Chapter 5 - Molecules and Compounds

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1 Chapter 5 - Molecules and Compounds How do we represent molecules? In pictures In formula In name Ionic compounds Molecular compounds On the course website, you will find a list of ions that I would like you to know the names/formula of - start working on them! I have also posted the list from CHEM 131, if you want to get a jump on that list! CHEM 100 F07 1 Pure Substances Elements Compounds Atomic Molecular Ionic Molecular Elements as they exist on the periodic table. A subset of elements that exist as molecules in nature. Contains a mix of metals and nonmetals.* Contains only nonmetals.* CHEM 100 F07 2 1

2 Elements Elements can naturally exist as one of two forms: clusters of atoms or clusters of molecules. An image of iron (Fe) atoms imposed on a lattice. An image of oxygen molecules, O 2. CHEM 100 F07 3 Elements The majority of elements on the periodic table exist as Atomic Elements. Some nonmetals exist as Diatomic (two atoms) Molecular Elements. H 2, N 2, O 2, F 2, Cl 2, Br 2, I 2 Have No Fear Of Ice-Cold Beer! There are some that exist as larger, multiatomic Molecular Elements. Examples: Sulfur = S 8 Phosphorus = P 4 CHEM 100 F07 4 2

3 How Do We Represent Molecules? In pictures. Line drawings/formula of water (H 2 O) dissolving salt (NaCl) A space-filling model representing water (H 2 O) dissolving salt (NaCl) CHEM 100 F07 5 Writing Chemical Formula As nice as the models are, they are impractical for quick communications! Chemical Formula Indicates what atoms are present in a molecule, and how many of each atom are present. Example: Sulfuric Acid has 2 hydrogens, 1 sulfur, and 4 oxygens H 2 SO 4 CHEM 100 F07 6 3

4 Writing Chemical Formula Write the formula for the following compounds, based on their descriptions. A compound that contains 5 oxygen atoms and 2 nitrogen atoms. A compound that contains 1 calcium atom and 2 fluorine atoms. A compound that contains 1 carbon, 1 magnesium and 3 oxygen atoms. CHEM 100 F07 7 Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds are formed from ions! (duh ) Cation(s) Anion(s) Ionic compounds are always charge neutral. Ionic compounds contain a combination of metals and nonmetals Exception #1: the hydrogen ion, H +, may take the place of a metal. Examples: sodium chloride NaCl magnesium iodide MgI 2 potassium sulfide K 2 S CHEM 100 F07 8 4

5 Writing Formula: Ionic Compounds Let s write the formula for an ionic compound made from calcium and bromine (Br). Step 1: Determine the charges for each ion. Step 2: Determine the how many of each ion is needed for charge neutrality. Check: Is the sum of the positive charges = the sum of negative charges? Step 3: Reduce the subscripts to give the smallest ratio of whole numbers. CHEM 100 F07 9 Practice! Write the formula for the following ionic compounds: Na + O Li + Br Ca + F Al + Cl K + N Mg + P CHEM 100 F

6 Polyatomic Ions There are some ions that are composed of multiple atoms (not just a single-atom ion): Sulfate: SO 4-2 Nitrate: NO 3-1 Carbonate: CO 3-2 Acetate C 2 H 3 O 2-1 Phosphate: PO 4-3 Ammonium: NH 4 +1 They are used similarly in creating compounds. CHEM 100 F07 11 Formulas with Polyatomic Ions Write formula for the following molecules: Li + sulfate Mg + acetate Ca + phosphate ammonium + O Sr + nitrate H + carbonate CHEM 100 F

7 Nomenclature Categories Type I ionic compounds NH 4+, Group IA, IIA metals Type II ionic compounds Transition metal ions, some p-block metals Molecular (binary) compounds Two (and only two) nonmetals Acids H + cation CHEM 100 F07 13 Type I Ionic Compounds Name = cation + anion Cation: same as the element Anion: a polyatomic ion name (the list!), or the nonmetal take the base name, add -ide Example: nitrogen nitride chlorine chloride oxygen oxide NaCl sodium chloride MgBr 2 (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 calcium phosphate AgC 2 H 3 O 2 ZnCO 3 CHEM 100 F

8 Type I Nomenclature Name the following compounds: (NH 4 ) 2 S K 2 CO 3 Zn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 MgCl 2 Write formula from the following names: Sodium sulfate Cesium bromide Calcium hydroxide Silver nitrate CHEM 100 F07 15 Type II Ionic Compounds Type II ionic compounds contain either transition metals (d-block) or Pb, Sn as the cation. To name this cation, the element name is used, and the charge of the cation is indicated in roman numerals in parentheses. Examples: Pb +4 lead (IV) Co +2 cobalt (II) Hg +2 2 mercury (I) Anion naming methods are the same. CHEM 100 F

9 Type II Ionic Nomenclature For type II metal ions, we cannot rely on the periodic table to determine the charge! How can we figure out this charge? The anions! We know anion charges! Fe 2 O 3 We know that the oxide ion has a -2 charge, and overall the molecule must be neutral. With this information, we can set up the equation: 2x + 3(-2) = 0 x = +3 So, the name of the compound is iron (III) oxide. CHEM 100 F07 17 Type II Nomenclature Name the following compounds: Fe 3 (PO 4 ) 2 Cu 2 SO 4 Hg 2 Br 2 Pd(NO 3 ) 4 Write formula from the following names: Tin (IV) oxide Manganese (II) fluoride Lead (II) sulfide Chromium (III) Iodide CHEM 100 F

10 Binary Compounds Binary, or Molecular, compounds contain two and only two non metals. These compounds are not ionic, so no charges are determined or computed. The names of these compounds are derived from the formula, with the first atom taking the elements name and the second atom using the -ide suffix. They differ from ionic compounds in that numerical prefixes are used for both atoms.. CHEM 100 F07 19 Naming Binary Compounds Examples: AsBr 5 N 2 O 4 arsenic pentabromide dinitrogen tetraoxide sulfur trioxide SO 3 triphosphorus tetrafluoride P 3 F 4 CHEM 100 F

11 Formula Weight Synonyms: Molecular weight, molar mass Definition: the sum of the average atomic masses for each atom within a molecule. Units: amu Examples: HCl: H Cl amu amu amu amu CHEM 100 F07 21 More examples: Formula Weight H 2 SO 4 : 2 H 2 x amu = amu S 1 x amu = amu 4 O 4 x amu = amu Cu(NO 3 ) 2 : Cu 1 x amu = amu 2 N 2 x amu = amu 6 O 6 x amu = amu amu amu amu CHEM 100 F

12 Practice - FW Zn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 C 7 H 6 O 2 MgCl 2 (NH 4 ) 2 S K 2 CO 3 Fe(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 3 CHEM 100 F

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