Letters an d phonemes Letters: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z. Phonics at a glance. Some definitions.

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1 Phonics at a glance Phonics is Knowledge of the alphabetic code (26 letters, 44 phonemes, 140 different letter combinations) + Understanding of the skills of segmenting and blending Letters an d phonemes Letters: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z 44 phonemes: /b/ /k/ /d/ /f/ /g/ /h/ /j/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /p/ /r/ /s/ /t / / v/ /w / /y/ /z/ /sh/ /ch/ /t h/ /t h/ /ng/ /zh/ /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ /ai/ /ee/ /igh/ /oa/ /oo/ /oo/ /ow / /oi/ /ar/ /or/ /ur/ /air/ /ear/ /ure/ /er/ Some of 140 letter combinations illustrated in words: Cat, peg, pig, log, put, pain, day, gat e, st ation burn, first, term, heard, w ork, haul, law, call, t ried, light, my, slaughter Oral blending Hearing a series of spoken sounds and merging them toget her t o make a spoken word no t ext is used For example, when a t eacher calls out b-u-s, t he children say bus This skill is usually t aught before blending and reading print ed w ords Blending Recognising the letter sounds in a w ritten word, for example c-u-p, a nd merging or synthesising them in the order in w hich they are w ritten to pronounce the word cup Segmenting Identifying the individual sounds in a spoken w ord (e.g. h-i-m) and w riting dow n or manipulating letters for each sound to form the word him

2 Grapheme A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in a w ord Letter(s) representing a phoneme t ai igh Pronunciation Phonemes should be pronounced carefully Digraph Tw o lett ers, which make one sound A consonant digraph cont ains two consonants sh ck th ll A vow el digraph cont ains at least one vowel also known as long vowel phoneme ai ee ar oy Trigraph Three letters, w hich make one sound Cons onant di graphs ll ss ff zz hill puff fizz sh ch th w h ship chat thin igh dge ck ng qu x fox sing quick

3 Adjacent consonants Formally known as blends Lett er combinations where each letter makes an individual phoneme sp st sk sl t r ft nt lt mp un lp dr cl sw cr sm e.g. step list clap grasp strap S plit digraph A digraph in w hich the two letters are not adjacent (e.g. make) a_e e_e i_e o_e u_e Sound button activ ity p i g c h i c k class A segmenting act ivity slip chirp s h i p c a r try b o y c o w stick f i l l w h i p zoo s o n g f o r caught d a y mist playing w h i z z have said come h u f f frogspawn Segmentin g WORD shelf dress think st ring sprint flick PHO NEME S

4 The same phonem e can be represented in more than one vow el digraphs (long vow el phonemes) a ae ai ay ey eigh e e-e ea ee y i i-e ie igh y o o-e oa oe ow u u-e ue oo ew oo u oul ow ou ough oi oy ar a or aw ore a ough air are ear eer ear 1. The best bets for representing /ae/ at the beginning and in the middle of a word are a-e and ai 2. The best bet for representing /ae/ at the end of a word is ay Four key Principles of phonics The same spelling may represent more E.g. mean, deaf This is where children need to learn to use the skill of making sense of the text. The basic princip le meat bread High frequen cy words The majority of high frequency w ords are phonically regular he bed Some ex ceptions for ex ample the and was should be directly taught bear cow low hear It must alw ays be remembered that phonics is the step up to w ord recognition. Automatic reading of all w ords decodable and tricky is the ultimate goal

5 A child needs to lea rn t he let ters tha t ma ke up each sou nd, this is k no wn as pho neme - grapheme representatio n. phonemes ca n be i n t he ini tial, medial or final position o f a word. E.g. sat A single p honeme represen ted b y 2 lette rs or mo re e.g. c h ai n vowel dig raphs ai, ee, ie, oa, oo, ar, ir, oi, ou, ay, a-e, u -e etc.. trigrap hs igh, air, ea r The same phoneme can be This ver y commo n par ticula rly amo ng t he vo wels, e.g. rai n, ma y, lake On t he s urface t his appears to presen t problems i n spelling accurac y b ut t here a re ma ny rules t ha t ca n be applied accordi ng to position and associated conso nants E.g. the text. mean, dea f T his is w here c hildre n need to lear n to use the skill o f maki ng sense o f

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