Articulations - where two bones interconnect.

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1 Articulations

2 Articulations - where two bones interconnect. Immovable joints Synarthroses, or fibrous Example: Sutures of skull Slightly moveable joints Amphiarthroses, or cartilaginous Example: Symphysis pubis Freely moveable joints Diarthroses, or synovial Example: Shoulder joint

3 Synarthroses (Immovable joints) Fibrous Different types of CT Most are fixed Three major types 1. Syndesmoses Joints in which ligaments connect two bones Some movement is possible due to ligament flexibility

4 Synarthroses (Immovable joints) Three major types 2. Suture Skull bones bound together by dense connective tissue

5 Synarthroses (Immovable joints) Three major types 3. Gomphosis Teeth bound to bony sockets by periodontal ligaments

6 Amphiarthroses (Slightly movable joints) Cartilaginous (Either Hyaline Cartilage or Fibrocartilage) 1. Synchondroses hyaline cartilage unites the bones Examples: Epiphyseal plate, 1 st rib to manubrium sternum) Refer to page 257

7 Amphiarthroses (Slightly movable joints) Cartilaginous (Either Hyaline Cartilage or Fibrocartilage) 2. Symphyses-adjoining bones separated by a pad or disk of fibrocartilage Examples: Symphysis pubis and Intervertebral joints (bodies)

8 Diarthroses (Freely movable joints) Synovial are the most numerous and most complex of all joints! Examples: Shoulder joint, Knee joint

9 Structure of Synovial Joints Articular capsule - sac enclosing a joint, formed by an outer fibrous membrane and an inner synovial membrane. Also called joint capsule. Synovial membrane moist membrane which lines the inner surface and secretes synovial fluid (lubricates and nourishes the joint). Menisci (Articular disks) - Cartilage disks that acts as a cushion between the ends of bones which meet in some freely movable joints. They usually divide the joint cavity in two. KNEE Bursae Found in some freely movable joints A sac of synovial membrane filled with synovial fluid. Associated with bony prominences. KNEE & ELBOW Bursitis inflammation of the bursa caused by overuse, repetitive use, or sudden trauma to the joints Refer to pages 259, 264, and 265

10 Types of Synovial Joints 3 Main Groups: Uniaxial, Biaxial, and Multiaxial 1. Uniaxial Joint Permit movement around only 1 axis and in only 1 plane Hinge and Pivot Hinge: Elbow, Knee, Interphalangeal joints

11 Pivot: 1 st and 2 nd cervical vertebrae; Radius and Ulna

12 2. Biaxial Joint Permits movement around two perpendicular axes in two perpendicular planes Saddle Joint and Condyloid Joints Saddle Joint : Thumb joint between metacarpal and carpal bone

13 Condyloid Joints: Condyle (a round bump) fits into an elliptical socket. This joint permits angular movement of the bones. The metacarpophalangeal joint (junction between the metacarpals and phalanges) of the hand; distal end of Radius and Carpal bones

14 3. Multiaxial Joint Permits movement around 3 or more axes and in 3 or more planes Ball & Socket Joint and Gliding Joints Ball & Socket Joint : Our MOST movable joints! Shoulder and Hip

15 Gliding Joint : Least movable of synovial joints! Articular processes between vertebrae, Between carpal and tarsal bones

16 Types of Synovial Joints Refer to page 260

17 Synovial Joints Shoulder Joint a.k.a. Humeroscapular Joint Refer to p.238 Glenoid cavity (rounded depression that forms the articular surface of the scapula at the shoulder joint) and head of humerus Ball and socket diarthroses Stabilized by ligaments Strength and stability sacrificed for range of motion

18 Although there are many reasons for shoulder pain, a common problem for people over 40 years of age is a rotator cuff tear. The Rotator cuff is made up of the muscles and tendons that surround humerus and hold it in the shoulder joint. A tear may result suddenly from a single traumatic event or develop gradually because of repetitive overhead activities.

19 Synovial Joints Hip Joint Ball and socket diarthroses Acetabulum (the cup-shaped cavity of the hipbone) and head of femur Stability! (numerous ligaments)

20 Synovial Joints Knee Joint Hinge joint with incomplete articular capsule Formed by the condyles of the femur and the condylar surfaces of the tibia Accessory structures help stabilize lateral movements Supported by ligaments Relatively unprotected by surrounding muscle Knees are the main weight bearers!

21 Football injuries Damage to collateral ligaments due to blow Torn cruciate ligaments

22 A complete tear of the ACL has minimal ability to heal and often requires surgical reconstruction. This involves replacing the torn ligament, usually with the middle third of the patella tendon.

23 Synovial Joints Vertebral Joint Each vertebra is connected to the next via several joints between their bodies as well as their processes. The joints between the bodies (intervertebral disks and strong ligaments) offer very little movement (Symphyses). The joints between the processes are more movable (Synovial/gliding)

24 Vertebral Joint Slipped disk A herniated disk (HNP = herniated nucleus pulposus) is when the nucleus pulposus is compressed and pushes through the annulus. The fragments protruding into the spinal canal then press on spinal nerves or even the spinal cord PAIN!

25 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome The carpal tunnel is the area under a ligament in front of the wrist. The median nerve, which passes through the carpal tunnel, supplies the thumb side of the hand. Repetitive movements of the hand and wrist can cause inflammation of structures (such as tendons and their coverings) that surround the median nerve. The inflammation may compress this nerve, producing numbness, tingling, and pain in the first three fingers and the thumb side of the hand.

26 Synovial Joints Type & Range of Movement 1. Angular 2. Circular 3. Gliding 4. Special Range of Motion (ROM) is used to determine the degree of damage to a joint! Goniometer Starting point is usually anatomical position. Refer to pp

27 Angular Movements Angular movements alter the angle size between articulating bones.

28 Flexion and Extension

29 Abduction and Adduction

30 Circular Movements Circular movements cause the arc-like rotation of a structure around an axis. Rotation Circumduction Pivoting a bone on its own axis! Distal end moves in a circle!

31

32 Gliding Movements These are the simplest of all movements. The articular surface of one bone moves over the articular surface of another bone without angular or circular movement

33 Special Movements Unique to only one or two joints

34

35

36 A Blast from the Past! Protraction moves a structure Retraction moves a structure Elevation moves a structure Depression moves a structure

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