Using Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) in vineyards

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1 Using Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) in vineyards Ashraf El-kereamy University of California Cooperative Extension Kern County Plant hormones: PGR vs Hormones - Endogenous organic compounds active at very low concentration - Essential for regulating plant growth and development - Produced in one tissue and translocated to another tissue - Have a specific function at specific stage and concentration - They act together in a complex pathway Plant Growth Regulators (PGR): - Natural or synthetic form of the plant hormones that can be used to control or modify plant growth and also called plant growth substances or growth factors Plant hormones synthesis and their function Hormone Where produced or found Function Auxin Embryos Meristems of apical buds and young leaves Stimulates stem elongation at low concentration Delays color and ripening Retards abscission Cytokinin Roots Affects root growth Stimulates cell division Delays ripening and senescence Increases fruit set Gibberellins Embryos Meristems of apical buds and young leaves Promote bud growth and seed germination Promote cell elongation Abscisic acid Leaves, stem, root and green fruits Inhibits growth Closes stomata Promotes dormancy Enhances coloration Ethylene Ripening fruits Aging leaves and flowers Promotes fruit ripening Promotes senescence Improve coloration 1

2 Plant Hormones and PGRs Endogenous Hormone Auxin Cytokinin Growth Regulators IAA, IBA, NAA, 2,4-D kinetin, BA, 2iP, TDZ Gibberellin GA 3, GA 4+7 Abscisic acid ABA Ethylene Ethephon, Ethrel PGRs application regulations - Plant growth regulators (PGR) are regulated by the DPR as pesticides. - Handle and application of PGR follow the same pesticides regulations. Plant hormones involved in grape ripening Auxin (indoleacetic acid/ IAA) Cytokinins (CK) Gibberellins (GA) Abscisic acid (ABA) Ethylene others (Jasmonic acid (JA) & Brassinosteroids (BRs) 2

3 Plant Hormones are classified under two major groups Growth Promoters Cytokinins Gibberellins Auxin Promote cell division and growth Growth Retardants / Inhibitors Abscisic acid (Stress hormone) Ethylene (Ripening / Senescence hormone) Inhibit cell division and growth Ripening of grape (Non-Climacteric fruit) Vs. tomato (Climacteric fruit) EIM LMG MG Br Tu Orange Pink Red Veraison (Color Break Stage) Autocatalytic ethylene Ethylene production Ethylene production Combe and Hall, Grape berry growth cycles First is formation cycle Berry formation start with cell division in pericarp tissue and flower starts transform into fruit. Water transfers into berry via xylem and phloem to enlarge berry. Berry is green and hard, the volume increase rapidly. The second is ripening cycle Sugar accumulation, phenolics and flavour compounds Color changes from green. Formation of each compound is temperature and light depended but the ripeness of berry is determined by sugar level and Color 3

4 Role of plant hormones during grape berry development Auxin ***** *** * * * * Cytokinin ******* ****** ** * * * Gibberellins ******* ****** * * * * Abscisic acid * * ****** *** * * Ethylene * * ****** *** * * Fortes et al. 2015, Molecules, 20, General use of PGRs in grapes PGR Purpose of use Stage Gibberellins (GA) Cluster elongation Before bloom Berry thinning Bloom Berry sizing After fruit set Cytokinins (CK) Berry sizing After fruit set Abscisic acid (ABA) Berry coloration Verasion Ethylene Berry coloration Verasion Mode of action of GA in increasing berry size GA application Cell elongation Increases cell size Increases fruit size GA + GA 4

5 GA treatment on Flame seedless grapes GA 20ppm after fruit set GA 40ppm after fruit set Control GA and NAA treatments on Flame seedless NAA 20ppm after fruit set NAA40ppm after fruit set Control Mode of action of Cytokinin in increasing berry size Cytokinins application More cell division Increases number of cells Increases fruit size CK +CK 5

6 Ethylene synthesis during grape ripening and ethephon application hasten berry coloration Internal ethylene (pmol.g FW -1 ) Ethylene application Colored berries (%) Time after full bloom (weeks) 0 External ethephon application increases internal ethylene content Internal ethylene (pmol.g FW -1 ) Control C 2 H Time after treatment (h) Role of ethylene in fruit ripening FRUIT RIPENING Aroma volatiles Odor Perception Taste Autocatalysis H Ethylene C=C H H H H H C=C H H Ethylene Other signals sugars acids Aroma Ethylene synthesis Signal transduction Color Vacuole Respiration Pigments Chromoplast Mitochondria Membrane degradation Cell wall degradation Softening Nucleus Transcription factors Ripening related genes DNA GENETIC PROGRAMME Programmed Cell death 6

7 ABA synthesis during grape ripening Sun et al., BMC Plant Biol. 2010; 10: 257. Crimson Seedless grapes received no PGRs for color improvement (left column), or increasing concentration of ABA (middle and right columns). Photo by Cecilia Peppi Fidelibus and Vasquez, plant growthregulators to improve the color of grapes#.vkvy7_1dhx5, University of California Interaction of the plant hormones 7

8 Factors to consider when using PRs in grapes The time should be determined by a phonological stage not by a date, because of the variation in the weather condition from year to year Time of application varies depends on the purpose of application, for example GA bloom spray can be at 50%, 70% or 100% bloom depends on the variety and degree of the desired thinning Factors to consider when using PGRs in grapes The concentration of the GA bloom and sizing spray varies a lot among cultivars and it varies from 0.5 ppm up to 40ppm for bloom and from 10ppm 80ppm for sizing Always refer to the recommendations for using the GA on a specific variety, if there is no recommendation perform a small trial before treating the whole vineyard. Factors to consider when using PGRs in grapes A good canopy structure facilitate PGRs application and increases spray efficiency Application method is very important and need to be efficient in providing a good coverage with small droplet size PH of the spray solution should be adjusted depends on the materials used, for example most of ethephon could be lost if used water with high basic PH 8

9 Factors to consider when using PGRs in grapes Do not mix several materials in the tank when performing PGRs application to avoid any un intentional complication Plant hormones interact with each other, thus at the time of application attention should be given when mixing or applying more than one PGR Be aware of the PGRs traces exist in other materials Factors to consider when using PGRs in grapes Understand the other side effects of using a specific PGR GA may affect the following season bud fruitfulness if used in higher than recommended concentration, always watch the bud fertility early in the spring Ethephon / Ethrel application may affect fruits softening Cytokinin may delay fruit ripening when used at higher concentration Wrong timing and/or concentration may result in undesirable results and loss in the yield and quality 9

10 Summary Hormones are endogenous compounds essential for fruit growth and ripening Each hormone / PGR has a specific function All PGRs interact and work together to regulate cell growth and development The response to PGR varies depends on the variety, developmental stage, concentration and method of application Summary Wrong timing and/or concentration may result in undesirable results and loss in the yield and quality Handle and application of PGR follow the same pesticides regulations Ashraf El-kereamy Phone:

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