Variables Dependent Variable Independent Variables Controlled Variables

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1 Acknowledgements I would like to thank my parents who have always supported me with Science Fair. I would also like to thank Mrs. Tobias who has taken time to explain to us how to complete our report at the highest level, with a lot of patience. Also, Ms. Lentynska, who taught me error analysis. Last but not least, I would like to take a moment to thank my Biology teacher, Dr. Jaji. She has taken her time to stay with us after school, to correct our papers, ask her questions and explain to us countless things. Dr. Jaji has taught us how to think outside the box to solve any problem or how to make something better and I m very thankful for that.

2 Variables Dependent Variable The amount of mass lost while six different types of wood are burned simultaneously for 15 minutes. Independent Variables 5 different types of wood. Controlled Variables 1.Mass of the wood before burning.(same mass) 2.Fuel used to ignite wood (same amount) 3.Shape of each piece of wood (to eliminate error of surface areas contact with fuel).

3 Purpose To investigate what type of wood loses the least mass after burning for 15 minutes. This experiment will advise the public which type of wood is best to use for a fire that would burn longer. Also in states where there are wildfires, this experiment would advise the public which type of wood is best to build their homes, to avoid fast burn downs.

4 Hypothesis The hypothesis is that hickory wood will lose the least mass. It has a high level of mass based on grams compared to the other types of wood. When the wood has high level of mass it takes longer for it to burn and gives off more heat at a more extended time.

5 Materials 5 different types of wood: Poplar Maple Walnut Hickory Red Oak Grill top Wood Pellet Fuel Local hardware store to cut the wood to the same shape and mass. Notebook Pencil Electronic Scale (Measuring by Grams) Lighter Adult Supervision Black Sharpie Stopwatch Saw Large rectangular bricks

6 Procedure 1. Buy 5 different types of wood. 2. Have them cut to a measurement of 30*4.3*1 (cm). 3. Weigh them on an electronic scale and trim them, till they all have the same mass. 4. Take your large bricks and place them in a way where the grill top can rest on top and there is space on the bottom of the grill top for a hand to fit and light up the fuel squares. 5. Start time and have the adults start the lighter and burn for 15 minutes simultaneously. 6. Weigh the each wood on an electronic scale individually. 7. Observe which type of wood lost the least amount of mass. 8. Repeat steps 1-8 for 8 trials. 9. Record all data.

7 Hardwood or Softwood Wood Name Type of Wood Poplar Maple Walnut Hickory Red Oak Softwood Hardwood Hardwood Hardwood Hardwood

8 Results Table 1 Mass of different types of wood left (in grams) after burning for 15 minutes.

9 Graph 1

10 Table 2 Average Mass of Wood left (in grams) after Burning for 15 minutes

11 Graph 2

12 Table 3 Average mass of wood lost (in grams) after burning for 15 minutes

13 Graph 3

14 Table 4 Comparative Difference of Mass After Wood is Burned for 15 minutes Type of Wood Beginning Mass (g) Mass Left after Burning wood Time Wood Burned (minutes) Mass Lost after Burning wood (g) Poplar Maple Walnut Hickory Red Oak

15 Graph 4

16 Picture 1 Picture 2 Picture 3 and 4 3 fuel squares used to burn the wood. They were placed on the bottom of the piece of wood. 5 different types of wood used for the experiment. The 5 types of Wood burning simultaneously.

17 Picture 5 Picture 6 Picture 7 Picture 8 Picture 9 The 5 types of Wood weighing 3.1 grams on the electronic scale.

18 Picture 10 Picture 11 Picture 12 Picture 13 The 5 types of wood after being burned for 15 minutes. Picture 14

19 Error Analysis In order to calculate standard deviation and standard error find the average time of burning for each tested material Use the formula ( x n n 1 x ) 2 to calculate standard deviation Subtract the value of the mean from each measurement Square the difference Add all squared differences Divide the number by 7 ( 8-1) Find the square root of calculated value To calculate the standard error use the formula: SE n Divide the standard deviation for each material b 7, since I had n=8 trials

20 Review of Literature Wood is used in countless ways. One way wood is used is for burning and producing heat (Johnson, S. R., 2014). The woods physical and chemical properties play a big role in how it burns and loses mass overtime. What people need to consider when buying wood is if it is hard wood or soft wood, depending on the reason they are using it. Hardwood comes from angiosperm trees which means that they produce fruit and flowers, they grow at a slower rate and are harder to find since the trees do not grow in a group of their same kind but in the middle of different types of trees (Diffen, 2015). Softwood comes from gymnosperm trees which usually grows needles and cones. Softwood trees grow at a faster rate; have a lower density and have a lower cost than most hardwood. About 80% of all timber comes from softwood. When it comes to burning wood, hardwood is the most recommended because of its higher density. When burning wood a very environmental friendly source of energy used to burn the wood is biomass. The biomass need to be lightened up with fire ands it is compressed organic matter or waste. Biomass has several ways it can convert into an energy source; it can be solid, liquid and even gas (Nrcan, 2014). Other types of fires apart from a camp fires are wildfires. Wildfires are mostly known to happen in forest and can be caused by humans or naturally caused (Freedman, 2014).. There are many dangers to live in an area prone to wildfires. For example, the trees that grow in California are most commonly red oak trees and when there are wildfires the red oak trees catch fire easily and when the wind blows it carries the fire to the homes (Zukherman, 2013). The most important stage when wood is burned is combustion. First, primary combustion takes place at about 280 Celsius to about 482 Celsius, large amounts of heat energy are produced and the most mass the wood will be loosing (Vogel, 2005). Trees not only give us wood to burn to provide us with heat but they are actually a big part to why our lives are so functional. They provide us with clean oxygen to breathe with, from the wood, we have paper which we write on every day, they provide homes and food, like apples or pears (Trees, 2010).

21 Conclusion In conclusion the hypothesis was not supported by the data. The hypothesis stated that Hickory wood would lose the least amount of mass. However, based on the results Walnut wood lost the least amount of mass. Walnut wood lost 0.68 grams while Poplar wood lost 1.0 grams; and would be the least recommended type of wood for a person building their home, if he or she lives in an area where they are prone to wildfires. Also, Poplar wood would not be recommended for camp fires or chimneys. Some errors that might have been encountered during this experiment include the following: the amount of air coming in the area where the experiment was conducted; the dryness of the wood, and other factors beyond my control. I would like to continue with this experiment by completing more trials to see if my results would be the same. In the future, the experiment will be conducted with more types of wood and in a more controlled area.

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