 O 4 ) in water? The acid is monprotic and the K a = 3.3 x 10-4 at 25 C.

18 Chem 1B Dr. White 18 B. Polyprotic Acids can lose 2 or more protons 1. Examples a. Sulfuric Acid (strong acid) b. Carbonic Acid (weak acid) 2. In general 3. Ex: Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is H 2 C 6 H 6 O 6. What is the ph of a 0.10M solution? K a1 = 7.9 x 10-5 and K a2 = 1.6 x

19 Chem 1B Dr. White 19 C. Weak Bases 1. Ex: What is the ph of a M solution of morphine (C 17 H 19 NO 3 ) at 25 C? K b = 1.6 x 10-6 at 25 C.

20 Chem 1B Dr. White Acid-Base Properties of Salts A. Salt (MX) B. Cations from salts (M x+ ) C. Anions from salts (X - ) D. Examples 1. Predict whether the following aqueous salt solution will be acidic, basic or neutral a. NaCl b. NaC 2 H 3 O 2 c. NH 4 Cl d. NH 4 CN (K a for NH 4 is 5.5 x and K b for CN - is 1.6 x 10-5 ).

21 Chem 1B Dr. White Calculate the ph of NH 4 Cl. The K a for NH 4 is 5.5 x Lewis Acids and Bases A. Lewis acid B. Lewis Base C. Examples 1. Na 2 O (aq) + SO 3 (g) Na 2 SO 4 2. BF 3 (aq) + NH 3 (aq) BF 3 NH 3 3. HCl + NH 3 NH 4 +

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