Cyst Nematode Analysis

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1 Cyst Nematode Analysis REV 05/14/15

2 Sugar Beet Cyst Nematode The sugar beet nematode, H. schachtii, is a major parasite of sugar beets, causing major reductions in yields throughout the midwest. It was first observed in the United States as early as Today, the sugar beet nematode is present in nearly half the states in the U.S. and in 39 other beet growing countries. Soybean Cyst Nematode The soybean cyst nematode, H. glycines, is the most important pest of soybeans in the United States. It was first found in the U.S. in North Carolina around It was probably introduced in soil brought over from the Orient in the late 1800 s for the purpose of obtaining bacteria to nodulate soybean roots. The soybean cyst nematode now occurs in all major soybean production areas worldwide. Approximate Distribution of Soybean Cyst Nematode Heterodera Glycines across the United States *Source:

3 Fee Schedule for Nematode Assays Plant Parasitic Nematode Identification (Ag Soil) $58.00 Plant Parasitic Nematode Identification (Compost) $68.00 Root Tissue Exam (Root Knot Only) $20.00 Cyst Nematode Only (Egg Count) (Ag Soil) $28.00 Cyst Nematode Only (Egg Count) (Compost) $38.00 Competitive Rates Advantages Approximately 3-5 working-day turnaround (7-10 business days for live plant parasitic nematode) Special rushes can normally be accommodated, please inquire about our rush surcharges Online Reporting Latest Equipment & Technique Meets USDA/APHIS 526 Requirement for Interstate Movement of Live Pests Meets USDA/APHIS 526 Requirements for Importation of Live Pests, Noxious Weeds, and Soil. (International Shipment) Meets State of Nebraska Plant Protection Regulations Consulting available Visit our website for a complete listing of our fee schedule and online reporting options at

4 Cyst Nematode Soil Sampling Procedures for collecting samples: 1. Use a soil probe or spade to collect soil samples. 2. Collect 10 to 20 soil cores in a zig zag pattern across the entire area to be sampled. 3. Collect soil cores from areas of similar soil texture and cropping history. If different crops or markedly different soil textures occur in the same field, sample them separately. 4. Collect to a depth of 6 to 8 inches around the plant root system (if present). 5. Bulk the cores in a container and mix thoroughly. 6. Place approximately 1 pint of mixed soil in a Midwest Labs soil bag and label the outside of the bag. 7. Store the sample away from sunlight in a cool area until it is shipped to the laboratory. Collect soil cores from a acre area. Subdivide larger areas and sample separately before bulking the soil into a single sample.

5 Additional Soil Sampling Info For fields infested with Soybean Cyst Nematodes (H. glycines), run samples before any SCN susceptible varieties are grown, or once a year if resistant varieties are grown in rotation. Sample Sugar Beet Cyst Nematodes (H. schachtii) injured fields once a year regardless of crop choice or insecticide/nematicide use. It is best to sample when plants are present. Cyst numbers will be highest when the plants are almost mature to shortly after harvest. Sampling near harvest will lend you plenty of time for variety selection or choosing alternative crops for the next year. Subdivide large fields into sections of 20 acres or less and make a single composite sample per section to be submitted for analysis. If the crop row is identifiable, place the soil probe within 2 inches of the row when collecting the sample. Placement of the soil probe is not important when sampling cultivated fields, or fields where soybeans were drilled. The quality and condition of the sample determines the reliability of the results. How to Deal with Hot Spots Collect soil samples from the area between the damaged and the healthy plants. If samples are collected from the center of the affected are, Cyst numbers may appear much lower than their actual number.

6 Sample Shipment (Interstate) Submittal forms are available online or by request. Submittal forms should be completed as follows: Name Address Phone Number State and County in which the field is located Date the field was sampled. Crop history (2-4 years) Sample Shipment (cont.) Name or number of the field Cyst nematode egg counts can be performed from the same sample as the basic soil analysis if needed. Please use a soil analysis sub-form (autosubmit is available) and select the cyst nematode egg count check box as well as the basic soil test selection. Sample Shipment (International) Prior to shipping, contact Midwest Laboratories for shipping guidelines and proper shipping labels. Sample Results Cyst nematode results can be viewed on our website at Enter your account number and password. If you do not have an account and password, please contact our soil administrative personnel at (402) Click on SOILS under the header ACCESS MY DATA. On the left hand side of the page, under SAMPLE TYPES click on Cyst Nematodes. Click on the report number for applicable grower. When the view options populate, click on View Cyst Nematodes.

7 For additional information, or to obtain a copy of the Midwest Laboratories USDA/APHIS Permit, please contact: George Nelsen, Nematology Supervisor Phone: (402) The USDA/APHIS permit can also be found by going to:

8 Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN) Management Recommendations Infestation Category No SCN eggs detected Following Soybeans Fall or Spring (or soybeans actively growing) Sampling Time Following Corn Fall or Spring (No soybeans growing) 0-66 (n.d.) 0-66 (n.d.) Low* 66-3, ,000 Moderate* 4,001-12,000 2,000-12,000 High* > 13,000 > 12,000 Management Recommendations No management strategies are necessary. However, not finding SCN in a soil sample does not prove that is not present in the field. Followup sampling is recommended to check for SCN infestations in future years. If this is the first discovery of SCN, follow rotation starting with Year 1 the next time soybeans are to be grown. If Years 1-4 of rotation described below have already been completed continue with Year 5 of the rotation. Begin Year 1 of rotation the next time soybeans are to be grown. Grow several years of nonhost crop and sample field again every fall to monitor decrease in SCN population densities. *Note: Egg counts are reported as eggs per 100cc (about ½ cup) of soil and are only estimations of actual SCN population densities. *Always resample area prior to using an SCN susceptible soybean. Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 6-year Crop Rotation Sequence Pl SCN-Resistant Soybean Nonhost Crop (such as corn, oats, alfalfa Peking SCN-Resistant Soybean Nonhost Crop (such as corn, oats, alfalfa) SCN-Susceptible Soybean Nonhost crop (such as corn, oats, alfalfa) Repeat Six Year Roatation Sequence What could you do if you cannot find any SCN-resistant soybean varieties with Peking as a source of resistance? If an appropriate Peking SCN-resistant soybean variety is not available for use in Year 3, grow a soybean variety with SCN resistance derived from Pl that is different from the Pl SCNresistant soybean variety that was grown in Year 1. Grow the exact sample Pl SCN-resistant soybean variety in Years 1 and 3 only if no other Peking or Pl SCN-resistant soybean varieties are available.

9 Sugar Beet Cyst Nematode Action Levels NOTE: Results from Midwest Laboratories, Inc. are reported as eggs per 100cc (about ½ cup) of soil and are only estimations of actual sugar beet cyst population densities. Action Level: 300 Eggs per 100cc Rotation with non-host crops: The most widely used method of control is rotation out of sugar beets with a non-host crop. Rotation with non-host crops such as wheat, barley, corn, beans, or alfalfa will reduce the soil population of sugar beet nematodes though natural decline. However, weed hosts must be controlled during the rotation. Information obtained from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Midwest Laboratories, Inc B Street Omaha, NE (402) Phone (402) Fax *Reviewed and Updated 5/2015

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