NOTES FRENCH REVOLUTION.notebook October 13, 2014

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1 NOTES FRENCH REVOLUTION.notebook October 13, 2014 The French Revolution 1

2 INTRODUCTION The Enlightenment and the American Revolution helped influence other government revolts in countries around the world, including France. What are specific ideas you think the French are going to take from the Enlightenment thinkers and the Americas? 2

3 The American Revolution inspired people in France to have a revolution of their own. In the 1600 and 1700s, France had an absolute monarchy or divine right monarchy, which meant that kings thought they received their power from god, not the people. The rulers, like Louis XIV and Louis XV, spent a lot of money on wars and their extravagant lifestyle. This causes many bad things to develop in France that make the people unhappy. There were 3 causes of the French Revolution. Fill in your chart with details about the 3 causes of the French Revolution as I present the information. Louis XIV Louis XV 3

4 Cause #1: Unfair Social Classes/ Divisions French Society was divided into 3 classes and it was set up unfairly. 1st Estate: Made up of the clergy (religious leaders) They only made up 1% of the total population of France and did NOT have to pay taxes. 2nd Estate: Made up of the Nobles (wealthy landowners) They only made up 2% of the population of France and did NOT have to pay taxes even though they were wealthy. 3rd Estate: Made up of everyone else in France They made up 97% of the population and had to pay ALL of the countries taxes! They paid all the taxes but had NO say in the Government. The 3rd Estates was divided into 3 groups: Bourgeoisie Middle class members like merchants, bankers, doctors, lawyers, and teachers. City Workers People like artisans, laborers, and servants. Peasants Made up 80% of this Estate poor and at the bottom of society. 4

5 Cause #2: Government Debt The King and Queen spent money on luxuries, parties, and expensive wars. This excessive spending put the country in debt. The king asked the 1st and 2nd Estates to pay taxes and they refused. The country continues to spiral into uncontrollable debt. 5

6 Cause #3: Life was Bad in France Life becomes very bad in France for members of the 3rd Estate (majority of the people 97%). Food was scarce and expensive. A loaf of bread cost more than a days pay. The winter was extremely cold. People were cold and starving, and many were unemployed. Members of the 3rd Estate had finally had enough. They were ready to use ideas from Enlightenment Philosophers to revolt against their unfair king and change their government to a limited form. 6

7 The 3rd Estate (majority of the citizens) finally decided to meet separately since nothing was accomplished at the last meeting of the Estates General at the Versailles Palace. The King and members of the 1st and 2nd Estate always outnumbered their votes and so the 3rd Estate could not have a say in what was happening in France. The 3rd Estate broke away and called themselves the National Assembly and began to work on a new constitution for France. National Assembly 7

8 NOTES FRENCH REVOLUTION.notebook October 13, 2014 The event that marks the beginning of the revolution was when members of the 3rd Estate stormed a prison in France. This event is called the Fall of the Bastille or Storming of the Bastille. The National Assembly wrote a constitution called the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, which said that the powers of the government came from the people, not the king. This is called popular sovereignty. This constitution also took away powers of the clergy and nobility and changed France's government to a Constitutional Monarchy. Fill in your Chart with details about the events and course of the of the French Revolution as I present the material. 8

9 The King would not accept the changes that the National Assembly made to the government because his power was limitedt. In 1791, King Louis and Queen Marie Antoinette tried to flee the country of France for safety. However, they did not get far. French soldiers caught up with them, arrested them, and brought the monarchs back to Paris. France declared war on Austria so they could not help the monarchs escape again. This war does not go well for France. Angry about France's defeats, radicals took over the government and set up a new government called the National Convention. National Convention 9

10 NOTES FRENCH REVOLUTION.notebook October 13, 2014 The National Convention had 2 groups: the Girondists and the Mountains. The Girondists were from a region in France called the Gironde, and they believed the revolution had gone too far. The Mountains (or Jacobins) sat high like a mountain in the meetings and wanted to keep the revolution going. The Mountains took over the National Convention, tried King Louis in court, and had him beheaded on the guillotine (a device that chops off a victims head). 10

11 NOTES FRENCH REVOLUTION.notebook October 13, 2014 Soon after the King's execution, the National Convention set up the Committee of Public Safety to run the country. This governing body quickly came under the control of a radical and lawyer named Maximilien Robespierre. Robespierre sentenced to death by the guillotine anyone he believed to be against the revolution. His period of power is known as the Reign of Terror. In the Reign of Terror, he killed over 40,000 people, including Queen Marie Antoinette and children. Eventually, the people of France grew tired of all the killings and executed Robespierre. 11

12 After killing Robespierre, a new government was set up by middle class leaders called the Directory. This was the last group to come to power and it was a 5 man council. The Directory puts an end to the revolution. 12

13 1 Which of the following is NOT a cause of the French Revolution? A B C D Government Debt Unfair Social Classes/ Divisions Political Reforms Life was Bad in France 13

14 2 The creation of the National Assembly marks the beginning of the French Revolution. True False 14

15 3 Which of the following was a Enlightenment idea used in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen? A It called for a limited government, specifically a Constitutional Monarchy. B C D It called for an unlimited government. It said that the king would have all the power. It took away extra taxes on the 1st and 2nd Estates. 15

16 4 King Louis and Queen Marie Antoinette were both executed on the guillotine during the French Revolution. True False 16

17 5 Who was leader of the Reign of Terror? A B C D Louis XVI Louis XIV Maximillien Robespierre Napoleon 17

18 BRAINPOP The French Revolution 1. READ pp of The Last 500 Years 18

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