You and Your Blood Packet #3

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1 You and Your Blood Packet #3 SC.7.L.16.2 AA Determining the probabilities for genotype and phenotype combinations using Punnett Squares and pedigrees. Purpose: to determine the blood type of a third generation offspring. Materials: punnett square worksheet, bag of m and m's, small paper bag, 5 small cups, food coloring, eye dropper or small spoon. Using the Punnett Square worksheet determine the blood type probabilities Background Information: There are four basic blood types: A, B, AB and O Genotypes that are possible Definitions Blood Type A A AA B AB O AO Antigens: a substance that when introduced into the body stimulates the production of an antibody. B AB BB BO O AO BO OO Antibody: is a protein found in the blood that detects and destroys invaders (like bacteria and viruses). They are part of the immune system. Phenotypes that are possible A A is dominant over O M & M Blood B B is dominant over O Color Type AB A and B are codominant Yellow A O O is recessive Blue B Green AB Brown O

2 Procedure: Determine the alleles for person X's grandparents. Put 8 m & m's into the bag (two of each yellow, blue, green and brown) Without looking pull out two m & m's for the mother's blood type and put the blood type in the box next to mother. Mother Father Put the m & m's back in the bag. Without looking pull out two m & m's Punnett Square for the father's blood type and put the blood type in the box next to father Put the mother's blood type in boxes 1 & 2. 4 Put the father's blood type in boxes 3 & 4. Complete the squares to determine what blood type the offspring can have. Compatibility Chart Type Type Yes/No Pick one of the offspring's possible blood types and test it for compatibility with the other blood types. A B A AB Let's call the offspring Sam. If Sam gets into an accident where he will need a blood transfusion sion, the doctor will A O need to know what blood type he is before they can give Sam a transfusion. Not all blood types are compatible. B A B AB You need to have five cups. B O First prepare four of the cups to represent the four blood types. O A In cup one put water and four drops of yellow food coloring and label the cup type A. O B In cup two put water and four drops of blue food coloring and label the cup type B. O AB In cup three put water and four drops of green food coloring and label the cup type AB. In cup four put only water and label the cup type O. Hint: remember that you should put the same amount of water in all four cups. Reminder: the food coloring represent the antigens for that blood type. Type O has no antigens so it needs to be clear. Use the fifth cup and put a few drops of type A (yellow) add a few drops of type B. If the color does not change they are compatible. If the color changes they are not compatible. Dump out the liquid and try mixing the other blood types. Fill in the chart. Put yes or no.

3 ABO blood grouping system According to the ABO blood graoup system there are four different A, B, AB or O. Blood Group A kinds of blood groups: If you belong to the blood group A, you have A antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and B antibodies blood plasma. Blood Group B If you belong to blood group B, you have B antigens of your red blood cells and A antibodies in your blood plasma. Blood Group AB in your on the surface If you bl belong to the blood group AB, you have both tha and B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and no Aor B antibodies at all in your blood plasma. Blood Group O If you belong to the blood group O, you have neither A or B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells but you have both A and B antaibodies in your blood plasma.

4 Review Questions 1 Which blood type would be a universal donor (a blood type that is compatible with all other blood types)? 2 Which blood type would be able to accept all other blood types? 3 Blood types are 100% genetically inherited. There are environmental factors that can cause a certain blood type to become more common in a specific population. This occurs through natural selection. ABO blood types are thought to be linked with increased or decreased susceptibility to particular diseases. For instance individual with type A blood are at a higher risk of contracting small pox, and developing cancer of the esophagus, pancreases and stomach. Type O has a higher risk of contracting cholera and plague as well as developing ulcers. Research has also indicated that type O is also more tasty to mosquitoes. This could be a factor in contracting mosquito borne diseases. Which of the environmental factors mentioned above would be most likely to affect a specific population today? Explain why you chose this factor. 4 Compare and contrast type O blood and type AB blood. 5 Why does your body form antibodies?

5 Functions of the Circulatory System If you have access to a computer and Mom or Dad give permission check out the following web site to review functions of the circulatory sysetem. Use the information in the diagram above to label the diagram of the circulatory system in the human body in the diagram to the right.

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