Teacher Workbooks. Science and Nature Series Cloze Paragraphs Natural Disasters Theme, Vol. 1

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2 Teacher Workbooks Science and Nature Series Cloze Paragraphs Natural Disasters Theme, Vol. 1 Copyright 2005 Teachnology Publishing Company A Division of Teachnology, Inc. For additional information, visit us at

3 Theme Table of Contents Tsunamis 1-10 Volcanoes Earthquakes Answers SKill 6-word Cloze 1-4, 11-12, word Cloze 5-7, 13-16, word Cloze 8-10, 17-20, Answers Standard National Science Learning Standard: Earth and Space Science: Students will develop an understanding of properties of earth materials, objects in the sky, changes in earth and sky, structure of the earth system, Earth s history, and Earth in the solar system 1-30 Answers iii

4 Topic: Tsunamis Tsunamis tsunami geographical factors wondered common change Have you ever what caused a tsunami or what are sometimes called harbor waves? Several contribute to the formation of a tsunami. One variable is any sized seismic or disturbance. This is usually caused by a sudden in the level of the earth s crust just below or close by the ocean. Another factor in the cause of a is volcanic activity. Although tsunamis may occur in any of the world s major oceans, they are most in the area of the world known as the ring of fire. 1

5 Topic: Tsunamis Tsunamis beach geographical wind determines earth s rise The waves seen on the are much differently formed than a tsunami wave. Beach waves are caused by the strength of the blowing over the surface of the seawater. The strength of the wind the strength of the waves. Tsunamis are caused by a disruption of the crust in some way. This disturbance is often a or a fall in the crust layer of the earth. Often this change occurs under or close by the ocean. 2

6 Topic: Tsunamis Tsunamis tsunami one period wave Pacific speeds Tsunami, once formed, have the ability to travel at higher than 500 miles per hour. Traveling at that speed, a has the ability to travel across the entire Ocean in less than 24 hours. The waves of a tsunami occur in a series often referred to as the tsunami train. The amount of time in between each wave is called the wave period. This wave may last anywhere from only several minutes apart or well over hour. 3

7 Topic: Tsunamis Tsunamis factors fire world tsunami geological mountain An area of the known as the Pacific basin is home to many tsunamis. This area is more prone to the development of a due to the many volcanic island and chains that exist. As a result of these and the variable that there are also many subduction zones, this part of the world has become known as the ring of fire. The ring of continues to be the most active region in the world. 4

8 Topic: Tsunamis Tsunamis Tsunami change Pacific coastline strength exceeding ocean intensity Tsunamis are caused by a sudden in the earth s crust or volcanic activity. The level of of the original cause of the tsunami is the main factor in determining the and magnitude of the tsunami. Upon its onset, and in the open, a tsunami may travel at speeds 500 miles per hour. waves generated locally may reach a shore and in only minutes. The long wavelengths of a tsunami may, in only one day, travel across the entire Ocean. 5

9 Topic: Tsunamis Tsunamis period potential between villages travel waves per tsunamis Tsunamis can at a speed of over 500 miles hour. They have the of devastating proportions. Many travel in a series of waves. This momentum and series of is often called a wave train. The time in each wave is called the wave period. The wave period time frame may vary from only minutes to more than one hour. The time in between the wave is a dangerous time as many people have perished returning to their homes and thinking the waves had stopped. 6

10 Topic: Tsunamis Tsunamis mountain tsunamis conditions frequently nickname activity collection great Although are possible in all the major oceans of the world, they usually occur most in an area called the Pacific Basin. This area has been given the ring of fire. This particular area has a large of volcanic islands, chains, and what are known as subduction zones. These earned this area its nickname. Susceptibility to tsunamis is due to the level of geographical. 7

11 Topic: Tsunamis Tsunamis waves long wavelengths not harbor word tsunamis originated series across The word tsunami as a Japanese word. Translated, tsunami means wave. Today, this is known internationally. It describes the of waves that move along and the ocean containing extremely and powerful wavelengths. In fact, the may be up to hundreds of miles apart. Sometimes are confused with tidal. Unlike a tidal wave, tsunamis are connected with the natural cycle of weather or tidal flow. 8

12 Topic: Tsunamis Tsunamis close water crust rise fall sea change tsunamis forces causing Tsunamis are sometimes referred to as seismic waves. Scientists reveal that these natural of nature occur from the sudden change, rise and, of the earth s crust. This sudden movement of the earth s often happens under or to the ocean. What happens when this sudden occurs is that the water column is displaced, thus the rise and fall of the ocean s level. It s this initial and fall momentum that begins the onset of a tsunami. Volcanic activity may also cause. 9

13 Topic: Tsunamis Tsunamis blowing variable waves one crust feet distance different tsunami speed The seen when spending time at the beach are caused by the wind over the surface of the water. The strength and of the wind determine the size of each wave and the the wave travels. The wavelengths between each wave may be anywhere from several to approximately thousand feet. Tsunami waves are much from beach wind waves. The main in determining the size and strength of a is the magnitude of the disturbance, such as volcanic activity or a movement in the earth s in or near the ocean. 10

14 Topic: Volcanoes Volcanoes dormant three long erupt activity volcanoes Volcanoes can fall into groups. Volcanoes may be considered active. That means they are erupting, have the potential to, or have recently erupted. Another category of is the dormant group. Dormant volcanoes continue to show signs of, yet have not erupted in a very time. It is possible that a volcano may not ever erupt again. Volcanoes considered extinct have not erupted since the time of recorded volcanic history. 11

15 Topic: Volcanoes Volcanoes volcano basic common explosive eruption shapes The shape of a generally falls into three different shapes. The are determined by how the volcano erupts, the material released in the, and the shape of the volcano cone. Strato volcanoes, shield volcanoes, and cinder cone volcanoes are the three types of volcanoes. Sometimes Strato volcanoes are called composite volcanoes. Strato volcanoes are the most. They are also more likely to be active and. 12

16 Topic: Volcanoes Volcanoes shaped opening volcanic magma formed builds vent up Vents are an in the earth s crust. Volcanic mountains are around vents. Magma is pushed toward the surface of the earth as a result of the pressure that below the earth s crust. The is released from inside the earth through the. Most volcanoes have a cone top called a crater. This crater is from where materials are discharged. 13

17 Topic: Volcanoes Volcanoes rock melts magma hot deep called form earth It is very, very hot inside the earth s crust in an area called the mantle. In fact, it s so hot that certain rocks become liquid in. The heat actually the rock. This and thick flowing melted rock is magma. Magma is considered molten. Also inside the is tremendous pressure. Pressure builds as the and other gasses rise into the earth s crust. 14

18 Topic: Volcanoes Volcanoes released liquid recovering rock hardens Lava repeated magma Volcanic mountains are built as a result of continuous and eruptions. Magma is what is from the vent of a volcano. Once the reaches the surface of the earth, it s called lava. is also very hot and will flow for as long as it remains hot to remain in form. Lava when cooled, into rock. As a result, layers of form over previous layers or rock. It s this continual covering and of rock that creates the volcanic mountain. 15

19 Topic: Volcanoes Volcanoes three earth s meet Plate active volcanoes extinct earthquakes The locations where two plates of the earth are often sites of volcanoes. Many volcanoes are associated with earthquakes. This is due to the fact that many will weaken a particular area of the crust. Many exist in an area of the world around the Pacific called the Ring of Fire. There are categories of volcanoes. They are active, dormant, and. 16

20 Topic: Volcanoes Volcanoes flowing pushed Inside mountains years rock formation forces melted different Rock that has been up into the air over thousands of are called mountains. These huge masses of are the result of a very slow process of within the earth. Mountains are formed in four ways. Mountain called doming and volcanic action are the ways in which domed and volcanic form. each of these types of mountain formation, exists magma. Magma is a heated, often substance of rock. 17

21 Topic: Volcanoes Volcanoes weak substance flow Magma earth rock crust lighter opening very Deep within the earth is a flowing called magma. Inside the earth s crust is very, hot. This heat actually causes to melt slowly, over time, into magma. rises as a result of its weight. Magma is than the rock it s around. Sometimes magma rises up into the of the Earth due to the extreme pressure inside the. Magma may into a fault line or another location in the earth. Sometimes the magma finds a volcano, or an in the earth, where pressure and gasses can be discharged. 18

22 Topic: Volcanoes Volcanoes magma cracked result pressure hardens up volcanic called earth deep Magma is the hot and liquid fluid rock found within the earth. Magma is pushed closer the earth s surface as a of the pressure inside the earth. Fault lines, other thin,, or weak areas of the earth will hold deposits of magma. Volcanoes, openings on the, will also contain magma. Sometimes, when there is enough, the magma will exit the earth through a eruption. Once the reaches the surface of the earth, it is lava. Eventually, the lava cools and into rock. 19

23 Topic: Volcanoes Volcanic Mountains lava Mount found from both hardened liquid many mountain volcanic Lava is what the hot, flowing discharge is called that exits a volcano. Once cooled, lava becomes rock. A volcano that has had many, eruptions eventually forms a mountain. After many layers of are built up from volcanic eruptions, a volcanic is formed. An example of a mountain in the United States is Mount Rainer. Other volcanic mountains can be worldwide. For example, Mount Vesuvius in Italy and Fujiyama in Japan are volcanic mountains. 20

24 Topic: Earthquakes Earthquakes weakest measure earthquakes instrument daily seismograph Earthquakes occur almost. Although many are not felt, over one million occur each year. Earthquakes are measured using an called a seismograph. The detects as well as records each earthquake. The Richter Scale is a scale that is used to the magnitude, or strength of the earthquake. The scale is based on a range from one to ten. One represents the earthquake and ten the strongest. An earthquake is truly a shaking of the ground or of the earth s plates. 21

25 Topic: Earthquakes Earthquakes world scientific explanations potential legends nature Earthquakes have the to be catastrophic. For years, people have tried to find and provide for the occurrence of earthquakes. Many narratives from around the, in the form of legends, exist. These from civilization around the world try to use non-scientific explanations for such a force of. Although these folklore stories occurred prior to the explanations known today, many are still told today. One such legend is known as The Turtle Tale. 22

26 Topic: Earthquakes Earthquakes strength recorded humans earthquakes seismograph reduced Earthquakes vary in their magnitude or. Many earthquakes are never even felt by or animals. These earthquakes are detected and using an instrument or tool known as the seismograph. The uses a scale, called the Richter Scale to indicate an magnitude. Following an earthquake, many weaker earthquakes occur. These strength earthquakes are called aftershocks. 23

27 Topic: Earthquakes Earthquakes Fault gigantic bottom plates mountains earth s The earth s surface is also known as the crust. The surface of the earth is made up of pieces of the crust known as plates. The meeting and joining of these is called a fault. In the state of New York, a fault line known as the Ramapo exists. This fault runs through the Hudson Valley at the very of the Hudson Highlands. These particular mountains are considered to be fault block mountains. Fault block occur when the earth s crust has been divided into large pieces. 24

28 Topic: Earthquakes Earthquakes above warning fires earthquakes damage earth s animals possible The location within the crust where an earthquake originates is called the focus. What s known as the epicenter describes the local directly the focus. Close to a million occur yearly, although many are not felt. Earthquakes have the ability to strike without, thus holding the potential of great harm to people and. Property damage is also depending on the magnitude of the earthquake. Earthquakes also have the ability to and destroy gas and electrical lines, sometimes causing. 25

29 Topic: Earthquakes Earthquakes collide fault ocean earth s plates changes earthquake sunken Earthquakes are caused when plates of the surface move. The plates may slide,, or pull apart. When an occurs, a shaking of the earth s surface is felt. The area where the of the earth meet is called a fault. An earthquake occurs along the. After an earthquake, there may be many landform such as landslides and ground. Earthquakes can also occur under the water. These earthquakes can cause giant waves called tsunamis. 26

30 Topic: Earthquakes Earthquakes injuries force avalanches earthquakes felt potential million landform The natural of an earthquake has the potential to be catastrophic. Although over one earthquakes occur each year, many of them are not. However, have the ability to be devastating. Depending on the magnitude of an earthquake, they have the to cause property damage and death in just seconds. Many often result from the damage and collapse of buildings and bridges, especially in the more heavily populated areas. Landforms often change as a result of earthquakes. Sunken ground,, and landslides are just a few changes that may occur. 27

31 Topic: Earthquakes Earthquakes earth earthquake result plates released shaking crust apart likely movement Giant pieces of the earth s are broken into huge parts called plates. In the areas where these meet is where earthquakes are to occur. The plates of the may move in three different ways. The plates may collide, pull, or slide. Each type of will in an earthquake of varying magnitudes. An occurs when the earth s plates cause a movement of the earth s surface. It s at the moment of an earthquake that energy is from the earth. 28

32 Topic: Earthquakes Earthquakes crust earthquake quick release plates earth s apart surface shaking types Simply stated, an is a shaking of the earth s crust that is the result of an energy. This shaking movement of the surface results in an earthquake. Three of earth movements exist. Each occurs when the earth s, made up of giant plates, move. The earth s may slide, collide, or pull. The moment the move, there is a sudden and often movement that results in a of the earth s surface. 29

33 Topic: Earthquakes Earthquakes surface earth earthquake result Ocean million quick above movement crust An earthquake occurs when an often sudden and release of energy occurs within the earth. As a of this energy release, large plates on the earth s move and create a shaking of the earth s surface. The place where an originates, usually deep within the earth s is called the focus. The location directly the focus, on the surface of the is called the epicenter. Most of the world s earthquakes occur in an area in the Pacific called the Ring of Fire. Although few are felt, over one earthquakes occur each year. 30

34 Answers Page 1 1. wondered 2. factors 3. geographical 4. change 5. tsunami 6. common Page 2 1. beach 2. wind 3. determines 4. earth s 5. rise 6. geographical Page 3 1. speeds 2. tsunamis 3. Pacific 4. wave 5. period 6. one Page 4 1. world 2. tsunami 3. mountain 4. factors 5. fire 6. geological Page 5 1. change 2. intensity 3. strength 4. ocean 5. exceeding 6. Tsunami 7. coastline 8. Pacific Page 6 1. travel 2. per 3. potential 4. tsunamis 5. waves 6. between 7. period 8. villages Page 7 1. tsunamis 2. frequently 3. nickname 4. collection 5. mountain 6. conditions 7. great 8. activity Page 8 1. originated 2. harbor 3. word 4. series 5. across 6. long 7. wavelengths 8. tsunamis 9. waves 10. not Page 9 1. sea 2. forces 3. fall 4. crust 5. close 6. change 7. causing 8. water 9. rise 10. tsunami Page waves 2. blowing 3. speed 4. distance 5. feet 6. one 7. different 8. variable 9. tsunami 10. crust Page three 2. erupt 3. volcanoes 4. activity 5. long 6. dormant Page volcano 2. shapes 3. eruption 4. three 5. common 6. explosive Page opening 2. formed 3. up 4. builds 5. magma 6. vent 7. shaped 8. volcanic Page deep 2. form 3. melts 4. hot 5. called 6. rock 7. earth 8. magma Page repeated 2. released 3. magma 4. Lava 5. liquid 6. hardens 7. rock 8. recovering Page meet 2. active 3. earthquakes 4. earth s 5. volcanoes 6. Plate 7. three 8. extinct Page pushed 2. years 3. rock 4. forces 5. different 6. formation 7. mountains 8. Inside 9. flowing 10. melted Page substance 2. very 3. rock 4. Magma 5. lighter 6. crust 7. earth 8. flow 9. weak 10. opening Page deep 2. up 3. result 4. cracked 5. earth 6. pressure 7. volcanic 8. magma 9. called 10. hardens Page liquid 2. from 3. hardened 4. many 5. lava 6. mountain 7. volcanic 8. found 9. Mount 10. both Page daily 2. earthquakes 3. instrument 4. seismograph 5. measure 6. weakest Page potential 2. explanations 3. world 4. legends 5. nature 6. scientific Page strength 2. humans 3. recorded 4. seismograph 5. earthquakes 6. reduced Page earth s 2. gigantic 3. plates 4. Fault 5. bottom 6. mountains Page earth s 2. above 3. earthquakes 4. warning 5. animals 6. possible 7. damage 8. fires 31

35 Page earth s 2. collide 3. earthquakes 4. plates 5. fault 6. changes 7. sunken 8. ocean Page force 2. millions 3. felt 4. earthquakes 5. potential 6. injuries 7. avalanches 8. landform Page crust 2. plates 3. likely 4. earth 5. apart 6. movement 7. result 8. earthquakes 9. shaking 10 released Page earthquake 2. release 3. earth s 4. types 5. crust 6. surface 7. apart 8. plates 9. quick 10. shaking Page quick 2. result 3. surface 4. movement 5. earthquake 6. crust 7. above 8. earth 9. Ocean 10. million 32

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