Chapter 15 Acids and Bases reading guide.

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1 Chapter 15 Acids and Bases reading guide. Be active while reading the text. Take notes, think about what you ve read, and ask yourself questions while reading. Use this document as a guide for making your reading more meaningful. Before reading chapter 15, a good place for quick summaries of acid/base chemistry can be found at the following two links. These are summaries appropriate for Chem 201A level students, but serve as a great intro to chapter 15, which presents much more detailed information about the topics. Check them out before hitting the books. Section 15.2: What are acids and bases? The acids in table 15.1, except for citric acid, are acids of no mercy. Know their names and formulas. While you re at it, know the 7 strong acids (HCl, HBr, HI, HNO 3, H 2SO 4, HClO 3, HClO 4) Examine the structural formulas presented for sulfuric, nitric, and acetic acid to determine a similarity in bonding between the three acids. Acetic acid is an example of a carboxylic acid. Almost all carbon containing acids (except phenols and cyanic acids) have the same acid group shown on p. 699, so it s worth knowing. Table 15.2 has a few bases that are worth knowing. Soluble hydroxide bases are strong, and all others are weak (more on strong vs. weak later). Section 15.3: Definitions for acids and bases Yes, it s the same Arrhenius from the activation energy equations. Note how his definition is a bit more restrictive than the Bronsted-Lowry definition, but both end up with the same hydronium product. Chemists are lazy, and often write H + rather than H 3O +, but these terms both mean acid in aqueous solution. Look at the equilibrium described between NH 3 and NH 4 + in water. The conjugate base/acid pairing is a name chemists use to describe the conjoined base/acid relationship between two particles. The equations that precede the equilibrium show how NH 3 acts as a base and NH 4 + acts as an acid. Work through Example and For Practice 15.1 to become familiar labeling conjugate acid/base pairs. Section 15.4: What are strong and weak acids? If you re not familiar with classes of electrolytes, check out section 4.5, pages Examine the differences between figure 4.9 and 4.12, and the effect of electrolytic properties in figure 4.11.

2 The definition of strong acids vs weak acids is very important for the next two chapters. Estimate the relative values of equilibrium constants (K c) for strong acids vs. weak acids. Table 15.3 has 6 of the 7 strong acids you should know, add HClO 3 to the list. Figure 15.4 is a great picture. Figure 15.5 is a great picture. How does it differ from Figure HF isn t very good at dissolving bodies. The abbreviation HA pops up in this section, it will be used to simplify equations and calculations in the future. Check out Figure What is the reason given for weak acids partially ionizing whereas strong acids fully ionize? Equilibrium! Of course, since there are equilibrium arrows for weak acid ionization, there will be values for K c, although K a is used for acid ionizations. Why is water left out of the generic equation for a weak acid? Can K a values be used to determine the relative strength of acids? Section 15.5: Why does pure water have a ph of 7? Water undergoes a process called ionization, since water molecules can act as an acid and a base. This section derives the math for the concentration of H 3O + and OH in pure water, and develops the equilibrium constant for the reaction. The numbers are all for 25 C, and will change with temperature (just like any other value of K). Notice that if [H 3O + ] is known, [OH ] can be calculated if you have the value of K w. Be prepared to use the equation shown for calculating [H 3O + ] and [OH ] from K w with values of K w valid at different temperatures. Read over the Summarizing K w bullets to be able to determine if a solution is acidic, neutral, or basic. Notice that it s not defined as ph=7. Work through Example 15.2 for calculating [H 3O + ] and [OH ]. The ph scale is used for convenience so that chemists can discuss acidity levels with whole positive numbers. Is the relationship between ph and [H 3O + ] direct, or indirect? If a solution has a high [H 3O + ], does it have a low value for ph or a high value for ph? Work through Examples 15.3 and 15.4 for calculating ph.

3 Note that poh is similar to ph. How is it different? What will be the sum of a solution s ph and poh values at 25 C? Section 15.6: Back to equilibrium calculations yet? Yes. Note how the calculation for the ph of a strong acid is fairly simple. This section shows how to use ICE tables to calculate the equilibrium concentrations of H 3O + and the ph of a weak acid solution. Work through Examples 15.5 through15.8. The example 15.7 shows what happens when the x is small calculation fails. How many times do you need to use the method of successive approximations to get an answer consistent to 3 sig figs? Did you notice the little play button arrow at the top of 15.5? That means that there is a solutions video somewhere in the Study Area of MC. The conceptual connections 15.3 and 15.4 are nice questions. Most of them are, so don t neglect these hidden gems. Example 15.8 describes percent ionization. This is a topic in Experiment #4 also. Note that the denominator is [HA] init. We will skip the portion of 15.6 about calculating the ph of mixtures containing 2 or more acids. Section 15.7: Strong and weak bases The strong bases are listed in Table Note that Mg(OH) 2 is not a strong base. Why not? Weak bases are a big trouble spot for some students. Table 15.8 contains the names of a number of weak bases. Most of these bases are in the amine family. Amines all have a nitrogen bonded to 3 other groups, either hydrogen or CH groups. Note the reaction shown for amines with water. What structural feature of the amine allows these molecules to act as bases? Check figures 15.9 and How do these figures show the difference between strong bases and weak bases? The equations on page 721 with Lewis structures show how amines act as bases. Do the equations also show how the ammonium cation can act as an acid? Example shows how to calculate the ph of a strong base in solution. Pretty easy. Can the magic number of 14 be used for any temperature? If you are calculating the ph of a basic solution, what range should your answer have, in terms of ph units? Example shows how to calculate the ph of a weak base in solution. Make sure you keep in mind that the equilibrium reaction of a weak base produces OH and not H 3O +.

4 Section 15.8: Acid-base properties of salts. Some salts are acidic or basic. Figure shows the relationship between the acid strength of an acid and the basic strength of its conjugate base. Note the pattern in this figure. There is a general statement one can make about the basic strength of the anion from a strong acid. What is it? The equation for F ionizing in water is very important for the rest of this chapter, and the next chapter. This section shows how to calculate the K b value for the anion of a weak acid, and Example shows how to calculate the ph of a salt solution containing the anion of a weak acid. This is one of the hardest calculations of the chapter. Fill in the following: The anion of a weak acid (like CN from HCN) is The cation of a weak base is (like NH 4 + from NH 3) is The anion of a strong acid (like Cl from HCl) is The cation of a strong base is (like Na from NaOH) is Stronger weak acids have anions that are weak bases Typically, when faced with a question asking what is the ph of this salt or ion? one should write out an equilibrium reaction showing how that salt or ion interacts with water. If calculations are involved, make an ICE table using the reaction of the ion with water, write down the expression for K a or K b and go from there. How is K b for the anion of a weak acid related to the K a for that acid? The very end of this section has two nice pieces about Classifying Salt Solutions as Acids or Bases that you should be familiar with. Section 15.9: Polyprotic Acids. Some acids have more than one ionizable proton. Based on the K a values in Table 15.10, is the 2 nd proton more acidic or less acidic than the first proton? Skip Example Example shows some pretty fancy chemistry to eliminate ridiculously hard math. We ll do this in class.

5 Section 15.10: Can molecular structure be used to predict the strengths of acids? Before reading this section, note that there are two kinds of acids discussed here. Thinking about the two types might help resolve a bit of confusion along the way. Trends in acid strength based on structures will be divided into two groups: 1. Binary acids (like HF or HCl). 2. Oxo acids (like HNO 3 or H 2SeO 4). The two types can have opposite trends and explanations, so keep the two types of acids separate. Binary acids: (H X, where X is a halide anion) The strength of binary acids can be judged by bond polarity and bond energy (and entropy, but we won t worry about that) For H X acids, the acids get stronger going down the halide group in the periodic table. HF is a weak acid, the rest get progressively stronger. In water however, HCl-HBr-HI are all equally strong. In other solvents, HI is strongest. Oxo acids: (H O X, where X is any non-metallic element) Oxo acids have two trends, one with electronegativity of X, and another with the number of oxygen atoms. Both trends can be explained by stabilization of the resulting anion. Read this section for more information. Section 15.11: Lewis Acids and Bases Lewis (yes, the dot guy) developed a theory about acids and bases, but focused on electrons, not protons or H 3O +. This section has some nice diagrams showing where electrons go during acidbase reactions. If you plan on taking organic chemistry, this is the section for you. Much of organic can be thought of as Lewis acid/base chemistry. Section Know what substances cause acid rain, and where they come from, and their effects.

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