Workshop on Microevolution

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Workshop on Microevolution"

Transcription

1 Workshop on Microevolution by Dana Krempels I. Discuss the meaning of: a. species f. heritable traits (consider "nature vs. nurture") b. population g. lethal alleles c. gene pool h. adaptive, maladaptive, and neutral traits d. gene i. Monogenic vs. polygenic traits e. allele species: definition varies, depending upon which species concept one holds. The most general definition, however, is that a species comprises a group of similar individuals able to breed and produce fertile, viable offspring. population: all the members of a given species living in a defined area (whether it be a stretch of coastal chaparral or your GI tract) gene pool: all the alleles at all loci in every member of a particular population gene: unit of inheritance that codes for a polypeptide (or, in some cases, an RNA) allele: one of several forms of a particular gene. Example: A GENE (the C locus) codes for coat color in rabbits, and has four alleles: agouti, chinchilla, Himalayan or albino. lethal allele: if recessive and inherited in homozygous condition, this will result in inviability of the organism inheriting it. If dominant, a single copy will result in inviability of the organism. (examples of lethal recessives: Manx allele in cats; yellow coat color in mice; dwarfism allele in rabbits) monogenic trait: phenotypic expression is controlled by only one gene locus. polygenic trait: phenotypic expression is controlled by more than one gene locus. adaptive trait increases the likelihood that an organism exhibiting it will leave its genes to the next generation. maladaptive trait decreases the likelihood that an organism exhibiting it will leave its genes to the next generation. neutral trait has no effect on the likelihood that an organism exhibiting it will leave its genes to the next generation. II. Discuss the nature of each of the following in terms its effects on a the genetic composition of a population of organisms a. mutation c. non-random mating e. natural selection b. migration d. small population size

2 a. mutation will add new alleles to the population, and may result in a new expression of a trait. (This, in turn, will be adaptive, maladaptive or neutral, depending on the environment and its selective pressures. b. migration increases the effective size of populations between which individuals travel, and will allow gene flow between the populations. c. Positive assortative mating may result in frequency of expression of a recessive trait that is higher than that predicted by Hardy-Weinberg. Negative assortative mating may result in heterozygosity that is higher than that predicted by Hardy-Weinberg. d. Small population size will increase the likelihood of a particular allele becoming fixed in the population, to the exclusion of any other alleles at a given gene locus. e. Natural selection is the only factor that results in a population whose members are genetically (as reflected by phenotype) well-suited for survival and reproduction in a particular environment. III. Discuss the concept of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in terms of a. a single gene locus and its alleles in a single member of a study population One generally considers only one locus at a time when trying to determine whether a population under study is in HW equilibrium. However, there's no such thing as "Hardy Weinberg equilibrium" for a single individual. HW equilibrium is a populational phenomenon. (I've included this because I've found that students are often not clear on this concept!) b. a single gene locus and its alleles all members of study population This is the level the population biologist considers when looking at HW equilibrium (or not) in a population: one locus (and all its alleles) in all members of a particular population. c. all phenotypic traits in a single member of a study population Again, HW equilibrium is a populational phenomenon. One individual is only one small bit of the entire picture. Just trying to keep that clear in everyone's mind. d. all phenotypic traits in all members of the study population, considered collectively Although every phenotypic trait is subject to the five factors that can prevent HW equilibrium, it would be extremely difficult to monitor the HW equilibrium state of every trait in a population. The population geneticist generally considers only one

3 locus at a time, though additional traits may be added in later studies of the population. IV. As a group: a. Select a species of organism to design from scratch. You may select any taxonomic group you wish. Give your organism an appropriate scientific name. Genus: species: b. Define this species' natural environment, including such items as: a. food sources b. predators c. space for reproduction d. pathogens in the environment e. other factors which affect the species' survival c. Design this species by listing six dominant, wild type phenotypic traits that enable it to exploit/avoid the environmental factors you have listed. (One example has been included.) Trait example: feather color dominant (wild type) phenotype green Nature of trait provides camouflage V. Taking turns and going around the group, create a recessive, but not lethal, allele for each of the above traits. Trait recessive phenotype Proportion of individuals in the population expressing example: feather color recessive phenotype yellow 0.25

4 VI. Let's assume there are 1000 organisms in your study population. Using the Hardy-Weinberg equation, and for each trait, calculate the number of homozygous dominant, heterozygous, and homozygous recessive individuals in this population. If 250 of these birds have yellow feathers, then they have 500 recessive alleles among them. q 2 =.25 q =.5 solving for p: (1 - q = p) we get = 0.5 plug into HW equation: p 2 + 2pq + q In this population, 250 should be homozygous dominant, 250 should be homozygous recessive and 500 should be heterozygous for feather color, if the population is not evolving (i.e., is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium). VII. Select one of the traits you have created above. For each of the possibilities below, create a scenario that might act to change the proportion of wild type to mutant alleles now present in the population. If there's time, do this for another trait or two. mutation: (example: new mutation at feather color allele results in white feathers) a mutation could produce a third allele. It might be dominant or recessive to either of the existing alleles, and its phenotype would be subject to selection. migration: If a neighboring deme to our study population had a different initial proportion of dominant and recessive alleles, immigration from that deme could change the allele frequencies in our study population if immigrants breed with locals. small population size: random sampling error is more likely to affect genotype frequencies in a small population. non-random mating: you get the idea. See the description of non-random mating above natural selection: And again. You can figure this one out and create many different scenarios that would change allele frequencies in our population.

5 Discussion Questions 1. Describe some conditions under which a mutation generating a phenotype different from the wild type might confer a selective advantage. You may get as off the wall as you wish here. So here goes. Let's take the example of the recessive white-feathered mutant. Unless this was lethal, this new form is likely to remain in the population in heterozygous form, and rarely (depending on how many population members carry it) show up in the phenotype if it's inherited in two copies. If these birds nested in white rock cliffs, a colorsensitive predator might be better able to home in on green or yellow birds that didn't match the rocks, whereas the white-feathered birds might be more likely to escape detection. This could lead to their leaving more offspring. (Yes, there are all sorts of "but what if's..." you could add here. And you certainly should do that, if you know enough about birds, their parental care, etc.) 2. Discuss how immigration or emigration of individuals from a particular population might change allele frequencies in that population. See above. 3. What might happen to the allele frequencies of a population in the event of a natural disaster that randomly wiped out a large proportion of the individuals? This would result in Bottleneck Effect, a form of genetic drift. A major shift in genotype and allele frequencies is far more likely to occur in a small population, due to random sampling error. 4. If a small group of organisms were blown to an island during a hurricane, and could not return to the population from which they had come, what might become of the allele frequencies of that small population, relative to the original population? Similar effect as that in #3, but this time it's called Founder Effect. 5. What might happen to phenotypic frequencies in a population if organisms with similar phenotypes had a higher likelihood of mating with each other? See the description of positive assortative mating above. 6. What might happen to phenotypic frequencies in a population if organisms with dissimilar phenotypes had a higher likelihood of mating with each other? See the description of negative assortative mating above. 7. What is sexual selection? In which of the five categories above does it fall? How might it result in sexual dimorphism? Sexual selection is the result of one sex in a species showing a preference for members of the opposite sex who have a particular phenotype. It is more appropriately considered a form of natural selection than a form of non-random

6 mating, since in this case, some members of the population might not get to mate at all. Sexual dimorphism--the existence of different morphologies between the two sexes--could evolve if a particular trait present only in one sex confers a selective advantage to members of that sex. This dimorphic trait may either make the opposite sex prefer those who express it, or it might confer a competitive advantage to the individual competing with members of the same sex for territories, food resources, etc. 8. If one particular (monogenic) trait of the several you listed is in the process of changing allele frequencies due to one of the five factors that may disrupt HW equilibrium, what does this imply about the allele frequencies of the other loci? Again, since you are monitoring only one trait at a time, it is not possible to accurately predict what will happen to other traits in an evolving population. However, traits that are chromosomally linked or otherwise closely associated with a trait that is subject to natural selection may also be affected. You can probably think of ways this could occur, and you might want to ask your workshop students what they think about this.

Evolution of Populations

Evolution of Populations Evolution of Populations Evolution Q: How can populations evolve to form new species? 17.1 How do genes make evolution possible? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER: There are different variations of the same gene.

More information

Chapter 25: Population Genetics

Chapter 25: Population Genetics Chapter 25: Population Genetics Student Learning Objectives Upon completion of this chapter you should be able to: 1. Understand the concept of a population and polymorphism in populations. 2. Apply the

More information

Biology 1406 - Notes for exam 5 - Population genetics Ch 13, 14, 15

Biology 1406 - Notes for exam 5 - Population genetics Ch 13, 14, 15 Biology 1406 - Notes for exam 5 - Population genetics Ch 13, 14, 15 Species - group of individuals that are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring; genetically similar 13.7, 14.2 Population

More information

Chapter 16 How Populations Evolve

Chapter 16 How Populations Evolve Title Chapter 16 How Populations Evolve Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Population Genetics A population is all of the members of a single species

More information

Population Genetics (Outline)

Population Genetics (Outline) Population Genetics (Outline) Definition of terms of population genetics: population, species, gene, pool, gene flow Calculation of genotypic of homozygous dominant, recessive, or heterozygous individuals,

More information

Population and Community Dynamics

Population and Community Dynamics Population and Community Dynamics Part 1. Genetic Diversity in Populations Pages 676 to 701 Part 2. Population Growth and Interactions Pages 702 to 745 Review Evolution by Natural Selection new variants

More information

CAMPBELL BIOLOGY. Chapter 13

CAMPBELL BIOLOGY. Chapter 13 Lecture 10 Population Genetics CAMPBELL BIOLOGY Chapter 13 Hox Genes Control development Hox genes need to be highly regulated to get expressed at the right time and correct level to orchestrate mammalian

More information

Population Genetics page 1

Population Genetics page 1 Population Genetics page 1 Objectives Learn basic principles of population genetics and microevolution through the use of a computer model. Pre-lab assignment Before lab, read the introductory material

More information

Population Genetics: Changes in the Gene Pool and Gene Frequency

Population Genetics: Changes in the Gene Pool and Gene Frequency Biology 11 Name: Population Genetics: Changes in the Gene Pool and Gene Frequency Evolution through natural selection describes how populations change over time but it is not the only way that populations

More information

9.1: Mechanisms of Evolution and Their Effect on Populations pg. 350-359

9.1: Mechanisms of Evolution and Their Effect on Populations pg. 350-359 9.1: Mechanisms of Evolution and Their Effect on Populations pg. 350-359 Key Terms: gene flow, non-random mating, genetic drift, founder effect, bottleneck effect, stabilizing selection, directional selection

More information

Chapter 8 Population Genetics: How do Genes Move through Time and Space?

Chapter 8 Population Genetics: How do Genes Move through Time and Space? Chapter 8 Population Genetics: How do Genes Move through Time and Space? 4/29/2009 Chun-Yu Chuang How Do We Characterize Variation? Variation can be smooth or discontinuous. Two views of biology Naturalists

More information

Chapter 21 Active Reading Guide The Evolution of Populations

Chapter 21 Active Reading Guide The Evolution of Populations Name: Roksana Korbi AP Biology Chapter 21 Active Reading Guide The Evolution of Populations This chapter begins with the idea that we focused on as we closed Chapter 19: Individuals do not evolve! Populations

More information

Microevolution: The mechanism of evolution

Microevolution: The mechanism of evolution Microevolution: The mechanism of evolution What is it that evolves? Not individual organisms Populations are the smallest units that evolve Population: members of a species (interbreeding individuals and

More information

Population Genetics -- Evolutionary Stasis and the Hardy-Weinberg Principles 1

Population Genetics -- Evolutionary Stasis and the Hardy-Weinberg Principles 1 Population Genetics -- Evolutionary Stasis and the Hardy-Weinberg Principles 1 Review and Introduction Mendel presented the first successful theory of the inheritance of biological variation. He viewed

More information

How do populations evolve?... Are there any trends?...

How do populations evolve?... Are there any trends?... How do populations evolve?... Are there any trends?... Gene pool: all of the genes of a population Allele frequency: the percentage of any particular allele in a gene pool A population in which an allele

More information

CHAPTER 23 THE EVOLUTIONS OF POPULATIONS. Section B: Causes of Microevolution

CHAPTER 23 THE EVOLUTIONS OF POPULATIONS. Section B: Causes of Microevolution CHAPTER 23 THE EVOLUTIONS OF POPULATIONS Section B: Causes of Microevolution 1. Microevolution is generation-to-generation change in a population s allele frequencies 2. The two main causes of microevolution

More information

C1. A gene pool is all of the genes present in a particular population. Each type of gene within a gene pool may exist in one or more alleles.

C1. A gene pool is all of the genes present in a particular population. Each type of gene within a gene pool may exist in one or more alleles. C1. A gene pool is all of the genes present in a particular population. Each type of gene within a gene pool may exist in one or more alleles. The prevalence of an allele within the gene pool is described

More information

Population Genetics. Outline. Key Concepts: How does a population evolve?

Population Genetics. Outline. Key Concepts: How does a population evolve? Population Genetics How does a population evolve? Outline 1. Key Concepts 2. Individuals Don t evolve, Populations Do 3. The Hardy-Weinberg Theorem 4. The Microevolution and Natural Selection 5. Genetic

More information

Chapter 16 Evolution of Populations. 16.1 Genes and Variation Biology Mr. Hines

Chapter 16 Evolution of Populations. 16.1 Genes and Variation Biology Mr. Hines Chapter 16 Evolution of Populations 16.1 Genes and Variation Biology Mr. Hines Figure 1-21 Levels of Organization Section 1-3 Levels of organization Biosphere Ecosystem The part of Earth that contains

More information

Chapter 23. (Mendelian) Population. Gene Pool. Genetic Variation. Population Genetics

Chapter 23. (Mendelian) Population. Gene Pool. Genetic Variation. Population Genetics 30 25 Chapter 23 Population Genetics Frequency 20 15 10 5 0 A B C D F Grade = 57 Avg = 79.5 % (Mendelian) Population A group of interbreeding, sexually reproducing organisms that share a common set of

More information

11.1 KEY CONCEPT A population shares a common gene pool.

11.1 KEY CONCEPT A population shares a common gene pool. 11.1 KEY CONCEPT A population shares a common gene pool. Why it s beneficial: Genetic variation leads to phenotypic variation. It increases the chance that some individuals will survive Phenotypic variation

More information

Allele Frequencies: Changing. Chapter 15

Allele Frequencies: Changing. Chapter 15 Allele Frequencies: Changing Chapter 15 Changing Allele Frequencies 1. Mutation introduces new alleles into population 2. Natural Selection specific alleles are more likely to be passed down because they

More information

What is evolution? - Helena Curtis and N. Sue Barnes, Biology, 5th ed. 1989 Worth Publishers, p.974

What is evolution? - Helena Curtis and N. Sue Barnes, Biology, 5th ed. 1989 Worth Publishers, p.974 Chapter 16 What is evolution? Evolution is a process that results in heritable changes in a population spread over many generations. Evolution can be precisely defined as any change in the frequency of

More information

II B. Gene Flow. II C. Assortative Mating. II D. Genetic Drift. II E. Natural Selection. Northern Elephant Seal: Example of Bottleneck

II B. Gene Flow. II C. Assortative Mating. II D. Genetic Drift. II E. Natural Selection. Northern Elephant Seal: Example of Bottleneck I. What is Evolution? Agents of Evolutionary Change The Five Forces of Evolution and How We Measure Them A. First, remember that Evolution is a two-stage process: 1. Production and redistribution of variation

More information

Population Genetics and Evolution

Population Genetics and Evolution ADVANCED PLACEMENT BIOLOGY Laboratory 8 Population Genetics and Evolution 7-650 TEACHER S MANUAL World-Class Support for Science & Math This protocol has been adapted from the Advanced Placement Biology

More information

Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Period. 4. Describe Lamarck s proposed theory of evolution, The Theory of Acquired Traits.

Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Period. 4. Describe Lamarck s proposed theory of evolution, The Theory of Acquired Traits. Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Name Period California State Standards covered by this chapter: Evolution 7. The frequency of an allele in a gene pool of a population depends on many factors and may be stable

More information

For a particular allele N, its frequency in a population is calculated using the formula:

For a particular allele N, its frequency in a population is calculated using the formula: Date: Calculating Allele Frequency Definitions: Allele frequency is a measure of the relative frequency of an allele in a population. Microevolution is defined as the change in the frequency of alleles

More information

Teacher Notes. Biology 30 Unit 4 Population Genetics

Teacher Notes. Biology 30 Unit 4 Population Genetics Biology 30 Unit 4 Population Genetics General Outcome D1: Students will describe a community as a composite of populations in which individuals contribute to a gene pool that can change over time. A. Genetic

More information

Summary. 16 1 Genes and Variation. 16 2 Evolution as Genetic Change. Name Class Date

Summary. 16 1 Genes and Variation. 16 2 Evolution as Genetic Change. Name Class Date Chapter 16 Summary Evolution of Populations 16 1 Genes and Variation Darwin s original ideas can now be understood in genetic terms. Beginning with variation, we now know that traits are controlled by

More information

Applications in population genetics. Hanan Hamamy Department of Genetic Medicine and Development Geneva University

Applications in population genetics. Hanan Hamamy Department of Genetic Medicine and Development Geneva University Applications in population genetics Hanan Hamamy Department of Genetic Medicine and Development Geneva University Training Course in Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Geneva 2013 Population genetics

More information

Evolution and Darwin

Evolution and Darwin Evolution and Darwin Evolution The processes that have transformed life on earth from it s earliest forms to the vast diversity that characterizes it today. A change in the genes!!!!!!!! Old Theories of

More information

Prof. Arjumand S. Warsy Department of Biochemistry College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh

Prof. Arjumand S. Warsy Department of Biochemistry College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh GENOTYPE, PHENOTYPE AND GENE FREQUENCIES Prof. Arjumand S. Warsy Department of Biochemistry College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh Introduction Genotype is the genetic makeup of an individual

More information

Assessment Schedule 2014 Biology: Demonstrate understanding of genetic variation and change (91157) Evidence Statement

Assessment Schedule 2014 Biology: Demonstrate understanding of genetic variation and change (91157) Evidence Statement NCEA Level 2 Biology (91157) 2014 page 1 of 5 Assessment Schedule 2014 Biology: Demonstrate understanding of genetic variation and change (91157) Evidence Statement NCEA Level 2 Biology (91157) 2014 page

More information

Developed by William Beavis, Laura Merrick, Kendra Meade, Arden Campbell, and Deborah Muenchrath

Developed by William Beavis, Laura Merrick, Kendra Meade, Arden Campbell, and Deborah Muenchrath AGRONOMY 527 : LESSON 5 Population Genetics Introduction Developed by William Beavis, Laura Merrick, Kendra Meade, Arden Campbell, and Deborah Muenchrath Completion time: 1 week Readings Required reading:

More information

11.1. A population shares a common gene pool. The Evolution of Populations CHAPTER 11. Fill in the concept map below.

11.1. A population shares a common gene pool. The Evolution of Populations CHAPTER 11. Fill in the concept map below. 11.1 GENETIC VARIATION WITHIN POPULATIONS Study Guide KEY CONCEPT A population shares a common gene pool. VOCABULARY gene pool allele frequency MAIN IDEA: Genetic variation in a population increases the

More information

CHAPTER : Beyond Mendelian Genetics

CHAPTER : Beyond Mendelian Genetics CHAPTER 12.2 12.6: Beyond Mendelian Genetics Incomplete Dominance 1. In radishes, the gene that controls color exhibits incomplete dominance. Pure-breeding red radishes crossed with pure-breeding white

More information

Evolution Part 1. Unit 10 Miss Wheeler

Evolution Part 1. Unit 10 Miss Wheeler Evolution Part 1 Unit 10 Miss Wheeler Evolution Evolution- The process by which organisms have changed (and will continue changing) over time Charles Darwin- Father of Evolution Traveled for 5 years on

More information

Genetics. The study of heredity. discovered the. Gregor Mendel (1860 s) garden peas.

Genetics. The study of heredity. discovered the. Gregor Mendel (1860 s) garden peas. GENETICS Genetics The study of heredity. Gregor Mendel (1860 s) discovered the fundamental principles of genetics by breeding garden peas. Genetics Alleles 1. Alternative forms of genes. 2. Units that

More information

Population Genetics INTRODUCT ION:

Population Genetics INTRODUCT ION: Population Genetics INTRODUCT ION: An understanding of evolution depends upon knowledge of population genetics. If you have ever asked questions such as the ones that follow, you begin to see why studying

More information

Assessment Schedule 2013 Biology: Demonstrate understanding of genetic variation and change (91157)

Assessment Schedule 2013 Biology: Demonstrate understanding of genetic variation and change (91157) NCEA Level 2 Biology (91157) 2013 page 1 of 5 Assessment Schedule 2013 Biology: Demonstrate understanding of genetic variation and change (91157) Assessment Criteria with with Excellence Demonstrate understanding

More information

How Populations Evolve

How Populations Evolve How Populations Evolve Darwin and the Origin of the Species Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, November 24, 1859. Darwin presented two main concepts: Life

More information

Population Genetics. Population Genetics. Allele frequency. Allele frequency, Example. Allele frequency, Example cont. Genotype frequency

Population Genetics. Population Genetics. Allele frequency. Allele frequency, Example. Allele frequency, Example cont. Genotype frequency Population Genetics Population Genetics Social Patterns and Evolutionary Forces in Human Populations How do genes behave in populations What is a population? A population is a subdivision of a species

More information

Gene flow and genetic drift Evolution Biology 4971/5974 D F Tomback

Gene flow and genetic drift Evolution Biology 4971/5974 D F Tomback Biology 4974/5974 Evolution Gene Flow, Genetic Drift, and the Shifting Balance Theory Figures from Hall and Hallgrimsson, 2014, Strickberger s Evolution Learning goals Understand how the following processes

More information

Ninja Sea Turtles Lab A simulation of population genetics

Ninja Sea Turtles Lab A simulation of population genetics Name Date I. Introduction Ninja Sea Turtles Lab A simulation of population genetics Created by Amanda Tsoi Somerville High School, MA Which type of population will survive better: a group that has a lot

More information

Genetic Problems (I) SINGLE GENE INHERITANCE

Genetic Problems (I) SINGLE GENE INHERITANCE Genetic Problems (I) SINGLE GENE INHERITANCE 1. What are the expected phenotypic and genotypic ratios in the F1 generation? a. P= Pure bred black mated with white b. P= Hybrid black mated with white c.

More information

205. POPULATION GENETICS

205. POPULATION GENETICS 205. POPULATION GENETICS Evolution can be defined as the change in allele frequencies in a population. For this definition to be useful, we must also define the terms "allele frequency" and "population".

More information

Beaming in your answers

Beaming in your answers Bio 112 Handout for Evolution 4 This handout contains: Today s iclicker Question Figures for today s lecture iclicker Question #1 - after lecture Which of the following statements are false: A. If the

More information

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Problems

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Problems Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Problems 1. The frequency of two alleles in a gene pool is 0.19 (A) and 0.81(a). Assume that the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. (a) Calculate the percentage of

More information

NATURAL SELECTION AND GENE FREQUENCY

NATURAL SELECTION AND GENE FREQUENCY NATURAL SELECTION AND GENE FREQUENCY BY WOLFGANG RUBI CATALAN, MARNELLE MAC DULA, LIANNE UMALI, ERICA WILEY, & CHRIS YOUNG Student ID # s: WHAT IS THAT? Natural selection is a key mechanism of evolution.

More information

EXTENSIONS OF MENDELIAN INHERITANCE.

EXTENSIONS OF MENDELIAN INHERITANCE. CHAPTER 4: EXTENSIONS OF MENDELIAN INHERITANCE. Many crosses do not yield simple Mendelian ratios. Instead, the ratios are modified. These modifications reflect complexities in gene expression not complexities

More information

What is Genetics? Genetics is the scientific study of heredity

What is Genetics? Genetics is the scientific study of heredity What is Genetics? Genetics is the scientific study of heredity What is a Trait? A trait is a specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another. Examples: Brown hair, blue eyes, tall, curly

More information

Ch.16-17 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Ch.16-17 Review. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: Ch.16-17 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following statements describe what all members of a population

More information

Chapter 11. Classical (Mendelian) Genetics

Chapter 11. Classical (Mendelian) Genetics Chapter 11 Classical (Mendelian) Genetics The study of how genes bring about characteristics, or traits, in living things and how those characteristics are inherited. Genetics Geneticist A scientist who

More information

MCB142/IB163 Mendelian and Population Genetics 9/19/02

MCB142/IB163 Mendelian and Population Genetics 9/19/02 MCB142/IB163 Mendelian and Population Genetics 9/19/02 Practice questions lectures 5-12 (Hardy Weinberg, chi-square test, Mendel s second law, gene interactions, linkage maps, mapping human diseases, non-random

More information

Quiz #4 Ch. 4 Modern Evolutionary Theory

Quiz #4 Ch. 4 Modern Evolutionary Theory Physical Anthropology Summer 2014 Dr. Leanna Wolfe Quiz #4 Ch. 4 Modern Evolutionary Theory 1. T/F Evolution by natural selection works directly on individuals, transforming populations. 2. T/F A genotypic

More information

Biological Sciences Initiative

Biological Sciences Initiative Biological Sciences Initiative HHMI This activity is an adaptation of an exercise originally published by L. A. Welch. 1993. A model of microevolution in action. The American Biology Teacher. 55(6), 362-365.

More information

Foundations of Genetics. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display

Foundations of Genetics. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Foundations of Genetics 8.1 Mendel and the Garden Pea The tendency for traits to be passed from parent to offspring is called heredity Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) The first person to systematically study

More information

Breeding Value versus Genetic Value

Breeding Value versus Genetic Value Breeding Value versus Genetic Value Gene351 (not( Gene251) Lecture 6 Key terms Breeding value Genetic value Average effect of alleles Reading: Prescribed None Suggested Falconer & McKay, 1996 Revision

More information

MORE HARDY-WEINBERG PROBLEMS THAN YOU CAN SHAKE A STICK AT!

MORE HARDY-WEINBERG PROBLEMS THAN YOU CAN SHAKE A STICK AT! MORE HARDY-WEINBERG PROBLEMS THAN YOU CAN SHAKE A STICK AT! 1. In a certain flock of sheep, 4% of the population has black wool and 96% has white wool. If black wool is a recessive trait, what percent

More information

CH. 15: Darwin s Theory of Evolution. Directions: READ ch. 15 in your textbook and use the note outline to help you answer the questions below.

CH. 15: Darwin s Theory of Evolution. Directions: READ ch. 15 in your textbook and use the note outline to help you answer the questions below. CH. 15: Darwin s Theory of Evolution Directions: READ ch. 15 in your textbook and use the note outline to help you answer the questions below. 1. What is a theory? 2. Describe some of the ideas that influenced

More information

Dr. Young. Genetics Problems Set #1 Answer Key

Dr. Young. Genetics Problems Set #1 Answer Key BIOL276 Dr. Young Name Due Genetics Problems Set #1 Answer Key For problems in genetics, if no particular order is specified, you can assume that a specific order is not required. 1. What is the probability

More information

Heredity. Sarah crosses a homozygous white flower and a homozygous purple flower. The cross results in all purple flowers.

Heredity. Sarah crosses a homozygous white flower and a homozygous purple flower. The cross results in all purple flowers. Heredity 1. Sarah is doing an experiment on pea plants. She is studying the color of the pea plants. Sarah has noticed that many pea plants have purple flowers and many have white flowers. Sarah crosses

More information

Lecture 6 Mendelian Genetics in Populations: Selection and Mutation

Lecture 6 Mendelian Genetics in Populations: Selection and Mutation Lecture 6 Mendelian Genetics in Populations: Selection and Mutation 1 Population: a group of interbreeding organisms and their offspring. Gene pool: the collection of alleles present within a population.

More information

LS4 Problem Set 2, Population Genetics. Corresponding Quiz: November (Along with positional cloning)

LS4 Problem Set 2, Population Genetics. Corresponding Quiz: November (Along with positional cloning) LS4 Problem Set 2, 2010 Population Genetics Corresponding Lectures: November 5, 8 and 10 Corresponding Reading: Hartwell et al., 757-773 Corresponding Quiz: November 15-19 (Along with positional cloning)

More information

Genetics & Inheritance

Genetics & Inheritance Genetics & Inheritance Part 1 Earth Day Creature! Genetics Terminology Genes are DNA sequences that contain instructions for building proteins or RNA molecules with enzymatic functions. Chromosomes are

More information

Genetics and Natural Selection

Genetics and Natural Selection Genetics and Natural Selection Darwin did not have an understanding of the mechanisms of inheritance and thus did not understand how natural selection would alter the patterns of inheritance in a population.

More information

LAB 11 Natural Selection (version 2)

LAB 11 Natural Selection (version 2) LAB 11 Natural Selection (version 2) Overview In this laboratory you will demonstrate the process of evolution by natural selection by carrying out a predator/prey simulation. Through this exercise you

More information

Molecular Biology Chapter 13: Evolution Hardy-Weinberg Practice Problems

Molecular Biology Chapter 13: Evolution Hardy-Weinberg Practice Problems Molecular Biology Chapter 13: Evolution Hardy-Weinberg Practice Problems When Allele Frequencies Are Given 1. Given a population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with allele frequencies A = 0.9 and a = 0.1,

More information

BIOLOGY I Study Guide # 5: Topic Genetics 1

BIOLOGY I Study Guide # 5: Topic Genetics 1 BIOLOGY I Study Guide # 5: Topic Genetics 1 Biology Textbook pg. 262 285, 340-365 Name: I. Mendelian Genetics (pg. 263 272) Define: a. genetics: b. fertilization: c. true-breeding: d. trait: e. hybrid:

More information

11.1 The Work of Gregor Mendel

11.1 The Work of Gregor Mendel 11.1 The Work of Gregor Mendel Lesson Objectives Describe Mendel s studies and conclusions about inheritance. Describe what happens during segregation. Lesson Summary The Experiments of Gregor Mendel The

More information

2. Which hereditary rule explains why a self-fertilizing parent that is heterozygous for the A locus (Aa) can produce offspring that are AA or aa?

2. Which hereditary rule explains why a self-fertilizing parent that is heterozygous for the A locus (Aa) can produce offspring that are AA or aa? Heredity 1. Technology Enhanced Questions are not available in Word format. 2. Which hereditary rule explains why a self-fertilizing parent that is heterozygous for the A locus (Aa) can produce offspring

More information

GENETIC CROSSES. Monohybrid Crosses

GENETIC CROSSES. Monohybrid Crosses GENETIC CROSSES Monohybrid Crosses Objectives Explain the difference between genotype and phenotype Explain the difference between homozygous and heterozygous Explain how probability is used to predict

More information

Population Genetics. Macrophage

Population Genetics. Macrophage Population Genetics CCR5 CCR5-Δ32 Macrophage 1 What accounts for this variation? Random? Past epidemics (plague, smallpox)? What will happen to this variation in the future? Will Δ32 allele increase in

More information

Natural Selection, Chi-square & Hardy-Weinberg Calculations

Natural Selection, Chi-square & Hardy-Weinberg Calculations BIOL 0 LAB 5 Natural Selection, Chi-square & Hardy-Weinberg Calculations Variability exists in all natural populations. For a wide variety of reasons, some phenotypes (visible characters) or genotypes

More information

Genetic Drift Simulation. Experimental Question: How do random events cause evolution (a change in the gene pool)?

Genetic Drift Simulation. Experimental Question: How do random events cause evolution (a change in the gene pool)? Genetic Drift Simulation Experimental Question: How do random events cause evolution (a change in the gene pool)? Hypothesis: Introduction: What is Genetic Drift? Let's examine a simple model of a population

More information

Continuous and discontinuous variation

Continuous and discontinuous variation Continuous and discontinuous variation Variation, the small differences that exist between individuals, can be described as being either discontinuous or continuous. Discontinuous variation This is where

More information

Chapter 2: Traits and How They Change

Chapter 2: Traits and How They Change Table of Contents Chapter 2: Traits and How They Change Section 2: Genetics Heredity x Genetics Mendel s experiments Punnett Square REVIEW: Genes are sections of DNA Genes have different Alleles A gene

More information

Chapter 9 Patterns of Inheritance

Chapter 9 Patterns of Inheritance Bio 100 Patterns of Inheritance 1 Chapter 9 Patterns of Inheritance Modern genetics began with Gregor Mendel s quantitative experiments with pea plants History of Heredity Blending theory of heredity -

More information

Single-Gene Inheritance (Learning Objectives) Review the presence of homologous chromosomes in diploid organisms that reproduce sexually, the

Single-Gene Inheritance (Learning Objectives) Review the presence of homologous chromosomes in diploid organisms that reproduce sexually, the Single-Gene Inheritance (Learning Objectives) Review the presence of homologous chromosomes in diploid organisms that reproduce sexually, the definitions of karyotype, autosomes and sex chromosomes. Recognize

More information

Genetics for the Novice

Genetics for the Novice Genetics for the Novice by Carol Barbee Wait! Don't leave yet. I know that for many breeders any article with the word genetics in the title causes an immediate negative reaction. Either they quickly turn

More information

6.1: Beyond Mendel s Observations of Inheritance pg. 242

6.1: Beyond Mendel s Observations of Inheritance pg. 242 6.1: Beyond Mendel s Observations of Inheritance pg. 242 Incomplete Dominance Incomplete dominance: is condition in which neither allele for a gene completely conceals the presence of the other; it results

More information

4.6 Dihybrid Crosses. offspring produced from such a cross are heterozygous for both the yellow and round genotypes. YYRR. YR YR yr.

4.6 Dihybrid Crosses. offspring produced from such a cross are heterozygous for both the yellow and round genotypes. YYRR. YR YR yr. (a) Indicate the genotypes and phenotypes of the F generation from the mating of a heterozygous Himalayan rabbit with an albino rabbit. (b) The mating of a full-coloured rabbit with a light-grey rabbit

More information

Answers to Mendelian genetics questions BI164 Spring, 2007

Answers to Mendelian genetics questions BI164 Spring, 2007 Answers to Mendelian genetics questions BI164 Spring, 2007 1. The father has normal vision and must therefore be hemizygous for the normal vision allele. The mother must be a carrier and hence the source

More information

Conceptual Questions C1. Answer: Dominance occurs when one allele completely exerts its phenotypic effects over another allele. Incomplete dominance

Conceptual Questions C1. Answer: Dominance occurs when one allele completely exerts its phenotypic effects over another allele. Incomplete dominance Conceptual Questions C1. Answer: Dominance occurs when one allele completely exerts its phenotypic effects over another allele. Incomplete dominance is a situation in which two alleles in the heterozygote

More information

Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions

Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions Grade 7 (Evolution) 3.a Students know both genetic variation and environmental factors are causes of evolution and diversity of organisms. (pg. 109 Science

More information

TEST NAME: Genetics unit test TEST ID: GRADE:07 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: School Assessment

TEST NAME: Genetics unit test TEST ID: GRADE:07 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: School Assessment TEST NAME: Genetics unit test TEST ID: 437885 GRADE:07 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: School Assessment Genetics unit test Page 1 of 12 Student: Class: Date: 1. There are four blood

More information

Multiple Choice Review Mendelian Genetics & Inheritance Patterns

Multiple Choice Review Mendelian Genetics & Inheritance Patterns Multiple Choice Review Mendelian Genetics & 1. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck introduced a theory about inheritance in the early 1800s. Which of the following accurately describes his Theory of Acquired Characteristics?

More information

The Mendelian Genetics of Corn

The Mendelian Genetics of Corn The Mendelian Genetics of Corn (Adapted from Mendelian Genetics for Corn by Carolina Biological Supply Company) Objectives: In this laboratory investigation, you will: a. Use corn to study genetic crosses.

More information

Section Review 15-1 1.

Section Review 15-1 1. Section Review 15-1 1. Beagle 2. theory of evolution 3. varied 4. Darwin s curiosity might have led him to make many observations and ask questions about the natural world. His analytical nature may have

More information

Mendelian Genetics. Lab Exercise 13. Contents. Objectives. Introduction

Mendelian Genetics. Lab Exercise 13. Contents. Objectives. Introduction Lab Exercise Mendelian Genetics Contents Objectives 1 Introduction 1 Activity.1 Forming Gametes 2 Activity.2 Monohybrid Cross 3 Activity.3 Dihybrid Cross 4 Activity.4 Gene Linkage 5 Resutls Section 8 Objectives

More information

Assessment Schedule 2012 Science: Demonstrate understanding of biological ideas relating to genetic variation (90948)

Assessment Schedule 2012 Science: Demonstrate understanding of biological ideas relating to genetic variation (90948) NCEA Level 1 Science (90948) 2012 page 1 of 5 Assessment Schedule 2012 Science: Demonstrate understanding of biological ideas relating to genetic variation (90948) Assessment Criteria ONE (a) (b) DNA contains

More information

Alleles, Phenotype & Genetic interaction

Alleles, Phenotype & Genetic interaction Alleles, Phenotype & Genetic interaction Problem Set #2 (not for credit): (thanks to Steve Jackson for some of these problems) 1. For each of the terms in the left column, choose the best matching phrase

More information

The Genetics of Horse Coat Color

The Genetics of Horse Coat Color The Genetics of Horse Coat Color 1 For centuries, breeders have considered coat color an important physical attribute of a horse. Using basic genetic principles, breeders can predict the coat colors of

More information

Chapter 11 Genetics. STATE FRAMEWORKS 3. Genetics

Chapter 11 Genetics. STATE FRAMEWORKS 3. Genetics STATE FRAMEWORKS 3. Genetics Chapter 11 Genetics Central Concepts: Genes allow for the storage and transmission of genetic information. They are a set of instructions encoded in the nucleotide sequence

More information

2. A chromosome with a centromere at the very end is called telocentric.

2. A chromosome with a centromere at the very end is called telocentric. Problem Set 1A Due August 31 1. A diploid somatic cell from a rat has a total of 42 chromosomes (2n = 42). As in humans, sex chromosomes determine sex: XX in females and XY in males. i. What is the total

More information

4) Which of the following somatic cell chromosome numbers is most likely to represent a trisomic individual? a) 16 b) 27 c) 31 d) 62 e) 9

4) Which of the following somatic cell chromosome numbers is most likely to represent a trisomic individual? a) 16 b) 27 c) 31 d) 62 e) 9 Biol 3301 Exam 2 Spring 2011 1) Recessive genes a, b, c, d, e, and f are closely linked on a chromosome, but their order is unknown. Three deletions in the region are examined. On deletion uncovers a,

More information

Population Genetics and Multifactorial Inheritance 2002

Population Genetics and Multifactorial Inheritance 2002 Population Genetics and Multifactorial Inheritance 2002 Consanguinity Genetic drift Founder effect Selection Mutation rate Polymorphism Balanced polymorphism Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

More information

Copyright 2014 Edmentum - All rights reserved.

Copyright 2014 Edmentum - All rights reserved. Biology Heredity Blizzard Bag 2014-2015 Copyright 2014 Edmentum - All rights reserved. 1. Many serious diseases can be passed from parent to offspring through genes. In which case given below is a recessive

More information

UNIT 9 Evolution Part 1. Microevolution: Unique Gene Pools and Changing Allele Frequencies

UNIT 9 Evolution Part 1. Microevolution: Unique Gene Pools and Changing Allele Frequencies UNIT 9 Evolution Part 1 Microevolution: Unique Gene Pools and Changing Allele Frequencies Adaptations and Fitness An adaptation is a genetically controlled trait that is favored by natural selection and

More information

Basic Premises of Population Genetics

Basic Premises of Population Genetics Population genetics is concerned with the origin, amount and distribution of genetic variation present in populations of organisms, and the fate of this variation through space and time. The fate of genetic

More information