Evolution and Community Ecology

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1 Evolution and Community Ecology Before you read the chapter, answer each question with information you know. After you complete the chapter, re-answer the questions using information you learned. How Do Organisms Affect One Another s Survival and Environment? What I Know What I Learned 5.1 What role does the environment play in an organism s survival and reproduction? Sample answer: It can affect an animal s quality of life and ability to survive. Sample answer: Changes in an environment can result in speciation or extinction. 5.2 How do species interact in nature? Sample answer: They prey on one another for food. Sample answer: Organisms compete for available resources and sometimes partition those resources by specializing in different ways. 5.3 How do energy and nutrients move through communities? Sample answer: Animals eat plants and other animals for energy and nutrients. Sample answer: Energy moves through a community from the sun to primary producers to consumers to decomposers. 5.4 How do communities respond to a disturbance? Sample answer: Animals may die or leave an area. Sample answer: Disturbed communities go through a predictable pattern of changes over time to reach a climax community. Chapter 5 Study Workbook Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 73

2 5.1 Evolution Key Concepts Biological evolution can occur through mutation, migration, genetic drift, and natural selection. Two processes, speciation and extinction, combine to produce the diversity of life on Earth. SKILL BUILDER Vocabulary Preview Define each vocabulary term in your own words. Then, write yourself a quick note on how you will remember each. One term has been done for you. Term Definition How I Remember Evolution Gene A change over time A sequence of DNA that codes for a particular trait Accept all reasonable responses for How I Remember. A few samples are provided. Mutation An accidental change in DNA I think of a character s mutation in a science fiction movie I saw. Genetic drift Natural selection Fitness Adaptation Artificial selection Biological evolution that occurs by chance Traits that improve an organism s chance of survival are passed on more frequently to future generations than traits that do not How reproductively successful an organism is in its environment A heritable trait that increases an individual s fitness The process of selection conducted under human direction I think about being fit, or in good health and physical condition Speciation The process by which new species are generated Speciation is special because it creates new or different species. Extinction The disappearance of a species from Earth The letters ex also begin the word exit. Lesson 5.1 Study Workbook Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 74

3 Evolution and Natural Selection 1. Complete the following paragraphs with terms from the word bank. characteristics DNA gene pool generation genetic drift migration offspring population reproduction survival of the fittest A change in a population s gene pool over time is called biological evolution. There are four primary mechanisms of biological evolution. Mutations are accidental changes in an organism s DNA. Migration occurs when individuals immigrate into or emigrate out of a(n) population. Biological evolution that happens by chance is called genetic drift. Natural selection is the process by which traits that improve an organism s chances for survival and reproduction are passed on more frequently to a future generation than those that do not. Natural selection follows three conditions: organisms produce more offspring than can survive; individuals of a species vary in their characteristics ; and lastly, individuals vary in their fitness. Natural selection is also known as survival of the fittest. 2. Explain how a gene pool and biological evolution are related. Biological evolution is a change in a population s gene pool over time. A gene pool includes all the genes present in a population. 3. How could a natural disaster result in genetic drift? If a natural disaster killed all but a few organisms in a population, the gene pool of the next generation would reflect the genes of these few survivors. 4. Explain what survival of the fittest means. Survival of the fittest is the evolution of organisms in ways that maximize their success in a given environment. 5. How does artificial selection provide evidence for evolution by natural selection? Artificial selection shows how selection works. Breeding for desired traits can increase their occurrence in populations. In artificial selection, humans decide which traits become more common, while in natural selection, the environment affects which traits are selected for. Lesson 5.1 Study Workbook Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 75

4 Speciation and Extinction 6. Organize Information Model the process of speciation by filling in the flowchart with terms from the word bank. geographical isolation mutations two species Single population Geographical isolation Mutations Two species 7. What are some ways allopatric speciation can occur? Sample answer: Glacial ice sheets may move across continents, major rivers may change course, or a dry climate may partially evaporate lakes, subdividing them into many smaller bodies of water. 8. What must be true for allopatric speciation to occur, regardless of the mechanism of separation? Populations must remain isolated for a long time generally thousands of generations. 9. How would a reversal of the process that had isolated populations for example, geographic separation affect a species? The populations would either begin interbreeding or speciation will have occurred. 10. If populations remain geographically isolated for thousands of generations, what would happen? Populations would accumulate their own set of mutations. 11. What are mass extinctions? Episodes during Earth s history when huge numbers of species have been wiped out 12. In general, when does extinction occur? In general, extinction occurs when environmental conditions change so rapidly or severely that a species cannot adapt to the change. 13. What is the average length of time a species spends on Earth? How have paleontologists calculated this figure? Through studying the fossil records, paleontologists have calculated the average amount of time a species spends on Earth as 1 10 million years. Lesson 5.1 Study Workbook Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 76

5 SKILL BUILDER Organize Information 14. Fill in the cluster diagram with terms from the word bank. extinction genetic drift migration mutation natural selection speciation Evolution Mechanisms Speciation Mutation Natural selection Genetic drift Migration rapid environmental change occurs Extinction Extension Add to the cluster diagram to show the conditions of natural selection. Check students work. 5.1 SELF-CHECK Answer the questions to test your knowledge of lesson concepts. You can check your work using the answers on the bottom of the page. 15. Compare and contrast artificial selection with natural selection. 16. What is an adaptation? 17. What has happened to almost all species that have ever lived on Earth? 15. Both affect the gene pool of a species. Artificial selection is conducted under human direction, while natural selection occurs in nature. 16. An adaptation is a heritable trait that increases an organism s fitness for its environment. 17. Almost all species that have ever lived on Earth are extinct. Lesson 5.1 Study Workbook Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 77

6 5.2 Species Interactions Key Concepts An organism s niche is affected by both its tolerance and competitive interactions. Predation, parasitism, and herbivory are interactions in which one species benefits, while the other is harmed. Mutualism and commensalism are relationships in which neither participant is harmed. SKILL BUILDER Vocabulary Preview Define each vocabulary term in your own words. Then, write yourself a quick note on how you will remember each. One term has been done for you. Term Definition How I Remember Niche An organism s use of resources and its functional role in a community Accept all reasonable responses for How I Remember. A few samples are provided. Tolerance The ability to survive and reproduce under changing environmental conditions I think of the weather temperatures I can tolerate in the summer when I play outdoors. Resource partitioning The process of dividing a resource used in common by specializing in different ways I think of how our science classroom is partitioned into sections used for different purposes. Predation Coevolution The process by which an individual of one species a predator hunts, captures, kills, and consumes an individual of another species the prey The process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other The co in coevolution reminds me of the word cooperate. Parasitism A relationship in which one organism benefits from, but harms, a host organism Lesson 5.2 Study Workbook Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 78

7 Term Definition How I Remember Symbiosis A long-lasting and physically close relationship that benefits at least one organism I know that sym means with and bio means life. Herbivory The interaction in which an animal feeds on a plant Mutualism A relationship in which two or more species benefit I think of a mutual agreement between two parties. Commensalism A relationship in which one species benefits and the other is unaffected The Niche and Competition For Questions 1 5, write True if the statement is true. If the statement is false, replace the underlined word or words to make the statement true. Write your changes on the line. generalists True fundamental intraspecific True 1. Organisms with wide tolerance ranges, able to use a wide array of habitats or resources, are called specialists. 2. Zebra mussels have demonstrated competitive exclusion by outcompeting all the native mussels in Lake St. Clair. 3. In a realized niche, a species fulfills all its roles and uses all the resources it can. 4. Competition among members of the same species is called interspecific competition. 5. As a result of character displacement, birds that specialize in eating smaller seeds may evolve smaller bills. 6. What is resource partitioning and how is it an adaptation to competition? Provide an example. In resource partitioning, competing species adapt by dividing the resource they use in common by specializing in different ways. For example, different species of birds that feed on insects from tree trunks may specialize in particular insects on different parts of the tree. Lesson 5.2 Study Workbook Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 79

8 Predation, Parasitism, and Herbivory 7. How does predation affect population cycles? Predator and prey population sizes can fluctuate in response to each other. For example, if the prey population size increases, the predator population size also may increase due to increased food availability. 8. Provide an example of a prey defense, and explain how the defense helps the animal survive. Sample answer: Some newts produce toxins that can kill the animals that prey on them. This adaptation can increase these newts chances of survival. 9. Compare and contrast predation and parasitism. Both predation and parasitism are interactions between individuals of two species, where an individual of one species is harmed. Predation results in the death of one of the organisms in the relationship, while parasitism does not. Mutualism and Commensalism 10. Organize Information Fill in the chart with the correct information. Relationship Number of Species That Benefits Example of the Relationship Mutualism Commensalism Two or more species One species Pollination: The pollinators receive food, and plants are pollinated and reproduce. Palo verde trees keep the soil moist, so young plants germinate and grow in the desert soil. 11. How do both organisms benefit in a symbiotic association between plant roots and some fungi? The plant provides energy and protection to the fungus, while the fungus assists the plant in absorbing nutrients from the soil. 12. Explain why pollination is considered to be one of the most important mutualisms. Pollination involves free-living organisms that may encounter each other only once in their lifetimes. The pollinators transfer pollen between flowers, enabling the plant to reproduce. In return, they receive food from the plant. Lesson 5.2 Study Workbook Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 80

9 SKILL BUILDER Think Visually 13. Redraw the diagram to show the potential effect on the realized niches of Species 1, 2, and 3 if a predator of Species 3 is introduced into the habitat. Realized Niche Species 1 Species 2 Species 3 Students drawings should indicate a change in the extent of each niche. For example, a drawing may show an increase in the realized niches for Species 1 and 2 as more resources become available through a reduction in competition from Species 3. Students drawings also may show the niche of the predator Species Explain the reasoning you used to create your diagram. Sample answer: I increased the size of the niches for Species 1 and Species 2 because there would be less competition from Species 3 as its population was reduced by the predator. EXTENSION Use the Internet to research an example of predation. On a separate sheet of paper, write a paragraph to explain how a niche could be affected if the predator prey relationship were disrupted in some way. Answers will vary. 5.2 SELF-CHECK Answer the questions to test your knowledge of lesson concepts. You can check your work using the answers on the bottom of the page. 15. What is the difference between an organism s habitat and its niche? 16. Why might some examples of coevolution be described as evolutionary arms races? 15. An organism s habitat is the general place in which it lives, while an organism s niche describes how it uses the resources of its habitat and how it interacts with its habitat. 16. Sample answer: When predators and their prey develop stronger and stronger weapons (such as a prey species developing a toxin and its predator evolving immunity to it) it can be considered an evolutionary arms race. Lesson 5.2 Study Workbook Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 81

10 5.3 Ecological Communities Key Concepts Organisms are classified as either producers or consumers based on how they obtain energy and nutrients. Inefficient energy transfer between organisms shapes the structure of a community. Feeding relationships have both direct and indirect effects on organisms in the community. SKILL BUILDER Vocabulary Preview Define each vocabulary term in your own words. Then, write yourself a quick note on how you will remember each. One term has been done for you. Term Definition How I Remember Primary producer Photosynthesis Chemosynthesis Consumer An organism that captures energy from the sun or from chemicals and stores it, making energy available to the rest of the community The process by which primary producers use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugars, releasing oxygen along the way The process by which primary producers use energy stored in chemical bonds to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugars An organism that relies on other organisms for energy and nutrients Accept all reasonable responses for How I Remember. A few samples are provided. I know photo means light, and syn means with. This word reminds me of customer what I am when I go to a store to buy food. Cellular respiration The process by which organisms use oxygen to release the chemical energy of sugars Herbivore An organism that is a primary consumer and eats plants Herbs are plants that are used in cooking. Carnivore A consumer that kills and eats other animals Lesson 5.3 Study Workbook Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 82

11 Term Definition How I Remember Omnivore An animal that eats both plants and animals Detritivore An organism that consumes nonliving organic matter Decomposer Trophic level An organism that breaks down nonliving matter into simpler parts An organism s rank in the feeding hierarchy Biomass The total amount of living tissue Food chain A linear series of feeding relationships A chain links one thing to another. Food web A visual map of feeding relationships and energy flow Keystone species A species that has strong or widereaching impact on a community Producers and Consumers 1. Identify the ultimate source of energy for most of Earth s ecosystems. 2. Why are plants considered primary producers? other organisms when the plants are eaten. 3. How do the roles of detritivores and decomposers differ in an ecosystem? The sun Plants capture energy from the sun through photosynthesis and make it available to A detritivore consumes nonliving organic matter, such as waste products, while a decomposer breaks down nonliving matter into simpler parts that can be taken up by producers. Lesson 5.3 Study Workbook Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 83

12 Energy and Biomass For Questions 5 and 6, circle the letter of the correct answer. 4. How many trophic levels are there typically in a community? There are typically only three or four trophic levels in any community. 5. What is true about energy transfer in communities? A. It is 100 percent efficient. B. It moves from consumer to producer. C. Most of the energy in a trophic level is lost as heat. D. Most of the energy in a trophic level transfers to one above it. 6. About how much energy in one trophic level transfers to the trophic level above it? A. 5 percent C. 25 percent B. 10 percent D. 50 percent Food Webs and Keystone Species 7. Organize Information Fill in the table to organize information about food chains and food webs. Provide at least two characteristics of each. Sample answers appear below. Food Chain Shows linear series of feeding relationships Illustrates, in simple terms, the energy transfer in a community Food Web Shows many paths by which energy and nutrients pass among organisms, or multiple food chains Complex map of feeding relationships and energy flow 8. What effect would the removal of a keystone species have on an ecological community? Write a short essay that explains this effect in terms of trophic cascade. Provide a specific example that illustrates this process. Sample answer: Removing a keystone species could alter a large portion of the food web. A trophic cascade could result, in which predators at high trophic levels could indirectly help organisms at low trophic levels by limiting populations at intermediate levels. Sea otters are an example of a keystone species. They eat urchins, which eat kelp. In the 1990s, the population of sea otters off the coast of Alaska declined because orcas ate large numbers of them. Fewer otters meant more urchins, which led to a huge decline in kelp forests. Sea otters, therefore, indirectly help the kelp by limiting urchin populations. Lesson 5.3 Study Workbook Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 84

13 SKILL BUILDER Think Visually 9. Complete the food chain below. Fill in each circle with one of the organisms in Word Bank A. Next, identify the role of each type of organism in the food chain by writing a label from Word Bank B on the lines below the circles. Then, use the percentages in Word Bank C to show how much energy is transferred to each organism on the lines above the circles. Word Bank A: algae big fish bird small fish Word Bank B: carnivore decomposers herbivore primary producer Word Bank C: 0.1% 1% 10% 100% 100% 10% 1% 0.1% Algae Small fish Big fish Bird Primary producer Herbivore Carnivore Carnivore Decomposers 5.3 SELF-CHECK Answer the questions to test your knowledge of lesson concepts. You can check your work using the answers on the bottom of the page. 10. What is an organism s trophic level? 11. Explain the ten percent rule. 10. An animal s trophic level is its rank in a food chain or food web (feeding hierarchy). 11. The ten percent rule states that only about ten percent of the energy contained in any given trophic level is transferred to the next higher trophic level. Lesson 5.3 Study Workbook Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 85

14 Real Data MATH 0 0 SUPPORT Energy Flow in Communities In this activity, you will determine the relative amounts of available energy at different trophic levels in a community. You will also calculate how many units of energy would be needed at the first trophic level in order to have 1000 units of available energy at other levels. Finding Energy in Communities Energy transfer from one trophic level to another in a community is only about 10% efficient. This means that if the primary producers have 1000 units of available energy, then the firstlevel consumers have 10% of 1000 units of available energy. u To find 10% of a number, multiply by 0.1. The calculation for finding 10% of 1000 is shown below: 10% of 1000 = = 100. Calculate the available energy for the second, third, and fourth trophic levels in the table at the right. Write your answers in the table. Finding Initial Energy Suppose the third trophic level has 1000 units of available energy. How many units of energy did the first trophic level have? Work Backward u Each increasing trophic level has only 10% of the energy of the trophic level below it. The calculation for finding the energy of the second trophic level, x, if you know that the third trophic level has 1000 units, is shown at the right. u The calculation for finding the energy of the first trophic level, y, if you know that the second trophic level has 10,000 units, is shown at the right. Trophic Level Fourth: Third-level consumers Third: Second-level consumers Second: First-level consumers First: Primary producers Available Energy 1 unit 10 units 100 units 1000 units second trophic third trophic level level 0.1 (x) = 1000 units x = 1000 or 10,000 units 0.1 first trophic second trophic level level 0.1 (y) = 10,000 units y = 10,000 or 100,000 units 0.1 Use the model above to solve each problem. 1. How many units of energy would be needed in the first trophic level to end up with 1000 units of energy in the second trophic level? 10,000 units 2. Suppose the fourth trophic level has 1000 units of energy. How many units of energy would the first trophic level have had? 1,000,000 units Real Data Math Support Study Workbook Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 86

15 5.4 Community Stability Key Concepts Following a disturbance, communities may undergo succession. Without limiting factors, species introduced to a new area can become invasive. SKILL BUILDER Vocabulary Preview Define each vocabulary term in your own words. Then, write yourself a quick note on how you will remember each. One term has been done for you. Term Definition How I Remember Succession The predictable series of changes over time experienced by an ecological community Accept all reasonable responses for How I Remember. A few samples are provided. Primary succession The building of a community when bare rock, sand, or sediment is exposed for the first time Both prime and primary start the same way, and I know that prime means first or very important. Pioneer species Species that first colonize newly exposed land I once heard someone call the first astronaut in space a space pioneer. Secondary succession Invasive species The building of an ecological community after a disturbance has altered the community, but not destroyed all living things or organic matter in the soil A nonnative organism that spreads widely in a community I think of weeds invading our garden. Lesson 5.4 Study Workbook Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 87

16 SKILL BUILDER Reading Strategy Fill in the table to preview the lesson. Then, in the space that follows the table, write one sentence to explain what you think this lesson will be about. What is the title of this lesson? Community Stability What are the vocabulary terms for this lesson? Succession, primary succession, pioneer species, secondary succession, invasive species What are the key concepts for the two main sections of this lesson? What do the photos depict? Following a disturbance, communities may undergo succession. Without limiting factors, species introduced to a new area can become invasive. Images of a variety of nature scenes What do the diagrams seem to show? It looks like the diagrams show something related to the way forest communities are built. Answers will vary. Sample answer: I think this lesson details the way forest communities grow from just a few plants to many different kinds of plants. EXTENSION On a separate sheet of paper, write five questions that come to mind while previewing this lesson. Answer your questions after you have completed the lesson. Answers will vary. Ecological Succession For Questions 1 3, write True if the statement is true, If the statement is false, replace the underlined word or words to make the statement true. Write your changes on the line. Primary pioneer species True 1. Secondary succession begins with bare rock. 2. The first species to colonize newly exposed land are called primary species. 3. Over the course of ecological succession, species diversity increases over time. Lesson 5.4 Study Workbook Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 88

17 4. Why are lichens successful pioneers? Lichens can grow on bare rock. They are made up of algae that provide food and energy through photosynthesis, and fungi that attach to rock and capture moisture needed by the algae and fungi to survive. 5. Compare and contrast primary succession and secondary succession. Both establish new ecological communities. In primary succession, pioneer species begin to grow on bare rock, sand, or sediment. Other plants and insects move in as soil begins to form. In secondary succession, vegetation begins to grow after a disturbance that has not completely destroyed the prior ecosystem. 6. What is the difference between primary and secondary aquatic succession? Primary succession occurs when an area fills in with water for the first time. Secondary succession occurs after the disturbance of an already existing aquatic community. 7. Summarize the sequence of events that occur when a pond undergoes secondary succession. Sample answer: Algae and other organisms grow, reproduce, and die, and gradually fill the pond with organic matter. Organic matter and nutrients may also enter the pond through streams and rivers. Eventually, the pond may fill in completely, and a terrestrial ecosystem can establish itself. Invasive Species 8. When does a species become invasive? A species only becomes invasive when such limiting factors as predators, parasites or competitors are not present in its new environment, allowing the population to grow unchecked. 9. Do you think preventing the introduction of invasive species is preferable than trying to control them? Why or why not? Sample answer: It is very difficult to eliminate or control an invasive species once it has invaded an ecological community, so it is better to place emphasis on stopping these species from entering the community in the first place. Lesson 5.4 Study Workbook Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 89

18 10. Organize Information Fill in the chart by answering each question. Species Zebra mussel Is this invasive species considered harmful? Yes Explanation Zebra mussels have invaded the Great Lakes and have out-competed native organisms for resources. Cane toad Yes Cane toads are invasive in Australia, where their populations have exploded, out-competing or poisoning other species. Honeybee No Honeybees pollinate most of America s commercial crops, so they are beneficial to plants and the economy. Kudzu Yes Kudzu originally came from Japan. Once introduced into the United States, it quickly spread from Texas to southern New Jersey. 5.4 SELF-CHECK Answer the questions to test your knowledge of lesson concepts. You can check your work using the answers on the bottom of the page. 11. Why does primary succession usually take longer to occur than secondary succession? 12. Explain what is meant by climax community. 13. How might an invasive species disturb an ecological community? 11. Primary succession begins with a bare surface, while secondary succession begins with soil that contains organic matter and sometimes organisms from the prior community. 12. A climax community is a stable community in which succession appears to be complete. 13. An invasive species can upset the ecological balance in a community through unchecked population growth, which results in a reduction or elimination of populations of native species. Lesson 5.4 Study Workbook Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 90

19 Chapter Vocabulary Review Use the clues to complete the crossword puzzle. 1 2 M U T U A L I S M O S E s L P V y 6 h e r b i v o r e s O m R C L b A I U i N 7 a d a p t a t i o n C T I s 8 9 e x t i n c t i o n O i O I N s 10 p r e d a t i o n C H 11 s u c c e s s i o n Across 1 a relationship in which two or more species benefit 6 primary consumers 7 a heritable trait that increases individual fitness 8 the disappearance of a species 10 the process by which one species hunts and kills another 11 series of ecological changes over time Down 2 the ability to survive and reproduce under changing environmental conditions 3 the process by which new species are generated 4 change over time 5 a physically close relationship in which at least one organism benefits 9 an organism s use of resources and functional role in a community EXTENSION On a separate sheet of paper, write a short story about an imaginary community that uses five or more vocabulary terms from the chapter. Answers will vary. Vocabulary Review Study Workbook Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 91

20 Zebra mussels have taken over waterways in the United States with alarming speed. They were first sighted in North America Black and White, and SPREAD ALL OVER Zebra Mussel Sightings Distribution Zebra Mussel Sightings Distribution in The following two maps show the distribution of zebra mussel sightings in 1989 and Source: U.S. Geological Survey Central Case Activity Support Study Workbook Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 92

21 Use the information in Zebra Mussel Sightings Distribution to answer the questions below. 1. Describe the distribution of the mussel one year after it was first sighted. The mussels had spread to several states around the Great Lakes. 2. How does the distribution in 2009 compare with that of 20 years earlier? By 2009, the mussels have taken over the Great Lakes and the surrounding states. They are now all over the country, even in California. 3. Based on the maps, describe the way zebra mussels have spread in the United States. It appears that they have moved along river routes. 4. How can you explain the appearance of mussels in the midwestern and western states? Boats that were transported across the country by land probably had mussels on them. 5. What information can you infer from the maps that relate to the Big Question: How do organisms affect each other s survival and environment? Zebra mussels spread quickly and upset the ecological balance of their aquatic environment. Other species have had little opportunity to adapt to changes brought about by this invasive species. As the mussels migrate to other areas, other aquatic environments will also experience disequilibrium. Work as a class to create a compelling multimedia presentation on the invasion of zebra mussels in the United States. Some groups should focus on the year-by-year spread of zebra mussels, which is well documented by the U.S. Geological Survey. Other groups may research the basic biology of the mussels, the extent of the problem, and potential solutions. If possible, suggest your teacher invite environmental officials from the community to participate. The 21st Century Skills used in this activity include Communication and Collaboration, Information, Communication, and Technology (ICT) Literacy, and Creativity and Innovation. Log on for more information and activities on the Central Case, Black and White, and Spread All Over. Central Case Activity Support Study Workbook Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 93

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