Exercise 7 Angiosperm Reproduction: Flowers and Fruits Biol 1012, S2008, Lee, Etterson, and Little

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1 Exercise 7 Angiosperm Reproduction: Flowers and Fruits Biol 1012, S2008, Lee, Etterson, and Little Goals Relate structures in a flower to the plant life cycle: alternation of generations. Identify floral, fruit, and seed structures. Relate carpel to fruit structure and ovule to seed structure differentiate between fruit and seed. Identify different types of fruits, and relate their structures to possible dispersal method. Introduction The flowering plants, also called the angiosperms, are seed plants that bear flowers and fruits. Fruits come from flowers. Angiosperms, like all other land plants, have an alternation of sporophyte (diploid) and gametophyte (haploid) generations (Figure 1), but angiosperm gametophytes are very reduced (miniscule). SPOROPHYTE (spores) GAMETOPHYTE (zygote) Figure 1. The land plant life cycle: Alternation of generations Figure 2 shows the angiosperm life cycle. Meiosis occurs in the flower, and the spores are retained and develop into microscopic gametophytes within the flower. Pollen is the small male gametophyte that contains sperm, while the female gametophyte is an embryo sac that contains the egg. Following pollination and fertilization, the ovules mature into seeds, and the ovary of the flower matures into the fruit. Because gymnosperms do not have flowers, they have no fruits, and their seeds are naked. Male spore (n) Female spore Figure 2. Alternation of generations in flowering plants. Notice the reduced haploid gametophyte stage.

2 The angiosperms are the most diverse of all plant groups, comprising about 240,000 species. This diversity is directly related to the fantastic variation in the structure of both flowers and fruits and their adaptation for diverse animal pollinators and seed dispersers. Flowers The flower is a shoot with highly modified leafy structures borne at the enlarged tip, the receptacle. A. Obtain a lily or tulip flower, and identify the four different rings, or whorls, of parts. Sterile parts The non-reproductive structures of a flower are sepals and petals. The outermost ring of parts is formed of sepals; all the sepals together are called the calyx. In lilies and tulips there are three sepals. The sepals are often green and protect the flower in bud, and the petals are usually brightly colored and serve to attract pollinators, however they can also be indistinguishable in some plants (including tulips and lilies). The next inner ring of parts is comprised of petals. There are three petals in lilies and tulips. All the petals together are called the corolla. Fertile parts The reproductive structures include the stamen and the carpel. Next inwardly are the stamens. Each stamen consists of an anther, made up of four pollen sacs located at the tip, and a narrow stalk-like filament. Because the pollen grains ultimately produce sperm, stamens are associated with male reproductive function. Remove a stamen from the flower. Cut open the anther with a razor or scalpel. When pollen (the male gametophyte) is shed, it usually has two cells, one that divides to produce two sperm, and one which directs the growth of the pollen tube. At the center of the flower is the carpel. Normally, the carpel has three regions: 1) the ovary, the ovulebearing basal section, 2) the style, the narrow midsection, and 3) the stigma, the sticky pollen-collecting tip. The ovary contains one or more ovules that following pollination and fertilization will form the seeds. Use your razor to make a cross section through the ovary. How many separate chambers do you see? Often several carpels fuse together, each one represented by a separate chamber. Keep this ovary section to look at later. Label the following structures in Figure 3: receptacle sepal, calyx, petal, corolla, stamen, filament, anther, carpel, ovary, stigma, style, and ovule.

3 Fertilization Look at a flower model showing a germinated pollen tube. Fertilization takes place after a pollen grain germinates on the stigma. It produces a pollen tube that grows through the style into the ovary, into the embryo sac. By the time the seed is mature, much of its food will have been transported to a part of the embryo called the cotyledon. Floral variation The flowering plants show great variation in floral structure. In particular there is variation in the number of sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels. Their shape and color vary; sometimes one of the floral parts is lacking; often floral parts are fused. Flowers also differ in their symmetry and in production of nectar and scent. Flowers that are radially symmetrical may be cut longitudinally in many planes to form mirror-image halves. Bilaterally symmetrical flowers may be cut longitudinally in only one plane to form mirror-image halves. B. In your groups, inspect and dissect a snapdragon flower. Is it bilaterally or radially symmetrical? Are any of the floral parts fused? If so, which? If time allows, go to the greenhouse and locate, but DO NOT PICK, three flowers. Use your floral vocabulary to complete the chart below. If a particular part is missing from the flower mark the box as not applicable or NA. Plant Name Sepal # and Color Petal # and Color Stamen # Symmetry Fruits The ovary becomes a container for the angiosperm seeds, called the fruit. Fruits not only protect seeds, but also provide a variety of mechanisms for their dispersal. A fruit is a mature ovary. Most fruits are simple fruits that develop from a single ovary. Aggregate and multiple fruits are compound fruits consisting of several to many units of one of the simple fruit types (for example, a blackberry fruit is an aggregate of small drupes). In addition to the ovary wall and its enclosed seeds, a fruit may include a variety of accessory structures such as outer flower parts or receptacle tissue. Some botanists lump all fruits with non- ovarian tissue into a fruit type called accessory fruits.

4 A. Obtain a cherry tomato (Lycopersicon). The tomato is a fruit, even though it is called a vegetable at the grocery store; there is no botanical definition for the word vegetable. The tomato is a type of fruit called a berry because of its fleshy wall. Cut the tomato in cross section and compare it with the cross section you made earlier of the lily flower. Figure 4. What resemblance do you see between the ovary cross section of the lily flower and the cross section of the tomato? B. Obtain a pea pod, which is also a fruit. If the pod is a fruit, what floral structure was it? What floral structures were the peas inside the pea pod? Break open the pea pod along one of its sutures, and draw and label the fruit and seed. Notice the places where the peas attach to the pod this is where the ovules attached to the ovary. Do you see any remnant petals or the stigma? Types of Fruit and Seed Dispersal Seeds and fruits may be dispersed by wind, water, or animals. Dispersal is made possible by modifications of the seed coat, the ovary wall, other flower parts, or even parts of the plant outside the flower (like the stem in pineapples which becomes soft and juicy). For each of the fruits on display, fill in the table below: 1) Determine how it developed from the flower. Did the fruit develop from a single ovary or more than one? Look for remnants of other floral parts (sepals, petal, etc.) to provide hints. 2) Examine the fruit wall. Is it fleshy or dry at maturity? If fleshy, is there a hard pit or core protecting the seeds? If dry, does the fruit wall open to release the seeds? 3) Use Figure 5 and the following key for various fruit types. Speculate as to how the fruit is dispersed.

5 Plant name Fruit type Dispersal method Key to Various Fruit Types 1. Simple fruits derived from a single ovary of a single flower Compound fruits derived from either the ovaries of several flowers or from several ovaries of a single flower Fruits obviously fleshy at maturity Fruit dry at maturity Inner layer of fruit wall is entirely fleshy, usually more than one seed Berry 3. Inner layer of fruit wall not entirely fleshy Fleshy outer region surrounds a leathery, cartilaginous, or bony core enclosing several seeds Pome 4. Inner layer of fruit is hard and stony making up a pit, usually only one seed Drupe 5. Indehiscent fruits (not opening at maturity) Dehiscent fruits (splitting open at maturity) Seed with fruit forming winglike extension(s) for dispersal Samara 6. Lacking wings Fruit wall very hard and stony enclosing a relatively large seed not fused to the wall Nut 7. Fruit wall never stony (may be hard or papery) Seed entirely fused to the fruit wall, so inseparable Grain 8. Small seed not entirely fused to relatively soft or thin fruit wall (may be attached at one point) Achene 9. Composed of one compartment Composed of more than one compartment fused together, opens by various slits or pores... Capsule 10. Opening along one suture (i.e. longitudinal slit) Follicle 10. Opening along two sutures Legume 11. Fruit derived from several ovaries of several flowers, fused together Multiple fruit 11. Fruit derived from several ovaries of a single flower Aggregate fruit

6 Figure 5. Fruit types Seeds A seed is a mature ovule. After fertilization of the egg within the embryo sac of the ovule, a number of development events occur. The nutritive endosperm develops. The zygote divides mitotically to form the embryo. The seed coat of the ovule hardens. The seeds of some angiosperms thus consist of the embryo, a protective seed coat surrounding the embryo, and the endosperm, which serves as a food supply for the embryo. In other angiosperms the nutrients of the endosperm are completely absorbed by the developing embryo and stored in the cotyledons of the embryo. These seeds lack true endosperm when mature. During germination the embryo resumes active growth and emerges from the seed coat to become the seedling. The seedling will continue to rely on the food stored in the endosperm or cotyledons for energy and raw materials for growth until it becomes photosynthetic.

7 A. Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Obtain a bean that has been soaked overnight. This is an individual seed (a mature ovule) that was taken out of a bean fruit. Notice the seed coat on the outside. Everything inside the seed coat is embryo. The most obvious features of the bean embryo are its two large fleshy cotyledons (seed leaves). The endosperm has been digested and their nutrients transferred to cotyledons, which are large structures that make up the bulk of the bean seed. Between the two cotyledons is the rest of the plant body. Identify the embryonic root and the feather-like embryonic shoot. Sketch a bean seed and label the bolded structures in your drawing: B. Corn (Zea mays) Examine a corn grain. The corn grain is actually a fruit containing one seed. The seed coat of corn, like that of other grasses, is fused with the fruit wall. For this reason the outer covering of the corn grain is actually the fruit wall rather than the seed coat. At one end of the grain you may see a scar left by the style (silk) of the corn carpel, at the other end a scar where the grain was attached to the cob. Cut the corn grain exactly in half lengthwise with a razor blade to reveal the endosperm and the embryo. Put a drop of iodine onto the cut surface to detect the starch. Which structure, the endosperm or embryo, contains starch? The part of the embryo closest to the endosperm is the single cotyledon. The root end of the embryo is toward the base of the grain, the shoot end toward the apex. Sketch a corn grain and label the bolded structures in your drawing:

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