1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a weak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is:

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1 1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a weak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is: a) K = [H+ ][NO 2 ] [HNO 2 ] b) K = [H+ ][N][O] 2 [HNO 2 ] c) K = [H + ][NO 2 ] d) K = [H+ ] 2 [NO 2 ] [HNO 2 ] ANS: a) K = [H+ ][NO 2 ] [HNO 2 ] PAGE: Which of the following is a conjugate acid/base pair? a) HCl/OCl - b) H 2 SO 4 /SO 2-4 c) NH + 4 /NH 3 d) H 3 O + /OH - ANS: c) NH 4+ /NH 3 PAGE: The equilibrium constant for the reaction A + H + HA is called: a) K a b) K b c) 1 K a d) K w K b e) K w K a ANS: c) 1 K a PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

2 4. For the stepwise dissociation of aqueous H 3 PO 4, which of the following is not a conjugate acid base pair? a) HPO 2 4 and PO 3 4 b) H 3 PO 4 and H 2 PO 4 c) H 2 PO 4 and HPO 2 4 d) H 2 PO 4 and PO 3 4 e) H 3 O + and H 2 O ANS: d) H 2 PO 4 and PO4 3 PAGE: 14.1,7 5. What is the equilibrium constant for the following reaction? N 3 + H 3 O + HN 3 + H 2 O The K a value for HN 3 = a) b) c) d) e) ANS: d) PAGE: The hydrogen sulfate or bisulfate ion HSO 4 can act as either an acid or a base in water solution. In which of the following equations does HSO 4 act as an acid? a) HSO 4 + H 2 O H 2 SO 4 + OH b) HSO 4 + H 3 O + SO 3 + 2H 2 O c) HSO 4 + OH H 2 SO 4 + O 2 d) HSO 4 + H 2 O SO H 3 O + ANS: d) HSO 4 + H 2 O SO H 3 O + PAGE: 14.1,2 322 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

3 7. Using the following K a values, indicate the correct order of base strength. HNO 2 K a = HF K a = HCN K a = a) CN > NO 2 > F > H 2 O > Cl b) Cl > H 2 O > F > NO 2 > CN c) CN > F > NO 2 > Cl > H 2 O d) H 2 O > CN > NO 2 > F > Cl ANS: a) CN > NO 2 > F > H 2 O > Cl PAGE: At 0 C, the ion-product constant of water, K w, is The ph of pure water at 0 C is: a) 7.00 b) 6.88 c) 7.56 d) 7.46 ANS: d) 7.46 PAGE: 14.2,3 9. The equilibrium constants (K a ) for HCN and HF in H 2 O at 25 C are and , respectively. The relative order of base strengths is: a) F > H 2 O > CN b) H 2 O > F > CN c) CN > F > H 2 O d) F > CN > H 2 O ANS: c) CN > F > H 2 O PAGE: 14.2 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 323

4 10. Given the following acids and Ka values: HClO 4 HOAc HCN HF which shows the conjugate bases listed by increasing strength? a) CN, F, OAc, ClO 4 b) CN, OAc, F, ClO 4 c) CN, ClO 4, F, OAc d) ClO 4, OAc, CN, F e) ClO 4, F, OAc, CN ANS: e) ClO 4, F, OAc, CN PAGE: The conjugate base of a weak acid is a) a strong base b) a weak base c) a strong acid d) a weak acid ANS: b) a weak base PAGE: Which of the following is the equilibrium constant expression for the dissociation of the weak acid HOCl? a) K = [H+ ][OCl ] [HOCl] b) K = [H + ][OCl ] c) K = [HOCl] [H + ][OCl ] d) K = [H+ ][O 2 ][Cl ] [HOCl] ANS: a) K = [H+ ][OCl ] [HOCl] PAGE: 14.1, The following three equations represent equilibria that lie far to the right. HNO 3 (aq) + CN (aq) HCN(aq) + NO 3 (aq) HCN(aq) + OH (aq) H 2 O(l) + CN (aq) H 2 O(l) + CH 3 O (aq) CH 2 OH(aq) + OH (aq) 324 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

5 13. Identify the strongest acid. a) HCN b) HNO 3 c) H 2 O d) OH e) CH 3 OH ANS: b) HNO 3 PAGE: Identify the strongest base. a) CH 3 O b) CH 3 OH c) CN d) H 2 O e) NO 3 ANS: a) CH 3 O PAGE: Given that the K a for HOCl is 3.5 x 10-8, calculate the K value for the reaction of HOCl with OH -. a) 3.5 x 10 6 b) 3.5 x 10-8 c) 3.5 x d) 2.9 x 10-7 ANS: a) 3.5 x 10 6 PAGE: 14.2,6,8 16. Calculate the [H + ] in a solution that has a ph of a) 2.3 M b) 11.7 M c) M d) M ANS: d) M PAGE: Calculate the [H + ] in a solution that has a ph of a) 2.3 M b) 11.7 M c) M d) M ANS: c) M PAGE: 14.3 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 325

6 18. The ph of a solution at 25 C in which [OH ] = M is: a) 4.5 b) 10.5 c) 9.5 d) 6.3 ANS: c) 9.5 PAGE: Consider the reaction HNO 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + NO (aq). Which species is the conjugate base? a) HNO 2 (aq) b) H 2 O(l) c) H 3 O + (aq) d) NO (aq) e) Two of these ANS: e) Two of these PAGE: In which of the following reactions does the H 2 PO - 4 ion act as an acid? a) H 3 PO 4 + H 2 O H 3 O + + H 2 PO 4 b) H 2 PO 4 + H 2 O H 3 O + + HPO 2-4 c) H 2 PO 4 + OH H 3 PO 4 + O 2- d) The ion cannot act as an acid. e) Two of these ANS: b) H 2 PO 4 + H 2 O H 3 O + + HPO 4 2- PAGE: In deciding which of two acids is the stronger, one must know: a) the concentration of each acid solution b) the ph of each acid solution c) the equilibrium constant of each acid d) all of these e) both a and c must be known ANS: c) the equilibrium constant of each acid PAGE: Which of the following is not true for a solution at 25 C that has a hydroxide concentration of M? a) K w = b) The solution is acidic. c) The solution is basic. d) The [H] is M. e) The K w is independent of what the solution contains. ANS: c) The solution is basic. PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

7 23. Calculate the [H + ] in a solution that has a ph of 9.7. a) M b) M c) M d) M e) M ANS: a) M PAGE: Calculate the ph of M HNO 3 (aq). a) b) 2.50 c) 12.0 d) 1.20 e) 13.4 ANS: a) PAGE: Solid calcium hydroxide is dissolved in water until the ph of the solution is The hydroxide ion concentration [OH ] of the solution is: a) M b) 3.06 M c) M d) M ANS: c) M PAGE: As water is heated, its ph decreases. This means that a) the water is no longer neutral b) [H + ] > [OH - ] c) [OH - ] > [H + ] d) a and b are correct ANS: PAGE: Which of the following indicates the most basic solution? a) [H + ] = M b) poh = 6.7 c) [OH ] = M d) ph = 4.2 e) At least two of the solutions are equally basic. ANS: a) [H + ] = M PAGE: 14.3 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 327

8 28. Calculate the poh of a 5.0 M solution of HCl. a) b) 0.70 c) d) ANS: c) PAGE: Calculate the ph of a M strong acid solution. a) b) 1.30 c) d) ANS: b) 1.30 PAGE: For nitrous acid, HNO 2, K a = Calculate the ph of 0.25 M HNO 2. a) 2.00 b) 2.30 c) 2.70 d) 3.70 ANS: a) 2.00 PAGE: For weak acid, HX, K a = Calculate the ph of a 0.10 M solution of HX. a) 6.00 b) 3.50 c) 3.00 d) 2.50 ANS: b) 3.50 PAGE: Acetic acid (HC 2 H 3 O 2 ) is a weak acid (K a = ). Calculate the ph of a 17.6 M HC 2 H 3 O 2 solution. a) 4.3 b) 6.4 c) 1.7 d) 0.97 e) 7.4 ANS: c) 1.7 PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

9 33. Determine the molarity of a solution of the weak acid HClO 2 (K a = ) if it has a ph of a) M b) 1.23 M c) M d) 3.17 M e) 1.52 M ANS: a) M PAGE: The following questions refer to a solution that contains 1.00 M hydrofluoric acid, HF (K a = ), and 3.00 M hydrocyanic acid, HCN (K a = ). 34. What is the ph of this mixture of weak acids? a) 0.00 b) 1.57 c) 3.14 d) 4.37 e) 9.21 ANS: b) 1.57 PAGE: Determine the [CN ] at equilibrium. a) M b) M c) M d) M ANS: c) M PAGE: How many moles of benzoic acid, a monoprotic acid with K a = , must be dissolved in 500. ml of H 2 O to produce a solution with ph = 2.50? a) b) c) d) 0.50 ANS: c) PAGE: 14.5 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 329

10 37. Calculate the [H + ] in a M solution of HCN, K a = a) M b) M c) M d) M ANS: b) M PAGE: In a solution prepared by dissolving mole of propionic acid in enough water to make 1.00 L of solution, the ph is observed to be The K a for propionic acid (HC 3 H 5 O 2 ) is: a) b) c) d) ANS: b) PAGE: A solution of 2.5 M weak acid is 0.52% ionized. What is the K a value of this acid? a) 6.8 x 10-5 b) 1.1 x 10-5 c) 0.11 d) 1.3 x 10-2 ANS: a) 6.8 x 10-5 PAGE: A solution of 8.0 M formic acid (HCOOH) is 0.47% ionized. What is the K a of formic acid? a) b) c) d) e) need more data ANS: b) PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

11 41. The ph of a M solution of an aqueous weak acid (HA) is The K a for the weak acid is: a) b) c) d) 3.2 ANS: c) PAGE: Saccharin is a monoprotic acid. If the ph of a M solution of this acid is 5.53, what is the K a of saccharin? a) b) c) d) ANS: c) PAGE: The ph of a 0.13 M solution of a weak monoprotic acid, HA, is Calculate the K a for this acid. a) 0.13 b) c) d) e) ANS: d) PAGE: A monoprotic weak acid when dissolved in water is 0.92% dissociated and produces a solution with a ph of Calculate the K a of the acid. a) 1.4 x 10-7 b) 2.8 x 10-3 c) 3.5 x 10-6 d) Need to know the initial concentration of the acid. e) None of these. ANS: c) 3.5 x 10-6 PAGE: 14.5 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 331

12 45. If an acid, HA, is 10.0% dissociated in a 1.0 M solution, what is the K a for this acid? a) b) c) d) ANS: b) PAGE: Calculate the ph of a 0.10 M solution of HOCl, K a = a) 4.23 b) 8.46 c) 3.73 d) 1.00 e) 3.23 ANS: a) 4.23 PAGE: Calculate the poh of a 0.80 M solution of acetic acid (K a = ). a) 9.25 b) 2.42 c) 4.74 d) e) 7.87 ANS: d) PAGE: The pk a of HOCl is 7.5. Calculate the ph of a 0.5 M solution of HOCl. a) 7.5 b) 6.5 c) 3.9 d) 10.1 e) 0.3 ANS: c) 3.9 PAGE: When mol of nicotinic acid (a monoprotic acid) is dissolved in 350 ml of water, the ph is Calculate the K a of nicotinic acid. a) b) c) d) ANS: b) PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

13 50. Approximately how much water should be added to 10.0 ml of 12.0 M HCl so that it has the same ph as 0.90 M acetic acid (K a = 1.8 x 10-5 )? a) 30 ml b) 300 ml c) 3 L d) 30 L e) 300 L ANS: d) 30 L PAGE: As water is heated, its ph decreases. This means that a) the water is no longer neutral. b) the K w value is decreasing. c) the water has a lower (OH ] than cooler water. d) the dissociation of water is an endothermic process.. ANS: d) the dissociation of water is an endothermic process. PAGE: 14.2,3 52. What concentration of acetic acid (K a = ) has the same ph as that of M HCl? a) M b) M c) 1.39 M d) 5.00 M ANS: c) 1.39 M PAGE: 14.4, Consider the reaction HOCl + F HF + OCl 53. Given that K a for HOCl is and the K a for HF is (both at 25 C), which of the following is true concerning K for the above reaction at 25 C? a) K is greater than 1. b) K is less than 1. c) K is equal to 1. d) Cannot be determined with the above information. e) None of these (a-d) ANS: b) K is less than 1 PAGE: 13.2, Assuming that the value for K in the above reaction is greater than 1, this means that HF is a stronger acid than HOCl. ANS: False PAGE: 13.2,14.5 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 333

14 Consider the following reactions a) Al H 2 O Al(OH 2 ) 3+ 6 b) Al(OH 2 ) 6 3+ Al(OH)(OH 2 ) H + c) OCl + H 2 O HOCl + OH d) CN + H + HCN e) None of these 55. Which is associated with the definition of K a? ANS: b) Al(OH 2 ) 6 3+ Al(OH)(OH 2 ) H + PAGE: Which is associated with the definition of K b? ANS: c) OCl + H 2 O HOCl + OH PAGE: Which of the following reactions is associated with the definition of K b? a) Zn(OH 2 ) 2+ 6 [Zn(OH 2 ) 5 OH] + + H + b) CN + H + HCN c) F + H 2 O HF + OH d) Cr H 2 O Cr(OH 2 ) 6 3+ ANS: c) F + H 2 O HF + OH PAGE: Calculate the ph of a 0.10 M solution of Ca(OH) 2. a) b) c) 0.20 d) 0.10 ANS: a) PAGE: Calculate the ph of a 0.02 M solution of KOH. a) 1.7 b) 2.0 c) 12.0 d) 12.3 e) cannot calculate answer unless a volume is given ANS: d) 12.3 PAGE: Calculate the poh of a 0.10 M solution of Ba(OH) Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

15 a) b) 0.70 c) 1.00 d) ANS: b) 0.70 PAGE: Calculate the ph of a 0.10 M solution of KOH. a) b) c) 1.00 d) 0.10 ANS: b) PAGE: A g sample of NaOH(s) is added to enough water to make ml of solution. The ph of this solution is: a) b) c) d) ANS: d) PAGE: Calculate the ph of a M KOH solution. a) 2.30 b) 3.50 c) d) 5.00 e) ANS: c) PAGE: The following questions refer to a 0.70 M solution of hypochlorous acid, HClO. 64. The K a for the acid is Determine the percent dissociation. a) 1.3% b) 0.84% c) 0.41% d) 0.22% e) 0.15% ANS: d) 0.22% PAGE: 14.5 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 335

16 65. If the molarity was decreased to 0.3 M, which of the following statements would be true? a) The percent dissociation would not change. b) The percent dissociation would increase. c) The percent dissociation would decrease. d) The equilibrium constant would stay the same. e) Two of these. ANS: e) Two of these. PAGE: Calculate the ph of a 3.40 M solution of NaOH. a) 10.4 b) 20.3 c) 14.5 d) 8.50 ANS: c) 14.5 PAGE: The pain killer morphine is a weak base when added to water. The reaction produces one mole of hydroxide ions for every one mole of morphine that dissolves. The K b is What is the ph of a M solution of morphine? a) 8.23 b) 9.95 c) 11.3 d) 10.2 ANS: b) 9.95 PAGE: Determine the ph of a M solution of H 2 SO 4. The dissociation occurs in two steps. K a1 is extremely large; K a2 is a) 1.4 b) 1.3 c) 1.2 d) 1.1 e) 1.0 ANS: d) 1.1 PAGE: The [OH ] in a 0.50 M pyridine (C 5 H 5 N; K b = ) solution is a) 0.50 M b) M c) M d) M 336 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

17 ANS: b) M PAGE: Calculate the ph of a 5.0 M solution of aniline (C 6 H 5 NH 2 ; K b = ): a) 4.36 b) 9.64 c) d) 9.30 ANS: b) 9.64 PAGE: Calculate the ph of a 0.10 M solution of pyridine (C 5 H 5 N; K b = ): a) 8.15 b) 5.88 c) 9.12 d) ANS: c) 9.12 PAGE: Calculate the percentage of pyridine (C 5 H 5 N) that forms pyridinium ion, C 5 H 5 NH +, in a 0.10 M aqueous solution of pyridine (K b = ): a) % b) 1.6% c) 0.77% d) 0.060% e) 0.013% ANS: e) 0.013% PAGE: Which of the following aqueous solutions will have the highest ph? For NH 3, K b = ; for C 2 H 3 O 2, K b = a) 2.0 M NaOH b) 2.0 M NH 3 c) 2.0 M HC 2 H 3 O 2 d) 2.0 M HCl e) all the same ANS: a) 2.0 M NaOH PAGE: Calculate the ph of a 0.50 M NH 3 (K b = ) solution. a) b) 7.00 c) 4.78 d) 2.52 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 337

18 ANS: PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

19 75. The equilibrium constant for the reaction NH OH NH 3 + H 2 O is: a) 1 K b (NH 3 ) b) c) d) e) 1 K a (NH 4+ ) K w K a (NH 4 + ) K w K b (NH 3 ) K b (NH 3 ) K w ANS: a) 1 K b (NH 3 ) PAGE: Calculate the ph of the following aqueous solutions. Choose your answer from the following ph ranges: a) ph b) ph c) ph d) ph e) ph M HOCl (pk a = 7.46) ANS: b) ph PAGE: M NaF (pk a for HF = 3.14) ANS: c) ph PAGE: M aniline (pk b = 9.42) ANS: d) ph PAGE: m NH 4 Cl (pk b for NH 3 = 4.74) ANS: b) ph PAGE: M H 2 S (pk a1 = 7.00; pk a2 = 12.89) ANS: b) ph PAGE: 14.7 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 339

20 M H 2 CO 3 (pk a1 = 6.37; pk a2 = 10.25) ANS: b) ph PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

21 82. A 0.10-mol sample of a diprotic acid, H 2 A, is dissolved in 250 ml of water. The K a1 of this acid is and K a2 is Calculate the concentration of A 2 in this solution. a) M b) M c) M d) M e) 0.40 M ANS: d) M PAGE: The ph in a solution of 1.0 M H 2 A (K a1 = ; K a2 = ) is: a) 8.00 b) 7.00 c) 6.00 d) 3.00 ANS: d) 3.00 PAGE: Calculate the ph of a 0.05 M solution of ascorbic acid (K a1 = ; K a2 = ). a) 1.3 b) 2.7 c) 3.1 d) 5.4 e) 6.5 ANS: b) 2.7 PAGE: Calculate the [H + ] in 1.0 M solution of Na 2 CO 3 (for H 2 CO 3, K a1 = ; K a2 = ). a) M b) M c) M d) M ANS: d) M PAGE: 14.7,8 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 341

22 86. The dihydrogenphosphate ion, H 2 PO 4, has both a conjugate acid and a conjugate base. These are, respectively: a) H 3 PO 4, PO 3 4 b) H 3 PO 4, HPO 2 4 c) H 2 PO 4, HPO 2 4 d) HPO 2 4, PO 3 4 e) HPO 2 4, H 3 PO 4 ANS: b) H 3 PO 4, HPO 4 2 PAGE: HOAc K a = H 2 CO 3 K a1 = K a2 = Which of the following 0.01 M solutions has the highest ph? a) HOAc b) NaOAc c) Na 2 CO 3 d) H 2 CO 3 e) NaHCO 3 ANS: c) Na 2 CO 3 PAGE: 14.7,8 88. The conjugate acid and conjugate base of bicarbonate ion, HCO 3, are, respectively: a) H 3 O + and OH b) H 3 O + and CO 3 2 c) H 2 CO 3 and OH d) H 2 CO 3 and CO 3 2 e) CO 3 2 and OH ANS: d) H 2 CO 3 and CO 3 2 PAGE: Which of the following species is present in the greatest concentration in a M H 2 SO 4 solution in H 2 O? a) H 3 O + b) HSO 4 c) H 2 SO 4 d) All species are in equilibrium and therefore have the same concentration. e) SO 2 4 ANS: a) H 3 O + PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

23 90. The ph of a M solution of a weak base is Calculate the ph of a M solution of the base. a) 10.5 b) 10.7 c) 11.2 d) 11.5 ANS: b) 10.7 PAGE: Which of the following is the correct order for increasing phs for HNO 3, KCl, NH 4 Cl, KOH, and NaC 2 H 3 O 2? (K a for HC 2 H 3 O 2 is , K a for NH + 4 is ). a) KCl, NH 4 Cl, HNO 3, KOH, NaC 2 H 3 O 2 b) HNO 3, KCl, NH 4 Cl, KOH, NaC 2 H 3 O 2 c) NH 4 Cl, HNO 3, KCl, KOH, NaC 2 H 3 O 2 d) HNO 3, NH 4 Cl, KCl, NaC 2 H 3 O 2, KOH ANS: d) HNO 3, NH 4 Cl, KCl, NaC 2 H 3 O 2, KOH PAGE: Which of the following is the strongest base? (K b for NH 3 is , K a2 for H 2 SO 4 is , K a3 for H 3 PO 4 is ) NH 3, HSO 4, PO 3 4, or NO 3 a) NH 3 b) HSO 4 c) NO 3 d) PO 3 4 e) Two of these are equally strong. ANS: d) PO 4 3 PAGE: The salt BX, when dissolved in water, produces an acidic solution. Which of the following could be true? a) HX is a weak acid. b) HX is a strong acid. c) The cation B + is a weak acid. d) All of these could be true. e) Only two of these (a and c) could be true. ANS: d) All of these could be true. PAGE: 14.8 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 343

24 94. Calculate the K a for an unknown monoprotic acid HX, given that a solution of 0.10 M LiX has a ph of a) b) c) d) e) ANS: e) PAGE: The sodium salt, NaA, of a weak acid is dissolved in water; no other substance is added. Which of these statements (to a close approximation) is true? a) [H + ] = [A ] b) [H + ] = [OH ] c) [A ] = [OH ] d) [HA] = [OH ] ANS: d) [HA] = [OH ] PAGE: The [H 3 O + ] of a 0.15 M solution of NH 4 Cl in H 2 O at 25 C is (K b for NH 3 = ): a) M b) M c) M d) M ANS: c) M PAGE: Calculate the ph of a 0.30 M solution of NH 4 Cl. (K b for NH 3 = ) a) 3.33 b) 4.89 c) 9.11 d) 7.00 e) ANS: b) 4.89 PAGE: If K a for HCN is , what is K b for CN? Note: CN + H 2 O HCN + OH K b = [HCN][OH ] [CN ] a) b) c) d) ANS: c) PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

25 99. If you know K b for ammonia, NH 3, you can calculate the equilibrium constant, K a, for the following reaction: NH + 4 NH 3 + H + by the equation: a) K a = K w K b b) K a = K w /K b c) K a = 1/K b d) K a = K b /K w ANS: b) K a = K w /K b PAGE: Which of the following would give the highest ph when dissolved in water to form a 0.10 M solution? a) a strong acid b) a weak acid c) the potassium salt of a weak acid d) the potassium salt of a strong acid e) the ammonium salt of a strong acid ANS: c) the potassium salt of a weak acid PAGE: Which of the following is true about the ph of a solution of sulfuric acid? a) If the solution is dilute the ph is not able to be calculated. b) If the solution is dilute the ph is completely controlled by the first dissociation. c) If the solution is dilute the ph is completely controlled by the second dissociation. d) If the solution is concentrated the ph is partially controlled by the second dissociation. e) If the solution is dilute the ph is partially controlled by the second dissociation. ANS: e) If the solution is dilute the ph is partially controlled by the second dissociation. PAGE: What is the ph of a 0.45 M KCl solution? a) 10.5 b) 7.0 c) 9.2 d) 1.4 e) 4.5 ANS: b) 7.0 PAGE: 14.8 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 345

26 103. A M solution of the salt NaA has a ph of Calculate the K a value of the acid HA. a) 6.60 x b) 1.05 x 10-5 c) 3.80 x 10-4 d) 2.63 x ANS: c) 3.80 x 10-4 PAGE: The hydrogen halides (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI) are all polar molecules. The strength of the acid each forms in water is based on which of the following? a) the polarity of the molecule b) the size of the molecule c) the strength of the bond d) two of these ANS: d) two of these PAGE: Which factor listed below is most important in determining the strength of an oxyacid? a) the size of the molecule b) the ability of the molecule to change atomic orientation c) the identity of the central atom in the molecule d) the number of oxygen atoms present in the molecule ANS: d) the number of oxygen atoms present in the molecule PAGE: Use the following choices to describe an aqueous solution made from each of the following substances. a) acidic b) neutral c) basic d) cannot tell e) None of these (a-d) 106. solid sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) ANS: b) neutral PAGE: solid silver chloride (AgCl) ANS: b) neutral PAGE: solid sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) 346 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

27 ANS: c) basic PAGE: 14.8 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 347

28 109. solid ammonium acetate (NH 4 C 2 H 3 O 2 ) For NH + 4, K a = ; for C 2 H 3 O 2, K b = ANS: b) neutral PAGE: solid ammonium perchlorate (NH 4 ClO 4 ) For NH 4+, K a = ; for ClO 4, K b ANS: a) acidic PAGE: The ph of a 1.0 M aqueous solution of NaCl is: a) 7.0 b) greater than 7.0 c) less than 7.0 d) not enough information is given (a-d) ANS: a) 7.0 PAGE: The ph of a 1.0 M sodium acetate solution is: a) 7.0 b) greater than 7.0 c) less than 7.0 d) not enough information is given (a-d) ANS: b) greater than 7.0 PAGE: Which of the following would produce a basic aqueous solution? a) P 4 O 10 b) KCl c) CO 2 d) NH 4 Cl ANS: PAGE: 14.8, Calculate the ph of a 0.20 M solution of NaC 2 H 3 O 2 (for HC 2 H 3 O 2 K a = ). a) 4.98 b) 9.02 c) 5.44 d) 8.56 ANS: b) 9.02 PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

29 115. Which of the following would produce the most acidic solution? a) HOCl 2 b) HOCl c) HOBr d) HOI e) HOAt ANS: a) HOCl 2 PAGE: Calculate the ph of a M solution of potassium oxide, K 2 O. a) 12.0 b) 11.7 c) 7.0 d) 2.3 e) 2.0 ANS: a) 12.0 PAGE: Which of the species below, when dissolved in H 2 O, will not produce a basic solution? a) SO 2 b) NH 3 c) BaO d) Ba(OH) 2 ANS: a) SO 2 PAGE: Define amphoteric substance. ANS: See Sec of Zumdahl, Chemistry. PAGE: Determine whether the following oxides produce an acidic, basic, or neutral solution when dissolved in water: 119. K 2 O 120. NO Cl 2 O 122. CaO ANS: basic PAGE: ANS: acidic PAGE: ANS: acidic PAGE: ANS: basic PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 349

30 123. SO 2 ANS: acidic PAGE: Explain why 0.1 M NaCN is basic while 0.1 M NaNO 3 is neutral. ANS: See Sec of Zumdahl, Chemistry. PAGE: Explain why Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 produces an acidic solution when it is dissolved in water. ANS: See Sec of Zumdahl, Chemistry. PAGE: Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

1. Identify the Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases and the conjugate acid base pairs in the following reactions.

1. Identify the Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases and the conjugate acid base pairs in the following reactions. Exercise #1 Brønsted-Lowry s and Bases 1. Identify the Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases and the conjugate acid base pairs in the following reactions. (a) HCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl (aq) (b) H 2

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