QUANTIFYING NECTAR RESOURCES FROM THE FLOWER TO THE NATIONAL SCALE

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1 QUANTIFYING NECTAR RESOURCES FROM THE FLOWER TO THE NATIONAL SCALE Professor Jane Memmott, University of Bristol

2 Outline of talk Who did the work Background The 3 questions How we did it and what we found Practical applications Summary

3 Nancy Davies Dr Mathilde Baude Yves Darot

4 BACKGROUND Nectar and pollen are the main floral resources for pollinators. Lack of food is believed to be one of the major causes of pollinator decline in Great Britain. Currently don t know the food value of different flower species to pollinators. Plant lists of plants good for pollinators but not evidence based OUR AIM to calculate the value of flowers to pollinators in GB, doing this at multiple scales

5 1: FLOWER 2: FLOWER UNIT 3: VEGETATIVE 4: HABITAT 5: NATIONAL

6 USE THE DATA TO ANSWER 3 QUESTIONS QUESTION 1. Which plant species provide the best floral resources for pollinators? QUESTION 2. Which habitats are the best for pollinators? QUESTION 3. Which species & habitats contribute the most at the national scale?

7 METHODS 1: FLOWER 2: FLOWER UNIT 3: VEGETATIVE 4: HABITAT 5: NATIONAL

8 STAGE 1: NECTAR AND POLLEN PER FLOWER 3842 plant species are found in the UK (2 year project!) The Countryside Survey Data on km 2 plots in England, Scotland & Wales: 1978, 1990, 2000 & plant species cover 99% of UK landscape

9 More than half of the 450 plants are not rewarding to pollinators so can be ignored Target to sample the 220 common flowering plant species in the UK Along with 101 species which are likely to be locally important

10 Top five most common plants in England, Scotland & Wales Heather Calluna vulgaris Bramble Rubus fruticosus White clover Trifolium repens Creeping buttercup Ranunculus repens Bilberry Vaccinium myrtillus

11 STAGE 1: NECTAR AND POLLEN PER FLOWER Find field sites where the targeted plant species grow 2 populations for each species sampled, 2011 & 2012

12 STAGE 1: NECTAR AND POLLEN PER FLOWER NECTAR Bagged plant for 24 hrs (no pollinators) Collected nectar using micro-capillary tubes Volume & sugar concentration were measured per flower POLLEN Collected unopened stamens and extracted the pollen Counted (!!!) & measured

13 175 species were measured in the field, remainder had their nectar levels statistically predicted.

14 µg of sugars/flower/day STAGE 1: NECTAR PER FLOWER The top 10 plant species for nectar production per flower

15 STAGE 2: NUMBER OF FLOWERS PER FLORAL UNIT FLOWER FLOWER UNIT 1: FLOWER 2: FLOWER UNIT Nectar at the level of the flower, multiply up number of flowers per floral unit

16 STAGE 3: NECATAR RESOURCES PER VEGETATIVE UNIT 1: FLOWER 2: FLOWER UNIT 3: VEGETATIVE FLOWER ABOUNDANCE 5 QUADRATS PER SPECIES FLOWERING PHENOLOGY Data from the literature

17 kg of sugars/ha cover/year STAGE 3: RESOURCES PER VEGETATIVE UNIT The top 10 plant species for nectar per unit cover per year (kg of sugar/ha/year)

18 ANSWERING QUESTION 1 QUESTION 1. Which plant species provide the best floral resources for pollinators? The best species per unit of area cover (kg of sugars/unit of area/year) are Thistle, Willow, Knapweed, Heather and Comfrey. Cirsium palustre Salix cinerea Centaurea nigra Erica cinerea Symphytum officinale

19 STAGE 4: RESOURCES PER HABITAT 1: FLOWER 2: FLOWER UNIT 3: VEGETATIVE 4: HABITAT PLANT SPECIES COMPOSITION AND PROPORTIONAL COVER IN EACH HABITAT (from the Countryside Survey 2007)

20 STAGE 4: RESOURCES PER HABITAT The nectar productivity of UK habitats (kg of sugars/ha/year) HABITAT

21 ANSWERING QUESTION 2 QUESTION 2. Which habitats are the best for pollinators? Calcareous grassland, broadleaf woodland and neutral grassland show the highest nectar productivity (and diversity) Arable shows the lowest nectar productivity (and diversity)

22 STAGE 5: RESOURCES AT THE NATIONAL SCALE HABITAT 1: FLOWER 2: FLOWER UNIT 3: VEGETATIVE 4: HABITAT 5: NATIONAL After taking into account their national land cover, three species contribute almost 50% of national nectar provision. White clover, marsh thistle & heather

23 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

24 ANSWERING QUESTION 3 QUESTION 3. Which species & habitats contribute the most at the national scale? White clover, marsh thistle & heather contribute all together to almost 50% of the national nectar provision Improved grassland contributes the most to the national nectar provision

25 Outline of talk Who did the work Background The 3 questions How we did it and what we found Practical applications (3) Summary

26 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS 1: Which habitats to conserve Wildlife Trusts/ M. Simon High nectar productivity & diversity and their low and declining land cover mean that calcareous grasslands should be a priority for habitat conservation dedicated to pollinators.

27 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS 2: What to restore Wildlife Trusts/ N. Jones Managed habitats contribute well nationally in spite of their low nectar productivity per unit of area; improved grasslands and arable land can be improved in order to enhance the national nectar provision.

28 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS 2: Habitat creation schemes arable field margins/urban meadows Wildlife Trusts/ N. Jones Use of the floral database to find the optimal mix of plant species to provide floral resources throughout the pollinator season

29 Summary Who did the work Background The 3 questions How we did it and what we found Practical applications

30 Thanks to the funders Agriland team

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