MEASURING ENERGY SAVINGS AND GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) EMISSION REDUCTIONS BENEFITS RESULTING FROM RECYCLING IN CANADA

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1 MEASURING ENERGY SAVINGS AND GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) EMISSION REDUCTIONS BENEFITS RESULTING FROM RECYCLING IN CANADA Enhancement Recycling Program.

2 FACT SHEET BACKGROUNDER INTRODUCTION It is widely accepted, but not well understood, that manufacturing materials and products from recycled sources requires less energy and results in fewer air emissions and water born effluents, than if only virgin or primary resources are used. To help establish baseline information in this area, the Recycling Council of Ontario (RCO) with the support of the Government of Canada, Action Plan 2000 on Climate Change Enhanced Recycling Program, examined the generation and recycling of a variety of recycling streams and their material components. MEASURING THE IMPACTS OF RECYCLING OVER DISPOSAL Energy Savings and GHG emission reduction benefits are quantified for four specific recycling streams including: Recyclables generated in residential, industrial commercial and institutional (IC&I) sectors Electrical and electronic equipment Scrap automobiles White goods (large end of life appliances) In order to accurately measure the emission reductions and energy savings associated with recycling vs. disposal, each stream is divided into their various component materials. These include: Aluminum Plastics Glass Paper Steel Understanding the environmental benefits that result from recycling activities begin with quantifying materials that are recovered from disposal and prepared for recycling.

3 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Overview of diversion rates for the 4 selected recycling streams in Canada (in '000 tonnes) ,553 3, ,131 Residential ICI Electronic Automobiles White Goods 173 HOW WE MANAGE WASTE MATTERS The GHG emission reduction values and energy saving factors used to create these fact sheets were derived from a report entitled, Determination of the Impact of Waste Management Activities on Greenhouse Gas Emissions which was prepared for Action Plan 2000 on Climate Change by ICF Consulting. This report will be posted on the Recycling of Ontario s Website at MEASURING GHG EMISSION REDUCTIONS BENEFITS The methodology used by ICF Consulting to develop the GHG emission factors applied in these fact sheets is comprised of the following three task areas: 1. Identify GHG emissions throughout the life cycle of the material (including the chosen management option); 2. Evaluate extent to which carbon sinks are affected by manufacturing and disposal; 3. Determine the extent to which the management option displaces future energy needs. The standard unit for global warming is measured in tonnes or kilograms carbon dioxide equivalents (ec02). The unit for energy savings in these factsheets is giga joules or GJ.

4 MEASURING ENERGY SAVINGS Energy savings factors were developed for selected materials to compare recycling activities vs. disposal. The factors were derived from the ICF report. Energy savings associated with the recycling of specific materials are measured by: a) The difference between manufacturing from virgin inputs (primary resources only) versus recycled inputs; b) The amount of energy that would be required to dispose of the materials if they were not recycled; c) Energy requirement to process materials should they be recycled. SUMMARY OF ENERGY SAVINGS AND AVOIDED GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) EMISSIONS FROM RECYCLING OF SELECTED MATERIALS BY CATEGORY Product or Material Recycled Tonnes Recycled in 2002 Emission Reductions (tonnes) & 2-storey house filled with tonnes of eco2 Energy Saved from recycling (GJ) Equivalent barrels of oil saved Equivalent value of oil saved (based on $62/barrel) Residential and ICI sectors (excludes C&D, organics and 4,382,957 12,230,344 62,720,290 9,649,275 $ 598,255,072 other categories) Electronic Waste 2,900 2,658 30,673 4,719 $ 292,578 Automobiles 1,131,300 2,006,034 23,644,392 3,637,599 $ 225,531,128 White Goods 173, ,736 4,137, ,501 $ 39,463,091

5 FACT SHEET 1 GENERAL WASTES (IC&I& RESIDENTIAL 2002) Most Wastes generated from homes and commercial sector facilities are considered non hazardous and typically include aluminum, tin and steel cans, paper and paper board packaging, cartons and laminates, plastic packaging, bottles, and glass containers. Fast Facts According to the 2002 Statistics Canada Waste Management Industry Survey results, residents, businesses and institutions in Canada generated more than 27 mt of solid waste (383 kgs/843 lb per person per year) Of the 27 mt generated, 6 million tonnes were recycled or composted (22% diversion rate) This data includes organic materials but does not include the construction and demolition sector

6 14,000,000 Disposal and recycling from residential, Industrial, commercial and institutional sources in Canada in tonnes (2002) Waste disposal and diversion in Kgs per capita in Canada (2002) Tonnes 12,000,000 10,000,000 8,000,000 6,000,000 4,000,000 2,000,000 1,200 1, Newfoundland and Labrador Nova Scotia New Brunswick Quebec Disposal Ontario Manitoba Saskatchewan Recycling Alberta British Columbia 0 Newfoundland and Labrador Nova Scotia New Brunswick Quebec Ontario Disposal Manitoba Saskatchewan Diversion Alberta British Columbia Canada Diversion Rates By Province and Territory (2002) 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Newfoundland and Labrador Nova Scotia New Brunswick Quebec Ontario Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta British Columbia Canada Source: Statistics Canada Waste Management Industry Survey: Business and Government Sectors, 2002 (excludes data for NWT, Yukon, Nunavut & PEI)

7 Composition of materials recycled in Canada (Statistics Canada WMIS 2002) Aluminum, 1% Copper, 0% Ferrous Metals, 18% PET - plastic, 2% HDPE - plastic,1% Newsprint, 18% Glass, 8% Cardboard & Boxboard, 16% Mixed Paper,36% Quantifying GHG Emission Reductions and Energy Saving Benefits of Recycling Recyclables Recycled (tonnes) GHG Savings (tonnes of eco2 and number of 2- storey houses) Energy Savings (GJ) Equivalent barrels of oil saved Equivalent value of oil saved (based on $62/barrel) Newsprint 1,224,066 5,160, ,889 $ 49,221, ,043 Cardboard & Boxboard 2,498,730 6,013, ,214 $ 57,363, ,856 Mixed Paper 6,657,416 24,030,536 3,697,006 $ 229,214,343 1,519,958 Glass 40, ,742 87,653 $ 5,434, ,132 Ferrous Metals 970,315 10,196,396 1,568,676 $ 97,257, ,596 Copper 22, ,011 59,232 $ 3,672,413 5,369 Aluminum 336,808 4,519, ,345 $ 43,111,407 51,737 PET plastic 354,718 8,313,460 1,278,994 $ 79,297,614 97,450 HDPE plastic 125,528 3,531, ,266 $ 33,682,514 54,816 Total 4,382,957 12,230,344 62,720,290 9,649,275 $ 598,255,072 In 2002 Canada recycled 4.3 tonnes of material, avoiding 12 million tonnes of GHG and saving 63 million GJ of energy (9.6 million barrels of oil)

8 FACT SHEET 2 ELECTRONIC WASTE (E-WASTE) Electronic waste refers to a wide range of information technology products that have reached the end of their useful life. E-wastes are generated from both residential and IC&I sources. IT equipment is generally a complicated assembly of more than 1,000 materials, many of which are harmful to the environment if not manage properly. This fact sheet features only 4 electronic products which are increasingly found in the waste stream. COMPOSITION OF 4 ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS HOW ARE ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS RECYCLED? When E-Waste is recycled, products are typically dismantled and divided into their raw materials types through a separation process. These raw material types are separated, consolidated and sent to be used in secondary markets (applications other than electronics manufacturing). Recycled, these products provide emission benefits as their recovery reduces the need for extraction of virgin or primary materials. The energy benefits of recycling E-waste is demonstrated in the next table by quantifying the difference in energy requirements and emission reductions associated with manufacturing a tonne of each of the secondary products from primary vs. recycled materials.

9 GHG and Energy Saving Calculations for each IT Product E-waste GHG Reduction Factors (tonnes ec02/tonne of recycled material) Energy Savings Factor (GJ/tonne) from recycling Personal Computer (1.61) Television (0.24) 1.37 Microwave (1.28) VCR (0.97) Total GHG emission reduction and energy savings from e-waste recycling (2002) Tonnes Recycled GHG Emission Reductions Energy Saved from recycling Equivalent barrels of oil saved Equivalent value of oil saved (based on $62/barrel) Electronic Waste 2,900 2,658 t eco 2 30,673 GJ 4,719 $ 292,578 The total potential GHG emission reduction from an increase in recycling of 5%, 10% and 15%. Additional GHG Emission Reductions with a 5% increase Additional GHG Emission Reductions with a 10% increase Additional GHG Emission Reductions with a 15% increase Electronic Waste 133 t eco t eco t eco 2 The total potential energy savings from an increase in recycling of 5%, 10% and 15%. Electronic Recycling 2,900 tonnes Energy Saved from recycling Equivalent barrels of oil saved Equivalent value of oil saved 5% increase in tonnes 10% increase in tonnes 15% increase in tonnes 1,534 GJ 236 $14,629 3,067 GJ 472 $29,258 4,601 GJ 708 $43,887

10 FACT SHEET 3 WHITE GOODS White goods is a term used to refer to large household appliances and generally includes; refrigerators, freezers, ranges, dishwashers, clothes washes and dryers. According to the Canadian Appliance Manufacturers Association, 2002 Industry Trend and Forecast Report, Canadians purchased nearly 3.9 million large household appliances in the year The estimated combined diversion of white goods through municipal, retail, multi-unit, scavenger and reseller programs is between 150,349 and 194,580 tonnes or between 74 and 92 percent of all available obsolete units. This means that between 8 and 26 percent of white goods are disposed of in landfill sites. 1 COMPOSITION OF WHITE GOODS Material Composition of White Goods in Canada Rubber,.5% Non ferrous metals, 8% Paper,.5% Other, 2% Glass, 5% Plastic, 18% Ferrous Metals, 66% The single largest material component of white goods is steel, which on average accounts for about 65% of each product by weight. Since the material composition of white goods is relatively similar, weights have been averaged. The chart above illustrates the generic material 1 Hanson & Hilkene, 2004 Generation and Diversion of White from Residential Sources in Canada, Canadian types Appliance and percentages Manufacturers found Association in Canadian and Government White of Goods. Canada Action Plan 2000 on Climate Change

11 HOW ARE WHITE GOODS RECYCLED? When recycled, white goods are either manually dismantled or mechanically shredded. Component materials are recovered and separated by material type and sold to a recycler who will transform them into new materials. These recycled materials are then sold to secondary markets to be used for a variety of manufacturing processes. Net GHG emission reduction factors and energy savings of recycling white goods As with E-Waste, the emission reduction benefits and energy savings realized from the recovery of raw materials through the recycling of white goods result from the reduced need for and production of, primary or virgin materials. Net Emission Reduction Net Energy Savings (tonnes eco2) (expressed in Giga Joules) White Goods (1.48) (23.85) A recent study of municipal and retail white goods recovery programs conducted for the Canadian Appliance Manufacturers Association and the Action Plan 2000 on Climate Change Program found that in 2002, Canadian municipalities recovered approximately 62,550 tonnes of white goods for recycling. An additional 147,134 tonnes were managed through a combination of retailer delivery/take-back programs, multi-unit and institutional arrangements, as well as independent scavenging initiatives. According to the study, recycling initiatives in 2002 caused a reduction in net emission of 256,736 tonnes eco2 and saved 4,137,260 GJ of energy. This is equivalent to about 256,736 two-storey houses full of GHG emissions, and avoiding the need for 636,501 barrels of crude oil worth about $39,463,091.

12 RECYCLING PRESENTS INCREASED ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS The total potential GHG emission reductions from an increase in recycling of 5%, 10% and 15%. Tonnes Recycled Additional GHG Emission Reductions with a 5% increase Additional GHG Emission Reductions with a 10% increase Additional GHG Emission Reductions with a 15% increase White Goods 173,470 12,837 t eco2 25,674 t eco2 38,510 t eco2 The total potential energy savings from an increase in recycling of 5%, 10% and 15%. White Goods 173,470 tonnes recycled 5% increase in tonnes 10% increase in tonnes 15% increase in tonnes Energy Saved from recycling Equivalent barrels of oil saved Equivalent value of oil saved 206,863 GJ 31,825 $ 1,973, ,726 GJ 63,650 $ 3,946, ,589 GJ 95,475 $ 5,919,464

13 FACT SHEET 4 AUTOMOBILE RECYCLING Automobile recycling is considered to be one of the largest industries in North America; however accurate Canadian and regional data on the number of end of life vehicles is not readily available. A lack of reporting systems makes it difficult to present a truly authoritative scenario of energy savings and GHG emission reductions. Environmental benefits associated with car recycling are influenced by a number of factors including the type of cars that typically make up the total fleet in any given jurisdiction. The mix of vehicle types has been constantly changing over time to reflect changes in social demographics and desires. (E.g. the trend toward a larger SUV) As material composition varies by type of vehicle, environmental benefits of recycling are best estimates. Using the most recent data on automotive composition from the Ward s Automotive Yearbook, 1999, materials composition estimates were compiled as the basis for assessing environmental benefits of recycling a typical family vehicle. Material Composition of Automobiles in Canada Provided by the Canadian Vehicle Manufacturers Association Plastic 7.5% Powder Metals 1.1% Fluids and Lubricants 5.9% Magnesium 0.2% Zinc 0.4% Copper and brass 1.4% Rubber 4.3% Aluminum 7.2% Glass 2.9% Other Materials 3.1% Steel 66.0%

14 CALCULATING GHG EMISSION REDUCTIONS AND ENERGY SAVINGS As with white goods, a large portion of the composition of an end-of-life automobile recycled today is steel. To estimate the benefits of recycling, emission reduction and energy saving factors for that particular material would provide a fairly reasonable measurement. Like materials recovered through the recycling of white goods, steel recovered through the recycling of automobiles is used to make new product. Due to their high value, most of the nonferrous components of automobiles are also recovered and recycled, however their emission reduction and energy savings factors are not included in this factsheet. GHG EMISSION REDUCTION AND ENERGY SAVINGS ESTIMATES PER AUTOMOBILE RECYCLED. Typical Family Automobile weighs about 1.5 tonnes Approximately 1,142,700 scrap automobiles are recycled every year. 66% of an automobile is steel. 66% x 1.5 tonnes = 1 tonne of steel per automobile recycled TOTAL GHG EMISSION REDUCTION AND ENERGY SAVINGS FROM AUTOMOBILE RECYCLING (2002) Tonnes of steel recycled GHG Emission Reductions (tonnes eco2) Energy saved from recycling (GJ) Equivalent barrels of oil saved Equivalent value of oil saved (based on $62/barrel) Automobiles 1,131,300 2,006,034 23,644,392 3,637,599 $ 225,531,128 RECYCLING PRESENTS INCREASED ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS The total potential GHG emission reductions from an increase in recycling of 5%, 10% and 15%. Additional GHG Emission Reductions where recycling tonnage increase by 5% 10% 15% Automobiles 100,302 t eco2 200,603 t eco2 300,905 t eco2

15 The total potential energy savings from an increase in recycling of 5%, 10% and 15%. Automobiles 1,131,300 recycled Energy Saved from recycling Equivalent barrels of oil saved Equivalent value of oil saved 5% increase in tonnes 10% increase in tonnes 15% increase in tonnes 1,182,220 GJ 181,880 $11,276,556 2,364,439 GJ 363,760 $22,553,113 3,546,659 GJ 545,640 $33,829,669

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