1 1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a weak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is: a) K = [H+ ][NO 2 ] [HNO 2 ] b) K = [H+ ][N][O] 2 [HNO 2 ] c) K = [H + ][NO 2 ] d) K = [H+ ] 2 [NO 2 ] [HNO 2 ] ANS: a) K = [H+ ][NO 2 ] [HNO 2 ] PAGE: Which of the following is a conjugate acid/base pair? a) HCl/OCl - b) H 2 SO 4 /SO 2-4 c) NH + 4 /NH 3 d) H 3 O + /OH - ANS: c) NH 4+ /NH 3 PAGE: The equilibrium constant for the reaction A + H + HA is called: a) K a b) K b c) 1 K a d) K w K b e) K w K a ANS: c) 1 K a PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
2 4. For the stepwise dissociation of aqueous H 3 PO 4, which of the following is not a conjugate acid base pair? a) HPO 2 4 and PO 3 4 b) H 3 PO 4 and H 2 PO 4 c) H 2 PO 4 and HPO 2 4 d) H 2 PO 4 and PO 3 4 e) H 3 O + and H 2 O ANS: d) H 2 PO 4 and PO4 3 PAGE: 14.1,7 5. What is the equilibrium constant for the following reaction? N 3 + H 3 O + HN 3 + H 2 O The K a value for HN 3 = a) b) c) d) e) ANS: d) PAGE: The hydrogen sulfate or bisulfate ion HSO 4 can act as either an acid or a base in water solution. In which of the following equations does HSO 4 act as an acid? a) HSO 4 + H 2 O H 2 SO 4 + OH b) HSO 4 + H 3 O + SO 3 + 2H 2 O c) HSO 4 + OH H 2 SO 4 + O 2 d) HSO 4 + H 2 O SO H 3 O + ANS: d) HSO 4 + H 2 O SO H 3 O + PAGE: 14.1,2 322 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
3 7. Using the following K a values, indicate the correct order of base strength. HNO 2 K a = HF K a = HCN K a = a) CN > NO 2 > F > H 2 O > Cl b) Cl > H 2 O > F > NO 2 > CN c) CN > F > NO 2 > Cl > H 2 O d) H 2 O > CN > NO 2 > F > Cl ANS: a) CN > NO 2 > F > H 2 O > Cl PAGE: At 0 C, the ion-product constant of water, K w, is The ph of pure water at 0 C is: a) 7.00 b) 6.88 c) 7.56 d) 7.46 ANS: d) 7.46 PAGE: 14.2,3 9. The equilibrium constants (K a ) for HCN and HF in H 2 O at 25 C are and , respectively. The relative order of base strengths is: a) F > H 2 O > CN b) H 2 O > F > CN c) CN > F > H 2 O d) F > CN > H 2 O ANS: c) CN > F > H 2 O PAGE: 14.2 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 323
4 10. Given the following acids and Ka values: HClO 4 HOAc HCN HF which shows the conjugate bases listed by increasing strength? a) CN, F, OAc, ClO 4 b) CN, OAc, F, ClO 4 c) CN, ClO 4, F, OAc d) ClO 4, OAc, CN, F e) ClO 4, F, OAc, CN ANS: e) ClO 4, F, OAc, CN PAGE: The conjugate base of a weak acid is a) a strong base b) a weak base c) a strong acid d) a weak acid ANS: b) a weak base PAGE: Which of the following is the equilibrium constant expression for the dissociation of the weak acid HOCl? a) K = [H+ ][OCl ] [HOCl] b) K = [H + ][OCl ] c) K = [HOCl] [H + ][OCl ] d) K = [H+ ][O 2 ][Cl ] [HOCl] ANS: a) K = [H+ ][OCl ] [HOCl] PAGE: 14.1, The following three equations represent equilibria that lie far to the right. HNO 3 (aq) + CN (aq) HCN(aq) + NO 3 (aq) HCN(aq) + OH (aq) H 2 O(l) + CN (aq) H 2 O(l) + CH 3 O (aq) CH 2 OH(aq) + OH (aq) 324 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
5 13. Identify the strongest acid. a) HCN b) HNO 3 c) H 2 O d) OH e) CH 3 OH ANS: b) HNO 3 PAGE: Identify the strongest base. a) CH 3 O b) CH 3 OH c) CN d) H 2 O e) NO 3 ANS: a) CH 3 O PAGE: Given that the K a for HOCl is 3.5 x 10-8, calculate the K value for the reaction of HOCl with OH -. a) 3.5 x 10 6 b) 3.5 x 10-8 c) 3.5 x d) 2.9 x 10-7 ANS: a) 3.5 x 10 6 PAGE: 14.2,6,8 16. Calculate the [H + ] in a solution that has a ph of a) 2.3 M b) 11.7 M c) M d) M ANS: d) M PAGE: Calculate the [H + ] in a solution that has a ph of a) 2.3 M b) 11.7 M c) M d) M ANS: c) M PAGE: 14.3 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 325
6 18. The ph of a solution at 25 C in which [OH ] = M is: a) 4.5 b) 10.5 c) 9.5 d) 6.3 ANS: c) 9.5 PAGE: Consider the reaction HNO 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + NO (aq). Which species is the conjugate base? a) HNO 2 (aq) b) H 2 O(l) c) H 3 O + (aq) d) NO (aq) e) Two of these ANS: e) Two of these PAGE: In which of the following reactions does the H 2 PO - 4 ion act as an acid? a) H 3 PO 4 + H 2 O H 3 O + + H 2 PO 4 b) H 2 PO 4 + H 2 O H 3 O + + HPO 2-4 c) H 2 PO 4 + OH H 3 PO 4 + O 2- d) The ion cannot act as an acid. e) Two of these ANS: b) H 2 PO 4 + H 2 O H 3 O + + HPO 4 2- PAGE: In deciding which of two acids is the stronger, one must know: a) the concentration of each acid solution b) the ph of each acid solution c) the equilibrium constant of each acid d) all of these e) both a and c must be known ANS: c) the equilibrium constant of each acid PAGE: Which of the following is not true for a solution at 25 C that has a hydroxide concentration of M? a) K w = b) The solution is acidic. c) The solution is basic. d) The [H] is M. e) The K w is independent of what the solution contains. ANS: c) The solution is basic. PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
7 23. Calculate the [H + ] in a solution that has a ph of 9.7. a) M b) M c) M d) M e) M ANS: a) M PAGE: Calculate the ph of M HNO 3 (aq). a) b) 2.50 c) 12.0 d) 1.20 e) 13.4 ANS: a) PAGE: Solid calcium hydroxide is dissolved in water until the ph of the solution is The hydroxide ion concentration [OH ] of the solution is: a) M b) 3.06 M c) M d) M ANS: c) M PAGE: As water is heated, its ph decreases. This means that a) the water is no longer neutral b) [H + ] > [OH - ] c) [OH - ] > [H + ] d) a and b are correct ANS: PAGE: Which of the following indicates the most basic solution? a) [H + ] = M b) poh = 6.7 c) [OH ] = M d) ph = 4.2 e) At least two of the solutions are equally basic. ANS: a) [H + ] = M PAGE: 14.3 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 327
8 28. Calculate the poh of a 5.0 M solution of HCl. a) b) 0.70 c) d) ANS: c) PAGE: Calculate the ph of a M strong acid solution. a) b) 1.30 c) d) ANS: b) 1.30 PAGE: For nitrous acid, HNO 2, K a = Calculate the ph of 0.25 M HNO 2. a) 2.00 b) 2.30 c) 2.70 d) 3.70 ANS: a) 2.00 PAGE: For weak acid, HX, K a = Calculate the ph of a 0.10 M solution of HX. a) 6.00 b) 3.50 c) 3.00 d) 2.50 ANS: b) 3.50 PAGE: Acetic acid (HC 2 H 3 O 2 ) is a weak acid (K a = ). Calculate the ph of a 17.6 M HC 2 H 3 O 2 solution. a) 4.3 b) 6.4 c) 1.7 d) 0.97 e) 7.4 ANS: c) 1.7 PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
9 33. Determine the molarity of a solution of the weak acid HClO 2 (K a = ) if it has a ph of a) M b) 1.23 M c) M d) 3.17 M e) 1.52 M ANS: a) M PAGE: The following questions refer to a solution that contains 1.00 M hydrofluoric acid, HF (K a = ), and 3.00 M hydrocyanic acid, HCN (K a = ). 34. What is the ph of this mixture of weak acids? a) 0.00 b) 1.57 c) 3.14 d) 4.37 e) 9.21 ANS: b) 1.57 PAGE: Determine the [CN ] at equilibrium. a) M b) M c) M d) M ANS: c) M PAGE: How many moles of benzoic acid, a monoprotic acid with K a = , must be dissolved in 500. ml of H 2 O to produce a solution with ph = 2.50? a) b) c) d) 0.50 ANS: c) PAGE: 14.5 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 329
10 37. Calculate the [H + ] in a M solution of HCN, K a = a) M b) M c) M d) M ANS: b) M PAGE: In a solution prepared by dissolving mole of propionic acid in enough water to make 1.00 L of solution, the ph is observed to be The K a for propionic acid (HC 3 H 5 O 2 ) is: a) b) c) d) ANS: b) PAGE: A solution of 2.5 M weak acid is 0.52% ionized. What is the K a value of this acid? a) 6.8 x 10-5 b) 1.1 x 10-5 c) 0.11 d) 1.3 x 10-2 ANS: a) 6.8 x 10-5 PAGE: A solution of 8.0 M formic acid (HCOOH) is 0.47% ionized. What is the K a of formic acid? a) b) c) d) e) need more data ANS: b) PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
11 41. The ph of a M solution of an aqueous weak acid (HA) is The K a for the weak acid is: a) b) c) d) 3.2 ANS: c) PAGE: Saccharin is a monoprotic acid. If the ph of a M solution of this acid is 5.53, what is the K a of saccharin? a) b) c) d) ANS: c) PAGE: The ph of a 0.13 M solution of a weak monoprotic acid, HA, is Calculate the K a for this acid. a) 0.13 b) c) d) e) ANS: d) PAGE: A monoprotic weak acid when dissolved in water is 0.92% dissociated and produces a solution with a ph of Calculate the K a of the acid. a) 1.4 x 10-7 b) 2.8 x 10-3 c) 3.5 x 10-6 d) Need to know the initial concentration of the acid. e) None of these. ANS: c) 3.5 x 10-6 PAGE: 14.5 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 331
12 45. If an acid, HA, is 10.0% dissociated in a 1.0 M solution, what is the K a for this acid? a) b) c) d) ANS: b) PAGE: Calculate the ph of a 0.10 M solution of HOCl, K a = a) 4.23 b) 8.46 c) 3.73 d) 1.00 e) 3.23 ANS: a) 4.23 PAGE: Calculate the poh of a 0.80 M solution of acetic acid (K a = ). a) 9.25 b) 2.42 c) 4.74 d) e) 7.87 ANS: d) PAGE: The pk a of HOCl is 7.5. Calculate the ph of a 0.5 M solution of HOCl. a) 7.5 b) 6.5 c) 3.9 d) 10.1 e) 0.3 ANS: c) 3.9 PAGE: When mol of nicotinic acid (a monoprotic acid) is dissolved in 350 ml of water, the ph is Calculate the K a of nicotinic acid. a) b) c) d) ANS: b) PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
13 50. Approximately how much water should be added to 10.0 ml of 12.0 M HCl so that it has the same ph as 0.90 M acetic acid (K a = 1.8 x 10-5 )? a) 30 ml b) 300 ml c) 3 L d) 30 L e) 300 L ANS: d) 30 L PAGE: As water is heated, its ph decreases. This means that a) the water is no longer neutral. b) the K w value is decreasing. c) the water has a lower (OH ] than cooler water. d) the dissociation of water is an endothermic process.. ANS: d) the dissociation of water is an endothermic process. PAGE: 14.2,3 52. What concentration of acetic acid (K a = ) has the same ph as that of M HCl? a) M b) M c) 1.39 M d) 5.00 M ANS: c) 1.39 M PAGE: 14.4, Consider the reaction HOCl + F HF + OCl 53. Given that K a for HOCl is and the K a for HF is (both at 25 C), which of the following is true concerning K for the above reaction at 25 C? a) K is greater than 1. b) K is less than 1. c) K is equal to 1. d) Cannot be determined with the above information. e) None of these (a-d) ANS: b) K is less than 1 PAGE: 13.2, Assuming that the value for K in the above reaction is greater than 1, this means that HF is a stronger acid than HOCl. ANS: False PAGE: 13.2,14.5 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 333
14 Consider the following reactions a) Al H 2 O Al(OH 2 ) 3+ 6 b) Al(OH 2 ) 6 3+ Al(OH)(OH 2 ) H + c) OCl + H 2 O HOCl + OH d) CN + H + HCN e) None of these 55. Which is associated with the definition of K a? ANS: b) Al(OH 2 ) 6 3+ Al(OH)(OH 2 ) H + PAGE: Which is associated with the definition of K b? ANS: c) OCl + H 2 O HOCl + OH PAGE: Which of the following reactions is associated with the definition of K b? a) Zn(OH 2 ) 2+ 6 [Zn(OH 2 ) 5 OH] + + H + b) CN + H + HCN c) F + H 2 O HF + OH d) Cr H 2 O Cr(OH 2 ) 6 3+ ANS: c) F + H 2 O HF + OH PAGE: Calculate the ph of a 0.10 M solution of Ca(OH) 2. a) b) c) 0.20 d) 0.10 ANS: a) PAGE: Calculate the ph of a 0.02 M solution of KOH. a) 1.7 b) 2.0 c) 12.0 d) 12.3 e) cannot calculate answer unless a volume is given ANS: d) 12.3 PAGE: Calculate the poh of a 0.10 M solution of Ba(OH) Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
15 a) b) 0.70 c) 1.00 d) ANS: b) 0.70 PAGE: Calculate the ph of a 0.10 M solution of KOH. a) b) c) 1.00 d) 0.10 ANS: b) PAGE: A g sample of NaOH(s) is added to enough water to make ml of solution. The ph of this solution is: a) b) c) d) ANS: d) PAGE: Calculate the ph of a M KOH solution. a) 2.30 b) 3.50 c) d) 5.00 e) ANS: c) PAGE: The following questions refer to a 0.70 M solution of hypochlorous acid, HClO. 64. The K a for the acid is Determine the percent dissociation. a) 1.3% b) 0.84% c) 0.41% d) 0.22% e) 0.15% ANS: d) 0.22% PAGE: 14.5 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 335
16 65. If the molarity was decreased to 0.3 M, which of the following statements would be true? a) The percent dissociation would not change. b) The percent dissociation would increase. c) The percent dissociation would decrease. d) The equilibrium constant would stay the same. e) Two of these. ANS: e) Two of these. PAGE: Calculate the ph of a 3.40 M solution of NaOH. a) 10.4 b) 20.3 c) 14.5 d) 8.50 ANS: c) 14.5 PAGE: The pain killer morphine is a weak base when added to water. The reaction produces one mole of hydroxide ions for every one mole of morphine that dissolves. The K b is What is the ph of a M solution of morphine? a) 8.23 b) 9.95 c) 11.3 d) 10.2 ANS: b) 9.95 PAGE: Determine the ph of a M solution of H 2 SO 4. The dissociation occurs in two steps. K a1 is extremely large; K a2 is a) 1.4 b) 1.3 c) 1.2 d) 1.1 e) 1.0 ANS: d) 1.1 PAGE: The [OH ] in a 0.50 M pyridine (C 5 H 5 N; K b = ) solution is a) 0.50 M b) M c) M d) M 336 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
17 ANS: b) M PAGE: Calculate the ph of a 5.0 M solution of aniline (C 6 H 5 NH 2 ; K b = ): a) 4.36 b) 9.64 c) d) 9.30 ANS: b) 9.64 PAGE: Calculate the ph of a 0.10 M solution of pyridine (C 5 H 5 N; K b = ): a) 8.15 b) 5.88 c) 9.12 d) ANS: c) 9.12 PAGE: Calculate the percentage of pyridine (C 5 H 5 N) that forms pyridinium ion, C 5 H 5 NH +, in a 0.10 M aqueous solution of pyridine (K b = ): a) % b) 1.6% c) 0.77% d) 0.060% e) 0.013% ANS: e) 0.013% PAGE: Which of the following aqueous solutions will have the highest ph? For NH 3, K b = ; for C 2 H 3 O 2, K b = a) 2.0 M NaOH b) 2.0 M NH 3 c) 2.0 M HC 2 H 3 O 2 d) 2.0 M HCl e) all the same ANS: a) 2.0 M NaOH PAGE: Calculate the ph of a 0.50 M NH 3 (K b = ) solution. a) b) 7.00 c) 4.78 d) 2.52 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 337
18 ANS: PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
19 75. The equilibrium constant for the reaction NH OH NH 3 + H 2 O is: a) 1 K b (NH 3 ) b) c) d) e) 1 K a (NH 4+ ) K w K a (NH 4 + ) K w K b (NH 3 ) K b (NH 3 ) K w ANS: a) 1 K b (NH 3 ) PAGE: Calculate the ph of the following aqueous solutions. Choose your answer from the following ph ranges: a) ph b) ph c) ph d) ph e) ph M HOCl (pk a = 7.46) ANS: b) ph PAGE: M NaF (pk a for HF = 3.14) ANS: c) ph PAGE: M aniline (pk b = 9.42) ANS: d) ph PAGE: m NH 4 Cl (pk b for NH 3 = 4.74) ANS: b) ph PAGE: M H 2 S (pk a1 = 7.00; pk a2 = 12.89) ANS: b) ph PAGE: 14.7 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 339
20 M H 2 CO 3 (pk a1 = 6.37; pk a2 = 10.25) ANS: b) ph PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
21 82. A 0.10-mol sample of a diprotic acid, H 2 A, is dissolved in 250 ml of water. The K a1 of this acid is and K a2 is Calculate the concentration of A 2 in this solution. a) M b) M c) M d) M e) 0.40 M ANS: d) M PAGE: The ph in a solution of 1.0 M H 2 A (K a1 = ; K a2 = ) is: a) 8.00 b) 7.00 c) 6.00 d) 3.00 ANS: d) 3.00 PAGE: Calculate the ph of a 0.05 M solution of ascorbic acid (K a1 = ; K a2 = ). a) 1.3 b) 2.7 c) 3.1 d) 5.4 e) 6.5 ANS: b) 2.7 PAGE: Calculate the [H + ] in 1.0 M solution of Na 2 CO 3 (for H 2 CO 3, K a1 = ; K a2 = ). a) M b) M c) M d) M ANS: d) M PAGE: 14.7,8 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 341
22 86. The dihydrogenphosphate ion, H 2 PO 4, has both a conjugate acid and a conjugate base. These are, respectively: a) H 3 PO 4, PO 3 4 b) H 3 PO 4, HPO 2 4 c) H 2 PO 4, HPO 2 4 d) HPO 2 4, PO 3 4 e) HPO 2 4, H 3 PO 4 ANS: b) H 3 PO 4, HPO 4 2 PAGE: HOAc K a = H 2 CO 3 K a1 = K a2 = Which of the following 0.01 M solutions has the highest ph? a) HOAc b) NaOAc c) Na 2 CO 3 d) H 2 CO 3 e) NaHCO 3 ANS: c) Na 2 CO 3 PAGE: 14.7,8 88. The conjugate acid and conjugate base of bicarbonate ion, HCO 3, are, respectively: a) H 3 O + and OH b) H 3 O + and CO 3 2 c) H 2 CO 3 and OH d) H 2 CO 3 and CO 3 2 e) CO 3 2 and OH ANS: d) H 2 CO 3 and CO 3 2 PAGE: Which of the following species is present in the greatest concentration in a M H 2 SO 4 solution in H 2 O? a) H 3 O + b) HSO 4 c) H 2 SO 4 d) All species are in equilibrium and therefore have the same concentration. e) SO 2 4 ANS: a) H 3 O + PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
23 90. The ph of a M solution of a weak base is Calculate the ph of a M solution of the base. a) 10.5 b) 10.7 c) 11.2 d) 11.5 ANS: b) 10.7 PAGE: Which of the following is the correct order for increasing phs for HNO 3, KCl, NH 4 Cl, KOH, and NaC 2 H 3 O 2? (K a for HC 2 H 3 O 2 is , K a for NH + 4 is ). a) KCl, NH 4 Cl, HNO 3, KOH, NaC 2 H 3 O 2 b) HNO 3, KCl, NH 4 Cl, KOH, NaC 2 H 3 O 2 c) NH 4 Cl, HNO 3, KCl, KOH, NaC 2 H 3 O 2 d) HNO 3, NH 4 Cl, KCl, NaC 2 H 3 O 2, KOH ANS: d) HNO 3, NH 4 Cl, KCl, NaC 2 H 3 O 2, KOH PAGE: Which of the following is the strongest base? (K b for NH 3 is , K a2 for H 2 SO 4 is , K a3 for H 3 PO 4 is ) NH 3, HSO 4, PO 3 4, or NO 3 a) NH 3 b) HSO 4 c) NO 3 d) PO 3 4 e) Two of these are equally strong. ANS: d) PO 4 3 PAGE: The salt BX, when dissolved in water, produces an acidic solution. Which of the following could be true? a) HX is a weak acid. b) HX is a strong acid. c) The cation B + is a weak acid. d) All of these could be true. e) Only two of these (a and c) could be true. ANS: d) All of these could be true. PAGE: 14.8 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 343
24 94. Calculate the K a for an unknown monoprotic acid HX, given that a solution of 0.10 M LiX has a ph of a) b) c) d) e) ANS: e) PAGE: The sodium salt, NaA, of a weak acid is dissolved in water; no other substance is added. Which of these statements (to a close approximation) is true? a) [H + ] = [A ] b) [H + ] = [OH ] c) [A ] = [OH ] d) [HA] = [OH ] ANS: d) [HA] = [OH ] PAGE: The [H 3 O + ] of a 0.15 M solution of NH 4 Cl in H 2 O at 25 C is (K b for NH 3 = ): a) M b) M c) M d) M ANS: c) M PAGE: Calculate the ph of a 0.30 M solution of NH 4 Cl. (K b for NH 3 = ) a) 3.33 b) 4.89 c) 9.11 d) 7.00 e) ANS: b) 4.89 PAGE: If K a for HCN is , what is K b for CN? Note: CN + H 2 O HCN + OH K b = [HCN][OH ] [CN ] a) b) c) d) ANS: c) PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
25 99. If you know K b for ammonia, NH 3, you can calculate the equilibrium constant, K a, for the following reaction: NH + 4 NH 3 + H + by the equation: a) K a = K w K b b) K a = K w /K b c) K a = 1/K b d) K a = K b /K w ANS: b) K a = K w /K b PAGE: Which of the following would give the highest ph when dissolved in water to form a 0.10 M solution? a) a strong acid b) a weak acid c) the potassium salt of a weak acid d) the potassium salt of a strong acid e) the ammonium salt of a strong acid ANS: c) the potassium salt of a weak acid PAGE: Which of the following is true about the ph of a solution of sulfuric acid? a) If the solution is dilute the ph is not able to be calculated. b) If the solution is dilute the ph is completely controlled by the first dissociation. c) If the solution is dilute the ph is completely controlled by the second dissociation. d) If the solution is concentrated the ph is partially controlled by the second dissociation. e) If the solution is dilute the ph is partially controlled by the second dissociation. ANS: e) If the solution is dilute the ph is partially controlled by the second dissociation. PAGE: What is the ph of a 0.45 M KCl solution? a) 10.5 b) 7.0 c) 9.2 d) 1.4 e) 4.5 ANS: b) 7.0 PAGE: 14.8 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 345
26 103. A M solution of the salt NaA has a ph of Calculate the K a value of the acid HA. a) 6.60 x b) 1.05 x 10-5 c) 3.80 x 10-4 d) 2.63 x ANS: c) 3.80 x 10-4 PAGE: The hydrogen halides (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI) are all polar molecules. The strength of the acid each forms in water is based on which of the following? a) the polarity of the molecule b) the size of the molecule c) the strength of the bond d) two of these ANS: d) two of these PAGE: Which factor listed below is most important in determining the strength of an oxyacid? a) the size of the molecule b) the ability of the molecule to change atomic orientation c) the identity of the central atom in the molecule d) the number of oxygen atoms present in the molecule ANS: d) the number of oxygen atoms present in the molecule PAGE: Use the following choices to describe an aqueous solution made from each of the following substances. a) acidic b) neutral c) basic d) cannot tell e) None of these (a-d) 106. solid sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) ANS: b) neutral PAGE: solid silver chloride (AgCl) ANS: b) neutral PAGE: solid sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) 346 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
27 ANS: c) basic PAGE: 14.8 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 347
28 109. solid ammonium acetate (NH 4 C 2 H 3 O 2 ) For NH + 4, K a = ; for C 2 H 3 O 2, K b = ANS: b) neutral PAGE: solid ammonium perchlorate (NH 4 ClO 4 ) For NH 4+, K a = ; for ClO 4, K b ANS: a) acidic PAGE: The ph of a 1.0 M aqueous solution of NaCl is: a) 7.0 b) greater than 7.0 c) less than 7.0 d) not enough information is given (a-d) ANS: a) 7.0 PAGE: The ph of a 1.0 M sodium acetate solution is: a) 7.0 b) greater than 7.0 c) less than 7.0 d) not enough information is given (a-d) ANS: b) greater than 7.0 PAGE: Which of the following would produce a basic aqueous solution? a) P 4 O 10 b) KCl c) CO 2 d) NH 4 Cl ANS: PAGE: 14.8, Calculate the ph of a 0.20 M solution of NaC 2 H 3 O 2 (for HC 2 H 3 O 2 K a = ). a) 4.98 b) 9.02 c) 5.44 d) 8.56 ANS: b) 9.02 PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
29 115. Which of the following would produce the most acidic solution? a) HOCl 2 b) HOCl c) HOBr d) HOI e) HOAt ANS: a) HOCl 2 PAGE: Calculate the ph of a M solution of potassium oxide, K 2 O. a) 12.0 b) 11.7 c) 7.0 d) 2.3 e) 2.0 ANS: a) 12.0 PAGE: Which of the species below, when dissolved in H 2 O, will not produce a basic solution? a) SO 2 b) NH 3 c) BaO d) Ba(OH) 2 ANS: a) SO 2 PAGE: Define amphoteric substance. ANS: See Sec of Zumdahl, Chemistry. PAGE: Determine whether the following oxides produce an acidic, basic, or neutral solution when dissolved in water: 119. K 2 O 120. NO Cl 2 O 122. CaO ANS: basic PAGE: ANS: acidic PAGE: ANS: acidic PAGE: ANS: basic PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 349
30 123. SO 2 ANS: acidic PAGE: Explain why 0.1 M NaCN is basic while 0.1 M NaNO 3 is neutral. ANS: See Sec of Zumdahl, Chemistry. PAGE: Explain why Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 produces an acidic solution when it is dissolved in water. ANS: See Sec of Zumdahl, Chemistry. PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Exercise #1 Brønsted-Lowry s and Bases 1. Identify the Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases and the conjugate acid base pairs in the following reactions. (a) HCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl (aq) (b) H 2
CHEM 102: Sample Test 5 CHAPTER 17 1. When H 2 SO 4 is dissolved in water, which species would be found in the water at equilibrium in measurable amounts? a. H 2 SO 4 b. H 3 SO + 4 c. HSO 4 d. SO 2 4 e.
1 Aqueous Equilibria: Buffers & Titrations AMHS AP Chemistry Multiple Choice questions Name Common-Ion Effect 1) The ph of a solution that contains 0.818 M acetic acid (K a = 1.77x10-5 ) and 0.172 M sodium
Chem 1B Dr. White 1 Chapter 14 Acids and Bases 14.1 Nature of Acids and Bases A. Acids B. Bases Chem 1B Dr. White 2 C. Arrhenius Definition 1. acid 2. base 3. Acid-base reaction involving Arrhenius acids
A.P. Chemistry Practice Test: Ch. 14, Acids and Bases Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The conjugate base of HSO4 - is A) H2SO4
General Chemistry II Jasperse Acid-Base Chemistry. Extra Practice Problems 1 General Types/Groups of problems: Conceptual Questions. Acids, Bases, and p1 K b and pk b, Base Strength, and using K b or p7-10
SCH3U- R.H.KING ACADEMY SOLUTION & ACID/BASE WORKSHEET Name: The importance of water - MAKING CONNECTION READING 1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436
Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases 14.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases A. Arrhenius Model 1. Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions 2. Bases produce hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions B. Bronsted-Lowry
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which statement concerning Arrhenius acid-base theory is not correct? A) Acid-base reactions must
AP Chemistry Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases Acids Electrolyte Taste Litmus Phenolphthalein React with metals to give off H 2 gas H 2 SO 4 (aq) + Mg (s) MgSO 4 (aq) + H 2 (g) Ionize
Chapter 16: Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in Soil and Water Problems: 16.2-16.86 16.1 ACIDS AND BASES: THE BRØNSTED-LOWRY MODEL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS & BASES Acids produce hydrogen ions,
Acids, Bases & Redox 1 Practice Problems for Assignment 8 1. A substance which produces OH ions in solution is a definition for which of the following? (a) an Arrhenius acid (b) an Arrhenius base (c) a
Lecture 6 Classes of Chemical Reactions Lecture 6 Outline 6.1 The Role of Water as a Solvent 6.2 Precipitation Reactions 6.3 Acid-Base Reactions 1 Electron distribution in molecules of H 2 and H 2 O The
CHEM 1105 ACIDS AND BASES 1. Early Definitions Taste: Effect on Indicators: Neutralization: acids - sour; bases - bitter acids turn blue litmus red; bases turn red litmus blue phenolphthalein is colourless
Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria Student: NOTE: A table of ionization constants and K a 's is required to work some of the problems in this chapter. 1. In which one of the following
Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Learning goals and key skills: Understand the nature of the hydrated proton, represented as either H + (aq) or H 3 O + (aq) Define and identify Arrhenuis acids and bases.
15 Ch a pt e r Aqueous Equilibria: Acids and Bases Chemistry th Edition McMurry/Fay Dr. Paul Charlesworth Michigan Technological University AcidBase Concepts 01 Arrhenius Acid: A substance which dissociates
AcidBaseEquil 1 Acid-Base Equilibrium See AqueousIons in Chemistry 1110 online notes for review of acid-base fundamentals! Acid- Base Reaction in Aqueous Salt Solutions Recall that use [ ] to mean concentration
WEAK ACIDS AND BASES [MH5; Chapter 13] Recall that a strong acid or base is one which completely ionizes in water... In contrast a weak acid or base is only partially ionized in aqueous solution... The
Acids Identifying Acids and Bases Acid (anhydrides) contains H+ ions as the cation, with and other element as the anion Non-metal oxide H2SO4 HI P2O5 Bases Base (anhydrides) Contains OH- as the anion Combined
Chapter 16 AcidBase Equilibria Acids and bases are found in many common substances and are important in life processes. Group Work: Make a list of some common acids and bases. How do we know which is which?
Name: Per: Date: Unit 11 - Acids, Bases and Salts Chemistry Accelerated Chemistry I Define each of the following: 1. Acidic hydrogens 2. Binary acids 3. Oxyacids 4. Carboxylic acid 5. Amines Name the following
Acids and Bases Name: Expected background knowledge from acids and bases introductory reading: Definitions (Arrhenius, BL) of an acid and base Definitions of conjugate acid and base pairs Properties of
CHAPTER 9 1. Which one of the following is the acid in vinegar? a. acetic acid b. citric acid c. muriatic acid d. ascorbic acid 2. Which is a basic or alkaline substance? a. gastric fluid b. black coffee
ACIDS & BASES BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES Brønsted acids are proton donors. Brønsted bases are proton acceptors. Amphoteric species can act as either an acid or a base, depending on the
CHEM 10123/10125, Exam 2 March 7, 2012 (50 minutes) Name (please print) Please box your answers, and remember that significant figures, phases (for chemical equations), and units do count! 1. (13 points)
Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Concept Check 16.1 Chemists in the seventeenth century discovered that the substance that gives red ants their irritating bite is an acid with the formula HCHO 2. They called
1. Is H 3 O + polar or non-polar? (1 point) a) Polar b) Non-polar CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM B) DR. SIMON NORTH 2. The bond strength is considerably greater in HF than in the other three hydrogen halides
CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM A) DR. SIMON NORTH 1. When considering conjugate acids and bases, (2 points) a) Strong acids have strong conjugate bases. b) Strong bases have strong conjugate acids. c) Weak
UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES 6.1 Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases Definitions for acids and bases were proposed by the Swedish chemist Savante Arrhenius in 1884. Acids were defined as compounds that
ph of strong acid and base What does strong mean in terms of acids and bases? Solubility. Basically, if you say an acid or base is strong, then it dissociates 100% in water. These types of situations are
Aqueous Ions and Reactions (ions, acids, and bases) Demo NaCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) AgCl (s) Two clear and colorless solutions turn to a cloudy white when mixed Demo Special Light bulb in water can test for
Acids and Bases CHEM 102! T. Hughbanks! Basic Definitions & Concepts Most basic concepts are given clearly in your text - these notes will only list these as topics discussed, so there will be less detail.!
Acids and Bases Know the definition of Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis acid and base. Autoionization of Water Since we will be dealing with aqueous acid and base solution, first we must examine the
Practice Problems for Chem. 1B Exam 1 F2011 These represent the concepts covered for exam 1. There may be some additional net ionic equations from chem. 1A. This is not the exact exam! Sections 16.1-16.3
Topics Solutions 1. Arrhenius Acids and bases a. An acid increases the H + concentration in b. A base increases the OH - concentration in 2. Strong acids and bases completely dissociate 3. Weak acids and
Chapter 17 Acids and Bases How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties Base Physical properties Tastes sour Tastes bitter Feels slippery or slimy Chemical properties Chemical properties
Acids and : A Brief Review Acids: taste sour and cause dyes to change color. : taste bitter and feel soapy. Arrhenius: acids increase [H ] bases increase [OH ] in solution. Arrhenius: acid base salt water.
Chemistry I Accelerated Study Guideline - Chapter 19 Acids, Bases and Salts ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ By the end of this unit, the skills you should
Practice Problems: Applications of Aqueous Equilibria KEY CHEM 1B 1. Ammonia (NH 3 ) is a weak base with a K b = 1.8 x 1 5. a) Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction of ammonia with water.
Chapter 17 2) a) HCl and CH 3 COOH are both acids. A buffer must have an acid/base conjugate pair. b) NaH 2 PO 4 and Na 2 HPO 4 are an acid/base conjugate pair. They will make an excellent buffer. c) H
Acids and Bases Chapter 16 The Arrhenius Model An acid is any substance that produces hydrogen ions, H +, in an aqueous solution. Example: when hydrogen chloride gas is dissolved in water, the following
10. Acids, Bases, and Salts Acids and bases For centuries people have known acids are in vinegar, lemon juice and many other foods taste sour. Only few hundred years ago that it was discovered that acids
4. Acid Base Chemistry 4.1. Terminology: 4.1.1. Bronsted / Lowry Acid: "An acid is a substance which can donate a hydrogen ion (H+) or a proton, while a base is a substance that accepts a proton. B + HA
Acid-base A4 1 Acid-base theories ACIDS & BASES - IONIC EQUILIBRIA 1. LEWIS acid electron pair acceptor H, AlCl 3 base electron pair donor NH 3, H 2 O, C 2 H 5 OH, OH e.g. H 3 N: -> BF 3 > H 3 N BF 3 see
CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solutions (continued) Lect-07 aqueous acid/base reactions a. a little bit more about water Water is a polar substance. This means water is able to "solvate" ions rather well. Another
Chapter 15 Acids and Bases Fu-Yin Hsu Stomach Acid and Heartburn The cells that line your stomach produce hydrochloric acid. To kill unwanted bacteria To help break down food To activate enzymes that break
6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Water is by far the most common medium in which chemical reactions occur naturally. It is not hard to see this: 70% of our body mass is water and about 70% of the surface
Talk in. Arrhenius Acid Base Definition and ph When we think of acids, we typically think of the Arrhenius definition. Svante Arrhenius (18591927) Arrhenius Acid = Any compound that increases the hydronium
Topic 5 5-1 Acid and Bases Acid and Bases 5-2 There are a number definitions for aicd and bases, depending on what is convenient to use in a particular situation: Arrhenius and Ostwald: Theory of electrolyte
Ch 14 Page 1 Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Properties of Acids Sour taste React with some metals Turns blue litmus paper red React with bases Some Common Acids HCl, hydrochloric acid H 2 SO 4, sulfuric acid
1. At 298 K, F 3 SSF (g) decomposes partially to SF 2 (g). At equilibrium, the partial pressure of SF 2 (g) is 1.1 10-4 atm and the partial pressure of F 3 SSF is 0.0484 atm. (a) Write a balanced equilibrium
Acid and Base Multiple Choice January 1999 21. Consider the following acidbase equilibrium: HCO 3 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 + OH In the reaction above, the BrönstedLowry acids are A. H 2 O and OH B. HCO 3 and OH
Chemical reactions Classifications Reactions in solution Ionic equations Learning objectives Distinguish between chemical and physical change Write and balance chemical equations Describe concepts of oxidation
Chemical reaction = process during which original substances change to new substances, reactants turn to... The bonds of reactants... and new bonds are... The classification of reactions: 1. Classification
Ch 15: Acids and Bases A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 5 P a g e 1 Homework: Read Chapter 15 Work out sample/practice exercises in the sections, Bonus problems: 39, 41, 49, 63, 67, 83, 91, 95, 99, 107,
CHEM 101 HOUR EXAM II 13-OCT-98 Directions: show all work for each question only on its corresponding numbered blue book page. 1. Write a balanced net ionic equation for each reaction or process shown:
1. In which reaction is water acting only as a proton acceptor? 1) H 2 SO 4 (aq) H 2 O ( ) HSO 4 (aq) H 3 O (aq) NH 3 (g) H 2 O ( ) NH 4 (aq) OH (aq) CH 3 COO (aq) H 2 O ( ) CH 3 COOH(aq) OH (aq) H 2 O
1. If the [OH ] = 1 10 4 at 298 K for a given solution, the [H + ] of the solution is equal to 1) 1 10 14 3) 1 10 6 2) 1 10 10 4) 1 10 4 2. Based on Reference Table V, which is the strongest base? 1) NO
Acid/Base Reactions some covalent compounds have weakly bound H atoms and can lose them to water (acids) some compounds produce OH in water solutions when they dissolve (bases) acid/base reaction are very
CHAPTER 15 1. Specific answers depend on student choices.. A heterogeneous mixture does not have a uniform composition: the composition varies in different places within the mixture. Examples of non homogeneous
Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations I. Objective: To predict the products of some displacement reactions and write net ionic equations. II. Chemical Principles: A. Reaction Types. Chemical
Lecture Presentation Chapter 15 Acids and Bases Sherril Soman Grand Valley State University Stomach Acid and Heartburn The cells that line your stomach produce hydrochloric acid. To kill unwanted bacteria
Aqueous Solutions and Solution Stoichiometry Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water Water is bent or V-shaped. The O-H bonds are covalent. Water is a polar molecule. Hydration
Sample Exercise 17.1 Calculating the ph When a Common Ion is Involved What is the ph of a solution made by adding 0.30 mol of acetic acid and 0.30 mol of sodium acetate to enough water to make 1.0 L of
2H 2 O H 3 O + + OH Hydronium ion hydroxide ion Q: But how often does this happen? This is the fundamental concept of all acid-base chemistry In pure water, how much of it is water and how much is ions?
Chapter 15 Acids and Bases reading guide. Be active while reading the text. Take notes, think about what you ve read, and ask yourself questions while reading. Use this document as a guide for making your
Hydrolysis: Reaction between a salt (ion or ions in a salt) and water to produce an acidic or basic solution. Net ionic equations for hydrolysis: An ion + water a molecule or ion + H 3 O + or OH SPECTATORS
Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are