The presidency of Thomas Jefferson shapes the U.S. government. The Louisiana Purchase and the War of 1812 strongly affect the nation.

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1 SLIDE 1 Chapter 10 The Jefferson Era, The presidency of Thomas Jefferson shapes the U.S. government. The Louisiana Purchase and the War of 1812 strongly affect the nation. SLIDE 2 Section 1: Jefferson Takes Office Section 2: The Louisiana Purchase and Exploration Section 3: Problems with Foreign Powers Section 4: The War of 1812 SLIDE 3 Section 1: Jefferson Takes Office When Jefferson becomes president in 1801, his party replaces Federalist programs with its own. SLIDE 4 Section 1: Jefferson Takes Office The Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson, Aaron Burr are Democratic-Republican candidates Believe Alien and Sedition Acts violate Bill of Rights John Adams is Federalist candidate Thinks radicals, people with extreme political views, will ruin nation Burr and Jefferson defeat Adams in presidential election Burr, Jefferson receive same number of electoral votes SLIDE 5 Breaking the Tie House of Representatives breaks Burr/Jefferson tie Federalists control the House of Representatives Some Federalists fear Jefferson s views Others, like Alexander Hamilton, feel Burr is unreliable House elects Jefferson as president SLIDE 6 The Talented Jefferson

2 Jefferson has many talents: - advises Washington D. C. architects - skilled violinist, horseman, scientist, devoted reader Book collection becomes core for the Library of Congress SLIDE 7 Jefferson s Philosophy Jefferson wants to unite Americans, promotes common life style Wants U.S. to remain a nation of small, independent farmers Believes such a nation upholds strong democratic values Believes in a modest role for the central government SLIDE 8 Undoing Federalist Programs Jefferson seeks to end many Federalist policies: - allows Alien and Sedition Acts to end - ends many taxes including whiskey tax - reduces number of Federal employees, government debt SLIDE 9 Marshall and the Judiciary Adams uses Judiciary Act of 1801 to appoint many Federalist judges New president Jefferson is frustrated with Federalist judiciary Cannot change judges because they are appointed for life Before leaving office, Adams picks Chief Justice of Supreme Court Federalist Chief Justice John Marshall in office for over 3 decades Strengthens the federal courts, presides over Marbury v. Madison, 1803 SLIDE 10 Marbury v. Madison Before leaving office, Adams picks William Marbury as a justice New Secretary of State James Madison refuses to install Marbury Marbury sues, case goes to Supreme Court Court rules that law under which Marbury sues is unconstitutional Unconstitutional: contradicts the law of the Constitution SLIDE 11 Continued Marbury v. Madison Supreme Court establishes principle of judicial review - judicial review has final say in interpreting the Constitution - helps establish balance between 3 government branches

3 SLIDE 12 Section 2: The Louisiana Purchase and Exploration Jefferson purchases the Louisiana Territory in 1803 and doubles the size of the United States. SLIDE 13 Section 2: The Louisiana Purchase and Exploration The West in 1800 Many settlers move to region between Appalachians, Mississippi River Kentucky, Tennessee become states (1800), Ohio becomes state (1803) France, Spain want Louisiana Territory, Britain claims land in region Louisiana Territory between the Mississippi River, Rocky Mountains Spain settles California, Russians settle Pacific coast Americans want free use of Mississippi River and New Orleans port SLIDE 14 Napoleon and New Orleans Louisiana Territory is claimed by France, then Spain Spain returns territory to France (1800), French plan to colonize it Before returning territory, Spain closes New Orleans to Americans Angers many Americans who call for war with Spain, France Jefferson offers to buy New Orleans from France French ask if U.S. wants to buy all of Louisiana Territory SLIDE 15 The Louisiana Purchase France, Napoleon offer Louisiana Territory to U.S. because: - U.S. determination to keep New Orleans - France s problems with colonization - Napoleon s costly war with Britain Jefferson approves Louisiana Purchase on April 30, 1803 Buys territory for $15 million, doubles size of U.S. SLIDE 16 Lewis and Clark Explore Jefferson chooses Meriwether Lewis to lead Louisiana exploration Lewis chooses William Clark to pick, oversee volunteer force Expedition is known as Lewis and Clark expedition

4 Clark is accompanied by York, African American slave, skilled hunter Expedition sets out in summer of 1803, reaches St. Louis by winter SLIDE 17 Up the Missouri River Expedition leaves St. Louis (May 1804), heads up Missouri River Explores river, hopes to find water route across continent Relates well with Native Americans, describes landscape, animals Reaches Mandan Indian villages in October, builds fort, spends winter Leave with French trapper, Shoshone wife Sacagawea in spring 1805 SLIDE 18 On to the Pacific Ocean Expedition reaches Great Falls of the Missouri Reaches Rocky Mountains, Shoshone lands; Sacagawea is chief s sister Shoshone help explorers cross Rockies, reach Columbia River Sail down river to Pacific coast, spend winter, return following year Expedition brings back wealth of scientific, geographic information SLIDE 19 Pike s Expedition Zebulon Pike leads expedition (1806) into southern Louisiana Territory Seeks source of Arkansas, Red rivers, follows Arkansas River to Rockies Finds Rocky Mountain peak that is later named Pike s Peak Heads into Spanish territory, arrested by Spanish, released (1807) Brings back descriptions of Great Plains, Rio Grande River Valley SLIDE 20 The Effects of Exploration First American explorers of the West bring back tales of adventure Bring back valuable scientific, geographical information SLIDE 21 Section 3: Problems with Foreign Powers Jefferson tries to avoid involvement in the problems of other nations. SLIDE 22 Section 3: Problems with Foreign Powers

5 Jefferson s Foreign Policy As president, Jefferson wants to focus on domestic concerns Advises U.S. to be friendly with nations, but not form alliances Jefferson s effort to keep U.S. separate from other nations fails: - U.S. merchants are trading all over world - U.S. has closer contact with other nations - U.S. has little control over actions of foreign nations SLIDE 23 Problems with France and England Britain does not want U.S. to supply Britain s enemies with provisions Sets up blockade (1805), allows certain American ships to reach Europe France is angered by blockade, enacts laws to control foreign shipping If Americans obey British, their ships could be seized by the French If Americans obey French, their ships could be seized by British SLIDE 24 Continued Problems with France and England Britain uses impressment, or kidnapping, of American sailors Impressment interferes with U.S. trade Famous impressment incident arouses widespread anger in America Jefferson decides not to declare war on Britain SLIDE 25 Trade as a Weapon Jefferson asks Congress to pass the Embargo Act of prohibits U.S. ships to sail to foreign ports - closes U.S. ports to British Act hurts U.S. more than it does Britain, France Because of unpopular embargo, Jefferson loses election of 1808 James Madison becomes president, Congress repeals embargo Madison allows trade except with Britain, France SLIDE 26 Tecumseh and Native American Unity Native Americans lose much land to settlers in the Northwest Territory Shawnee chief, Tecumseh says Native Americans must unite Many tribes answer Tecumseh s call for unity U.S. defeats Shawnee at Battle of Tippecanoe, sets back unity movement SLIDE 27

6 War Hawks British welcome Tecumseh, warriors in Canada British-Native American alliance angers Americans in the West Westerners known as War Hawks call for war with Britain Americans also angry about British violation of American rights at sea Andrew Jackson, War Hawks urge Congress to declare war Congress declares war on Britain on June 18, 1812 SLIDE 28 Section 4: The War of 1812 Angered by Britain s interference in the nation s affairs, the United States goes to war. SLIDE 29 Section 4: The War of 1812 The War Begins Britain does not want war with U.S., news reaches U.S. late Congress approves war First phase of War of 1812, Britain focuses on defeating France Britain does little in U.S. except blockade the American coast Second phase, Britain focuses on defeating U.S. When war is declared, U.S. military is weak, poorly trained SLIDE 30 The First Phase of the War U.S. wins early naval victories U.S. commander Oliver Hazard Perry, fleet defeat British (1813) U.S. defeat British at Battle of the Thames in Canada; Tecumseh killed U.S. victory ends British threat to the northwest SLIDE 31 The Second Phase of the War After defeating Napoleon, Britain focuses on defeating the U.S. British troops burn U.S. Capitol building, attack Fort McHenry Lawyer Francis Scott Key proudly watches U.S. defend Fort McHenry Writes song that expresses his pride, becomes U.S. national anthem U.S. defeat British at battle of Lake Champlain (1814) SLIDE 32

7 Continued The Second Phase of the War British troops approach New Orleans General Andrew Jackson patches together U.S. troops Defeats British at the Battle of New Orleans Britain, U.S. sign Treaty of Ghent, ends war Battle of New Orleans takes place after the treaty is signed SLIDE 33 The Legacy of the War War of 1812 has no clear winner but has important consequences: - U.S. war heroes increase American patriotism - war breaks the strength of Native Americans - forces U.S. to manufacture goods previously imported - U.S. proves it can defend itself against the mightiest military power

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