Transportation Informatics Group, ALPEN-ADRIA University of Klagenfurt. Sensor. Transportation Informatics Group University of Klagenfurt 5/11/2009 1

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1 Sensor Transportation Informatics Group University of Klagenfurt Alireza Fasih, /11/ Address: L4.2.02, Lakeside Park, Haus B04, Ebene 2, Klagenfurt-Austria

2 Sensor A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. CCD Camera Structure of Pixel for converting Photon to Electrical Signal 5/11/2009 2

3 Sensor A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. Thermometer Flow meter 2D Laser Scanner Gyroscope Photocell Microphone 5/11/2009 3

4 Sensor Sensitivity Sensor sensitivity How much the sensor's output changes when the measured quantity changes Comparing Sensitivity of Load Cell ( measuring the weight) < 200kg < 1000kg < 10kg < 50kg Accuracy:10gr Accuracy: 100gr Accuracy:0.01gr Accuracy:0.1gr 5/11/2009 4

5 Sensor Type Thermal: Temperature/heat sensors Electromagnetic: Electrical resistance/voltage/power sensors, magnetism sensors, metal detectors, RADAR Mechanical: Acceleration, position, pressure, switch, liquid sensors Chemical: Odor (smell) sensor, oxygen sensors Optical radiation: Light sensors, infra-red sensor, proximity sensor Acoustic: Sound sensors Motion sensors: Radar gun, speedometer, tachometer, odometer Orientation sensors: Gyroscope 5/11/2009 5

6 Features of Sensor (1) Light Sensors Detecting light intensity, density, reflection, color temperature, type of light Rich information, very low cost C-MOS Camera Visual information about the environment Processing power and storage needs are often large Users feel uncomfortable Location sensor GPS(Global Positioning System) is mostly used Coarse location information Cellular network infrastructures: Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 5/11/ /54

7 Features of Sensor (2) Audio, Microphones Interesting information: Noise level, type of input, base frequency Using minimal processing: Less than 200 bytes of RAM Multiple microphones: Richer information Very cheap Can be extended up to speech recognition by using more processing power Ultrasonic sensors: Augment human sensory capabilities Accelerometers Information on the inclination, motion, acceleration of the device Typical: Mercury switches, angular sensors, accelerometers Especially interesting in examination of usage patterns Touch sensor Can reduce energy consumption: operative in the user's hand 5/11/ /54

8 Air pressure Some hints: Closing door Features of Sensor (3) Temperature sensor Most sensors are cheap and easy to use Detect body heat, arctic or desert environments Passive IR sensors (Motion detector) Movement of the device itself is detected as well Proximity sensors Determine a proximate distance between a physical object in the range and the device Gas sensor Problem: delay in measurement, enormous energy consumption 5/11/ /54

9 Features of Sensor (4) Biosensors User awareness Skin resistance, blood pressure: sports and medical applications Emotional state of the user may be obtained Magnetic field Similar to a compass Direction of a device or movement can be determined This sensor can give false information Tilt sensors Determine the tilt angles of the device No-power sensors Metal ball switches, mercury switches, solar panels Extremely low power consumption 5/11/ /54

10 Sensor Data & Processing Input Data Sensor Data Processing Techniques Video Compression: MPEGX, H.26X, JPEG CCD Facial detection techniques CMOS Data streamining techniques Compression: MPEGX, G.7XX, AAC Audio Microphone Audio data processing techniques Voice recognition Position Bio Environment Movement Transportation Informatics Group, ALPEN-ADRIA University of Klagenfurt GPS RF (Radio Frequency) system ECG, EEG, EMG, PPG, GSR Skin temperature Respiration Blood Pressure (BP) Light, Humidity, Temperature, Ultraviolet sensor Position detection Map data mapping (addressing) Time detection Heart Rate Extraction Stress Level Emotion Estimation Alpha Wave Detection Electrohystereogram, body temperature extraction Health Monitoring Noninvasive BP estimation Noise reduction Awareness Environment Falling detection Gesture recognition (walking, running,...) Human interface (ETRI 06) Data mining techniques Data searching techniques Feature extraction techniques 5/11/ /54

11 Sensor Fusion Sensor fusion is a method for conveniently integrating data provided by various sensors, in order to obtain the best estimate for a dynamic system's states. Environment Sound Concrete Asphalt 5/11/

12 Sensor fusion algorithms Sensor fusion is a term that covers a number of methods and algorithms, including: Kalman filter Bayesian networks Dempster-Shafer 5/11/

13 Level of Sensor Fusion There are several categories or levels of sensor fusion that are commonly used. Level 0 - Data Alignment Level 1 - Entity Assessment (e.g. signal/feature/object) Tracking and object detection/recognition/identification Level 2 - Situation Assessment Level 3 - Impact Assessment Level 4 - Process Refinement (i.e. sensor management) Level 5 - User Refinement Fusion of RADAR and HDR Camera 5/11/

14 Sensor Kit 5/11/

15 Data Acquisition Data acquisition is the sampling of the real world values to generate data that can be manipulated by a computer. Sometimes abbreviated DAQ or DAS, data acquisition typically involves acquisition of signals and waveforms and processing the signals to obtain desired information. Sensor Analog DAQ Hardware Data Command DAQ Software SYSTEM Controller Log File 5/11/

16 Data Acquisition DAQ Board Characteristics: Number of Digital IO line Number of Analog Input Line Number of Analog Output Line Sampling Rate DAC Precision (10bit, 16bit, ) Internal Counter (32bit, 64bit, ) Interface Technology (RS232,USB, PCI, PCI Express, PCMCIA ) Software and Driver Compatibility (SDK, ) 5/11/

17 MATLAB and DAQ Data Acquisition Toolbox Data Acquisition Toolbox provides a complete set of tools for analog input, analog output, and digital I/O from a variety of PC-compatible data acquisition hardware. The toolbox lets you configure your external hardware devices, read data into MATLAB and Simulink for immediate analysis, and send out data. 5/11/

18 Application in Vehicles Smart Car 5/11/

19 Next Session Application of Sensors in ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) Accelerometer Gyroscope Compass Sensor Inertial Navigation LIDAR 2D Laser Scanner HDR Camera Night Vision Camera 5/11/

20 Thank you for your attention 5/11/

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