Fun with Phonics. An explanation of teaching and learning of phonics in Foundation Stage and Key Stage 1 at Christ Church CE Primary School

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1 Fun with Phonics An explanation of teaching and learning of phonics in Foundation Stage and Key Stage 1 at Christ Church CE Primary School

2 What is phonics? Phonics is the study of sounds within words and how we hear, say and use these sounds. The teaching of phonics is split into 6 phases: Phase 1: Nursery Phase 2 & 3: Nursery & Reception Phase 4 & 5: Year 1 Phase 6: Year 2

3 Phase 1 Phonics explained This includes the following skills: Sounds: environmental, instrumental, voice sounds Rhythm and rhyme Alliteration Singing Blending & segmenting

4 Phase 1 Phonics explained Blending (to read) Segmenting (to spell) Blending and segmenting skills are introduced in the Nursery and carried on and developed continually throughout FS and KS1. These are the foundations of the skills of reading and spelling.

5 Phase 1 Phonics explained Blending (to read) Blending involves hearing the sounds that are within words and piecing them back together. For example Sound gym game

6 Phase 1 Phonics explained Segmenting (to spell) Segmenting means breaking the word down into sounds to allow you to spell it. For example What is in the box?

7 Phase 2 Phonics explained This is where the initial sounds are introduced along with a picture and corresponding action. s, a, t, p, i, n, m, d, g, o, c, k, e, u, r, h, b, f, ff, l, ll, ss, ck Please refer to the Sound and Action Booklet you have been given.

8 Phase 2 Phonics explained Within phase 2 we focus on the initial sound first. We use a bag of real life objects to engage the children, emphasising the initial sound. For example

9 Phase 2 Phonics explained Technical vocabulary: The terms phoneme, grapheme, digraph and trigraph are used consistently Children are encouraged to use technical vocabulary from the very beginning of this phase. A grapheme is the graphical representation of a sound (i.e. S) The phoneme is the sound that the grapheme makes (in the case of S the phoneme is ssssssssssssss Some graphemes are made up of more than one letter i.e. ch (digraphs) or ear (trigraphs)

10 Phase 2 Phonics explained Phoneme/grapheme teaching sequence s, a, t, p, i, n, m, d, g, o, c, k, ck, e, u, r, h, b, f, ff, l, ll, ss,

11 Phonics homework in Reception Phonics homework is based on learning new phoneme grapheme correspondences This involves: Recognising the grapheme and saying the sound (phoneme) that it makes Practising actions Fine motor control Letter writing practise Initial sound clues Sharing learning at home

12 Phase 3 Phonics explained During this phase children are taught the following: End of the alphabet letters Long vowel sounds (digraphs made of vowels) ee, ai, oo The letter names of the alphabet ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ and begin to identify digraphs as grapheme CH with the sound ch Phoneme/grapheme teaching sequence j, v, w, x, y, z, zz, qu, sh, ch, th, ng, ee, oo, oa, ai, ar, or, ur, oi, ow, igh, air, ear, ure, er

13 Phase 4 Phonics explained This phase runs alongside phases 3 and 5. It consolidates learning from phase 3 and introduces phase 5; enabling children to apply their learning to more complex 2 and 3 syllable words.

14 Phase 5 Phonics explained This is usually taught in year 1 then re-capped at the start of year 2. A variety of games and teaching strategies are incorporated within the four part lesson. (1. Re-visit/review, 2. Teach, 3. Practise, 4. Apply) Split digraphs such as /a-e/e-e/i-e/ etc. are introduced along with alternative graphemes for phonemes such as /ay/ in place of /ai/ (phase 3). Alternative pronunciations are also taught such as /ow/ as in blow, cow.

15 Phase 6 Phonics explained \ By the beginning of this phase children should know most of the common grapheme/phoneme correspondences. They should be able to read hundreds of words 3 ways: reading words automatically, decoding them quickly and silently and decoding them aloud. Spelling should be phonetically accurate although this maybe unconventional at times. Children should become fluent readers and increasingly accurate spellers.

16 Phase 6 Phonics explained \ Throughout this phase children are expected to learn spelling rules then apply them in their reading and spelling of an increasing number of more complex words. Such as rules for changing present tense to past tense by adding the suffix ed. Other rules for adding suffixes such as, -ing, -s, - es, -er, -est, -ly, -en, -ful, -ness and ment are also learnt. They will learn a number of spelling rules, patterns and exceptions and apply them in their writing.

17 How can you help? By knowing that good phonetic attempts are most important at the early stages of reading and spelling. More accurate spelling would be expected as children progress through each pase. Encourage children to sound out words which they are unsure of using a phoneme frame. c a t When sounding non- phonetic words (i.e. the) children should be encouraged to use the letter names T H E Give lots of praise and encouragement!

18 At home Sharing stories and rhymes is vital language patterns and rhyme help writing i.e. cat, sat, mat. Make silly long rhymes together. Look for letters in the wider environment i.e. on signs, posters etc. which helps with letter recognition Play listening games eye spy, eye spy something ending with Explore the different sounds of words Write the shopping list together Use sound clues when speaking i.e. can you pass the m-i-l-k

19 At home Create opportunities for application e.g. writing shopping lists, instructions etc. Practise letter formation have fun using shaving foam, hair gel, or with paint brushes and water, foam, gel, flour or gloop Form the letter in the air Do some finger painting, Use texture letters i.e. sandpaper

20 And finally Above all enjoy playing with language and communicating with the children. This provides vital listening and speaking skills which will aid the children s phonetic awareness; providing them with the foundations for reading and writing.

21 Some useful websites

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