Ecology and Environmental Science Topics

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1 Powerpoint lessons can be downloaded from left menu Biology Lecture Topics, then Ecological and Environmental Topics, direct link here -8e5e f-a8b4987d588f&RenderLoc=0&FlexDataID=350&PageID=907 From your textbook, define the following: 1. Ecosystem 2. Community 3. Population 4. Niche 5. Detrivore 6. Biodiversity 7. Species richness Use the powerpoint lessons on Ms. Bridge s website to answer the following questions: 1. Compare and contrast camouflage and mimicry. What is the difference? Similarity? 2. Give one specific example of an organism that uses mimicry. What is the evolutionary strategy behind this? 3. Give one specific example of an organism that uses camouflage. What is the evolutionary strategy behind this? 4. Compare are contrast mutualism and commensalism. What is the difference? Similarity? 5. What type of relationship is shared between a dog and a flea who lives on the dog? 1

2 6. List two characteristics of a consumer in the ecosystem. 7. List two characteristics of a producer in the ecosystem. 8. List two characteristics of a decomposer in the ecosystem. 9. What is meant by a trophic level? 10. If a certain group of producers in a community produces 1000 kcals of carbohydrate energy, how many of those kcals is available to the 2 nd -level consumers in that same community? Why? Justify your answer. 11. Why is the total biomass of carnivores in a community usually much lower than the biomass of the producers in the community? (hint: you can reference your answer above) 12. Why are invasive organisms considered to be undesirable in an ecosystem? 13. Name three invasive species. 14. What two nutrients (elements) are the main cause of eutrophication? 2

3 15. When nutrients leak into a body of water, it spurs an overabundance of a to grow, which eventually die and sink to the bottom. The dead and dying matter provided abundant food for b (which live in the bottom sediments). These well-fed microorganisms have energy to divide rapidly, increasing their numbers greatly. Because many of these decomposers are aerobic, they use up a substantial amount of the o in the water. This ultimately lowers the levels of o in the water, resulting in the d of many of the macroorganisms (fish, crabs, etc). 16. List one source of nitrogen pollution and one source of phosphorus pollution that can run off into a body of water. 17. Give one measure that can limit or stop eutrophication in the Barnegat Bay. 18. Define biomagnification. 19. What trophic level accumulates the greatest amount of pollutants over time? 20. What does DDT stand for, and why is it now banned for sale in the US? 21. NJ had restrictions on eating shellfish and crabs from certain rivers, because of the bioaccumulation of mercury in the tissues of these organisms. How does mercury get into the river water? 22. What is meant by a greenhouse gas? List four examples. 23. What does the term anthropogenic mean? 24. What is the largest source of anthropogenic CO 2 in the atmosphere? 25. What is the largest source of anthropogenic nitrous oxide in the earth s atmosphere? 26. What are three sources of methane in the atmosphere? 3

4 27. What is the difference between global warming and climate change? 28. What are four of the long-term effects of warming on living organisms? 29. Do the data suggest that there is a correlation between increase in human population growth and increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere? 30. List FIVE things that YOU can do to reduce your greenhouse gas emissions. 31. In your opinion, what is the most alarming consequence of global warming? 32. Why is a layer of ozone in the earth s upper atmosphere important? What does it do that benefits life on earth? 33. What does CFC stand for? 34. Other than CFCs, list two other ozone-depleting substances. What products are these found in? 35. What are three consequences of ozone depletion? 4

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