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1 Name: Period: Date: I. Definitions: 1. Arrhenius (1887)- produce in aqueous solutions produce in aqueous solutions 2. Bronsted-Lowry (1923) 3. Lewis (1923), so only allows for aqueous solutions only protic acids (acids that donate a proton(s)) are allowed; required to produce hydrogen ions only hydroxide bases are allowed are are aqueous solutions are permissible bases besides hydroxides are permissible only protic acids allowed are are least restrictive of acid-base definitions Johannes Brønsted Thomas Lowry ( ) ( ) Denmark England Ex: Lewis Base Lewis Acid Ex: Lewis Acid Lewis Base 1

2 II. Properties of Acids: 1. taste 2. changes litmus (a blue vegetable dye) from 3. their aqueous (water) solutions conduct electric current- 4. react with to form 5. evolve upon reaction with an active metal (such as alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, Zn, Al) III. Properties of Bases: 1. taste 2. feel 3. Turns litmus 4. their aqueous (water) solutions conduct electric current electrolytes 5. react with to form IV. Examples of Common Acids & Bases: Citric acid (notably citrus fruits) Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) Vinegar (5% acetic acid) Carbonic acid (for carbonation of soft drinks) Lactic acid (in buttermilk) Detergents Soap Lye (NaOH) Household ammonia (aqueous) V. What makes a strong acid or strong base?: 1) STRONG electrolytes are dissociated into in = a solution that conducts electricity ( Ex: acids, bases, salts) 2) The acid or base molecule does not exist in aqueous solution, only! 3) WEAK electrolytes are dissociated. A. Strong Acids: dissociate in water, forming and an anion 100% dissociation isn't true as solutions become more concentrated. If the acid is 100% dissociated in solutions of 1.0 M or less, it is called strong. 2

3 B. Weak Acids: 6 strong acids: HCl - hydrochloric acid HNO 3 - nitric acid H 2 SO 4 - sulfuric acid HBr - hydrobromic acid HI - hydroiodic acid HClO 4 - perchloric acid Common acids and their formulas: (YOU NEED TO KNOW THESE!) Hydrochloric Acid = HCl Nitric Acid = HNO 3 Sulfuric Acid = H 2 SO 4 Carbonic Acid = H 2 CO 3 Phosphoric Acid = H 3 PO 4 Acetic Acid = CH 3 COOH Only dissociates in water to give H+ and the anion. Ex: hydrofluoric acid, HF, and acetic acid C. Strong Bases: Dissociate into the cation and (hydroxide ion). The hydroxides of the and metals usually are considered to be strong bases. D. Weak Bases: E. ph: Ex: ammonia, NH 3 Most weak bases are of weak acids. Weak bases furnish OH- ions by dissociation. Instead, they react with to generate OH- ions. = a measurement of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. Because of its mathematical formulation, values are associated with solutions with of hydrogen ions And values occur for solutions with of hydrogen ions. ph scale: ranges from to measure how acidic or basic a substance is a ph of indicates a substance 0 ACID 7 N E U T R A L BASE 14 3

4 VI. Indicators: 1) What is an acid-base indicator? it is a or a it does not change color from pure acid to pure alkaline at specific hydrogen ion concentrations color change occurs over a of hydrogen ion concentrations 2) Examples of indicators: Bromthymol blue phenol red phenolphthalein litmus ph paper 3) Why measure ph? Everyday solutions we use - everything from, soil conditions for plants, medical diagnosis, soaps and shampoos, etc. Sometimes we can use indicators, other times we might need a ph meter 4) How to measure ph with wide-range paper the ph indicator paper strip with a few drops of solution Compare the color to the chart on the vial then read the ph value. 5) Limitations to indicators: Usually given for a certain temperature (25 o C), thus may change at different temperatures Difficult to see if the solution already has a color- like paint The ability of the human to distinguish colors is limited 6) ph Meter A may give more definitive results o some are large, others portable o works by measuring the voltage between two electrodes; typically accurate to within 0.01 ph unit of the true ph o Instruments need to be calibrated VII. Titration: 1) = a procedure used in chemistry in order to determine the molarity of an acid or a base. A chemical reaction is set up between a known volume of a solution of and a known volume of a solution with a known concentration. 2) The relative acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution can be determined using the relative acid (base) equivalents. An ACID equivalent is equal to one mole of H+ or H 3 O+ ions. A BASE equivalent is equal to one mole of OH- ions. o Note: some acids and bases are polyprotic, meaning each mole of the acid or base is capable of releasing more than one acid or base equivalent. 4

5 3) When the solution of known concentration and the solution of unknown concentration are reacted to the point where the number of acid equivalents equals the number of base equivalents (or vice versa), the is reached. = when the moles of hydrogen ions is equal to the moles of hydroxide ions (= neutralized!) o The equivalence point of a strong acid & a strong base will occur at. o For weak acids and bases, the equivalence point need not occur at ph o There will be several equivalence points for polyprotic acids and bases. 4) Use an Indicator Often we use phenolphthalein- because it is colorless in neutral and acid; turns pink in base Relies on observing a in the solution. The point at which the indicator changes color is called the. 7) Titration steps: 1) A measured volume of acid of unknown concentration is added to a flask 2) Several drops of indicator added 3) A base of known concentration is slowly added using a buret, until the indicator changes color; measure the volume VIII. Salts: The solution of known concentration is called the added by using a buret Continue adding until the indicator changes color called the of the titration 8) = a crystalline compound composed of the negative ion of an acid and the positive ion of a base. o = when acids and bases react with one another to produce a salt and water reaction of acid + base salt + water Ex: HCl + NaHCO 3 NaCl + H 2 O + CO 2 This is how you will neutralize an acid spill in upcoming labs! Note: not all salts are neutral can be acidic salts and basic salts o = reaction of a salt with water to form an acidic or basic solution reverse of neutralization 5

6 IX. Acid-Base Behaviors: = any oxide that will produce an acid when dissolved in water Ex: - SO 2 from fuel mixes with rain SO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) H 2 SO 3 (aq) Acidic anhydride + water Acid = any oxide that will produce a base when dissolved in water Ex: Ex: Na 2 O (s) + H 2 O (l) 2NaOH (aq) Basic anhydride + water Base IV. ACID RAIN: 1) = a broad term referring to a mixture of wet and dry deposition (deposited material) from the atmosphere containing higher than normal amounts of nitric and sulfuric acids. Ex: SO 2 from fuel mixes with rain SO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) H 2 SO 3 (aq) In the United States, roughly 2/3 of all SO 2 and 1/4 of all NOx come from electric power generation that relies on burning fossil fuels, like coal. Occurs when these gases react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen, and other chemicals to form various acidic compounds. The result is a mild solution of and. A. Natural sources of nitrogen and sulfur oxides Volcanoes erupting Decaying vegetation Lightning bolts B. Man-made sources of nitrogen and sulfur oxides Power-generating plants (burning coal) Ore smelting (uses heat and a chemical reducing agent to decompose the ore, driving off gasses and leaving just the metal behind.) Petroleum refining Industrial furnaces 6

7 C. Effects: 1) Causes acidification of and 2) Contributes to the damage of at high elevations 3) Causes the of building materials and paints, including irreplaceable buildings, statues, and sculptures that are part of our nation's cultural heritage D. Ways to reduce acid rain: 1) Use coal containing, washing the coal, and using devices called scrubbers to chemically remove the SO 2 from the gases leaving the smokestack 2) Use sources: nuclear power, hydropower, wind energy, geothermal energy, and solar energy (a naturally basic compound) can be added to acidic lakes to cancel out the acidity 7

8 Acids, Bases, Salts Worksheet 1) There are 3 common theories of acids and bases. Fill in the table below. THEORY ACID BASE Proton acceptor Accept an electron pair Release OH - in water 2) List 2 properties of an acid AND 2 properties of a base. 3) What is it that makes an acid considered to be strong? 4) What is it that makes a base considered to be strong? 5) What is it that makes a base considered to be weak? 6) What type of reaction is the following: acid + base salt + water 7) What makes up an acid-base indicator? 8) Define acidic anhydride and give an example. 9) Define basic anhydride and give an example. 8

9 10) What causes acid rain? 11) What is one way to reduce acid rain? 12) Draw the ph scale (include the values of acids, bases, neutral substances) 13) What is titration? 14) How do you know the end point/equivalence point is reached in a titration experiment? 15) What happens during a splint test, if oxygen gas is produced? 16) What happens during a splint test, if hydrogen gas is produced? 17) What happens during a splint test, if carbon dioxide gas is produced? 18) Suppose you were testing vinegar with red and blue litmus paper. What would happen to each type of litmus paper? 19) Suppose you were testing lye with red and blue litmus paper. What would happen to each type of litmus paper? 20) What is the formula for the following acids?: a. Hydrochloric acid = b. Nitric acid = c. Phosphoric acid = d. Acetic acid = e. Sulfuric acid = f. Carbonic acid = 9

10 Unit Learning Map (6 days): Acids & Bases Mrs. Hostetter Class: Academic Chemistry A - Grade 11: PA Standard 3.4.A Explain the concepts about the structure and properties of matter. Unit Essential Question(s): Why are acids and bases so important in everyday life? Optional Instructional Tools: Guided Notes Lab Materials: Titration lab, indicators lab, Acids & metals lab Concept Concept Concept Concept Acids, Bases, Salts Tests (experiments) Lesson Essential Questions: Lesson Essential Questions: Lesson Essential Questions: Lesson Essential Questions: What is the difference between an acid, base, or salt? How can you determine if a substance is an acid or base? Vocabulary: Arrhenius Bronsted-Lowry Lewis Litmus Test Strong acids Strong bases ph scale Vocabulary: Acids/Base indicator Titration Salt Neutralization Hydrolysis Acidic Anhydride Basic anhydride Acid rain Vocabulary: Vocabulary: 10

11 1) Arrhenius (1887) = -ACIDS produce H+ ions in aqueous solutions -BASES produce OH- ions in aqueous solutions 2) Bronsted-Lowry (1923) = -ACIDS are proton donors -BASES are proton acceptors 3) Lewis (1923) = -ACIDS are electron pair acceptors -BASES are electron pair donors Acids & Bases Vocabulary: 4) Litmus test = paper made of a vegetable dye used to test for acidic or basic substances ACIDS = litmus paper changes from blue to red and red litmus paper stays red BASES = litmus paper changes from red to blue and blue litmus paper stays blue 5) Splint test = a test that can be performed in order to determine the type of gas that is produced in a chemical reaction. Glowing splint goes out= CO 2 ; Glowing splint get brighter= O 2 ; Popping or barking sound is made = H 2 6) Electrolyte = a solution that conducts electricity ( Ex: acids, bases, salts) 7) Strong Acids = Completely dissociate in water, forming H+ and an anion; 100% dissociation isn't true as solutions become more concentrated. If the acid is 100% dissociated in solutions of 1.0 M or less, it is called strong 8) Strong Bases = Dissociate 100% into the cation and OH- (hydroxide ion); The hydroxides of the Group I and Group II metals usually are considered to be strong bases 9) ph scale = ranges from 0-14 to measure how acidic or basic a substance is; 0-6 are acids, 7 is neutral, 8-14 are bases 10) Acids/Base indicator = it is a weak acid or a weak base; it does not change color from pure acid to pure alkaline at specific hydrogen ion concentrations; color change occurs over a range of hydrogen ion concentrations 11) Titration = a procedure used in chemistry in order to determine the molarity of an acid or a base 12) Salt = a crystalline compound composed of the negative ion of an acid and the positive ion of a base 13) Neutralization reaction = when acids and bases react with one another to produce a salt and water 14) Hydrolysis = reaction of a salt with water to form an acidic or basic solution 15) Amphoteric = substance that can act as either an acid or a base 16) Acidic anhydride = any oxide that will produce an acid when dissolved in water; Ex: Acid Rain- SO 2 from fuel mixes with rain 17) Basic anhydride = any oxide that will produce a base when dissolved in water; Lime on farm fields 18) Acid rain = a broad term referring to a mixture of wet and dry deposition (deposited material) from the atmosphere containing higher than normal amounts of nitric and sulfuric acids 11

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