phonics is key to learning to read and spell (decoding and encoding print) Anne Washtell

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1 phonics is key to learning to read and spell (decoding and encoding print) Anne Washtell a vigourous programme of phonic work should be securely embedded within a broad and language rich curriculum. Jim Rose

2 Phonics and reading skills are taught in 6 distinct phases. These phases are set out in the Letters and Sounds document. At Kingswood we teach a phonics session daily. Skills of segmentation and blending Knowledge of the alphabetic code.

3 Years ago the teaching of reading was taught through a whole word approach. Most children read well, however some children had problems remembering words and were unable to cope with reading or writing satisfactorily as these children did not pick up letter sounds or relate them to words. (Lloyd, S) We now teach the letter sounds first and this has proved to be much more successful as children link sounds to letters during their reading and writing. Programme means that children are taught the main 42 sounds of English, not just the alphabet sounds. Some sounds are pronounced differently such as l and m so please be aware of this and try to support your child by pronouncing it correctly too as it will help in the long run! It is not essential that children know the letter names until phase 4 of phonics (so much further on)

4 We teach phonics everyday through systematic synthetic phonics Revisit and review- quick flash of previously taught phonemes and tricky words. Teach- teach new sounds through phonics story, guess objects in the box. Practise blending and segmenting words with new sound in & letter formation= writing letter on the floor, on their hands, in the air, on the ceiling, on a friend s back. Apply- reading (blending) or writing (segmenting) new sound/words in sentences. Multisensory approach- auditory, visual, kineasthetic, verbal.

5 Phoneme A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in a word. Grapheme- The smallest unit of sound written How many phonemes can you hear in the word cat/chip/high? Cat= 3 phonemes c a t Chip= 3 phonemes ch i p High = 2 phonemes h igh

6 Blending helps children with their reading. Blending Putting individual sounds together so that we can read a word. It is about being able to blend the sounds e.g. m a n In phonics we help the children to blend words orally by using sound buttons these are dots under each sound in the word. We help them to point to each spoken sound and then blend the sounds together to make the whole word.

7 Segmenting helps children with spelling and writing Segmenting breaking up words into their individual sounds so that we can spell a word. It is about segmenting the word orally, hearing each sound and then representing them with the appropriate letter. We use our fingers to help us to segment and count the sounds/phonemes in each word.

8 Tricky words are words that children can not sound out by the skill of blending e.g. go no to Children have to learn these words by sight. Tricky words will be sent home in phonics folders for children to learn. Each phase has new tricky words that children should know by the end of the phase High frequency words are words that children see frequently- both tricky and decodable (blendable.) Children should learn these by sight. They are words that they read and write often e.g. they and went. Some tricky words are included.

9 Nursery/reception Speaking and listening are the foundations for reading and writing. Aims of Phase One; To develop children s listening skills and awareness to sounds in the environment. To experience and develop awareness of sounds made with instruments and noise makers. To develop awareness of sounds and rhythms To distinguish between sounds and to remember patterns of sounds. E.g. listening walks Instrumental sounds Sound lotto Listening to stories Hearing rhyme and alliteration Through these activities, children hear the way language is put together into sentences for a purpose.

10 Reception The aim is to teach at least 19 letters and to move children on from oral blending and segmentation to blending and segmenting with letters. Set 1- s a t p Set 2- i n m d Set 3- g o c k Set 4- ck e u r Set 5- h b f ff l ll s s By the end of this phase many children should be able to read some VC or CVC words. E.g. as and cat

11 By now children will know around 19 letters taught in phase 2, be able to blend and segment VC words. Many of them will be able to read and spell CVC words. The purpose of this phase is to teach them 2 letter graphemes e.g. oa 12 more tricky words e.g. she, we, was Set 6: j, v, w, x Set 7: y, z, zz, qu Consonant digraphs: ch, sh, th, ng Vowel digraphs: ai, ee, igh, oa, oo, ar, or, ur, ow, oi, ear, air, ure, er

12 Children entering phase 4 will be able to represent each of the 42 phonemes by grapheme and be able to blend phonemes to read CVC words and segment CVC words for spelling. They will have some experience of reading simple two-syllable words and captions. The purpose of this phase is to consolidate children s knowledge of graphemes in reading and spelling words containing adjacent consonants and polysyllabic words e.g. children and slush

13 Children all work within the phase which is appropriate for their level of working. Phonics knowledge is assessed regularly. Adults work with groups to make sure phonics teaching activities are individually tailored to their level. Phonics sheets will be sent home weekly- it is not homework and is not due back in! It is for the children to use and you to know what they are learning.

14 Practising sound talking I spy a c-a-t cat Where is your b-a-g...bag? It is time for b-e-d bed Magnetic Letters Magnetic letters on the fridge or tin tray. Find the letters that have been taught/make up words e.g. c-a-t cat Making words together- as you select the letters, say them aloud a-m am Breaking words up- do it the other way round, break the word up and move the letters away. E.g. bat b-a-t Spotting letters in and around the home

15 Reading books will be given out as and when children are assessed to be ready for a book. They will have a reading log please record the times you have read to them and any other books you share with them. Please write a short comment about how they have got on. We do not comment in these books however we do look at them so any queries please write in them and we will do our best to reply! Reading books come in on a Monday and go out on a Monday! Phonics folders come in on a Friday and go out on a Friday please bring them into the classroom on these days! Read read read!!! Listen to them read and encourage them to use the picture for clues too! It is ok to tell them some of the words especially if they haven t come across it yet! Understanding and comprehension of the story is vital and just as important as decoding it. Ensure they understand what they are reading by asking questions before, during and after the story. Ask them open questions too such as what do you think, why do you think they did that etc Take notice when they point out sounds/letters/words in the environment. Reading to your child too is invaluable, they learn other aspects such as expression through you reading!!

16 At Kingswood Primary we use cursive handwriting. We model how to form letters correctly using cursive handwriting during phonics sessions Writing skills develop over a long period of time. Holding a pencil needs considerable co-ordination and practice in making small movements with hands and fingers. Mark-making is an important stage in the writing process. For handwriting children need to be well co-ordinated through their whole body, not just their hands and fingers. Please encourage your child to write with lower case letters instead of capitals!!

17 It must always be remembered that phonics is the step up to word recognition. Automatic reading of all words-decodable and tricky- is the ultimate goal!!! The most important thing is that children enjoy learning their phonics and become confident readers and writers.

18 onics_games.html Youtube has some fantastic videos to help with the pronunciation of sounds in the different phases.

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