Electron, Proton, and Neutron Table

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1 Electron, Proton, and Neutron Table + Occurence harge Mass (g) Relative Mass Electron found outside of nucleus Proton found in all nuclei ,836 Neutron found in almost all nuclei ,839 (exception: most nuclei)

2 Radioactive Decay Alpha decay Nucleus ejects a helium-4 nucleus Beta decay Nucleus converts a neutron to a proton and electron, ejecting the electron. - Protons Neutrons Atomic number Mass number Decrease by 2 Decrease by 2 Decrease by 2 Decrease by 4 Protons Neutrons Atomic number Mass number Increase by 1 Decrease by 1 Increase by 1 Stays the same Gamma decay Nucleus emits gamma radiation and lowers its energy. Gamma ray Protons Neutrons Atomic number Mass number Stays the same Stays the same Stays the same Stays the same

3 Size and Structure of an Atom Atom Diameter = m Proton Neutron Electron + + Nucleus Diameter = m

4 Units of Elementary harge } Allowed in normal matter Electric charge only appears in multiples of the elementary charge, e. +e -e +2e -2e +3e -3e e -.5e } Impossible in normal matter

5 Bohr s Model of the Atom Ground state Excited state Ground state Energy absorbed Energy (light) released

6 Electron Energy Levels Energy levels (first four) Number of possible electrons 4 th level 3 rd level 2 nd level 1 st level Atom

7 Orbitals The p-orbitals Up The s-orbitals Up Back Left Back Left Right Front Right Front Down Down

8 Diagram of Spectral Lines and Energy high Violet Blue - violet Blue - green ydrogen Red spectrum Light energy low Light Energy levels Energy

9 Energy Levels in the Periodic Table

10 Groups in the Periodic Table

11 Periodic Table of Elements 1 1 hydrogen Li 3 lithium Na 11 sodium K 19 potassium Rb 37 rubidium s 55 cesium Fr 87 francium 2 Be 4 beryllium Mg 12 magnesium a 20 calcium Sr 38 strontium Ba 56 barium Ra 88 radium Sc Ti V r Mn Fe o Ni u Zn 21 Y Zr 40 f Nb 41 Ta Mo 42 W Tc 43 Re scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron Ru 44 yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium Os 76 hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium 27 Rh 45 Ir Pd 46 Pt Ag 47 Au d 48 g B N O F 5 Al 13 Ga 31 In 49 Tl 81 6 Si 14 Ge 32 Sn 50 Pb 82 7 P 15 As 33 cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic Sb 51 rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony Bi 83 iridium platinum gold mercury thallium lead bismuth 8 S 16 Se 34 Te 52 Po 84 9 l 17 Br 35 I 53 At e 2 Ne 10 boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon Ar 18 aluminum silicon phosphorus silicon chlorine argon Kr 36 selenium bromine krypton Xe 54 tellurium iodine xenon Rn 86 polonium astatine radon Rf Db Sg Bh s Mt Uun Uuu Uub Uuq rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium ununnilium unununium ununbium ununquadium helium La 57 Ac 89 e 58 Th 90 Pr 59 Pa 91 Nd 60 U 92 Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy o Er Tm Yb Lu lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium actinium thorium protactinium uranium Np Pu Am m Bk f Es Fm Md No Lr neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelvium nobelium lawrencium

12 1 1 hydrogen Li 3 lithium Na 11 sodium K 19 potassium Rb 37 rubidium s 55 cesium Fr 87 francium 2 Be 4 beryllium Mg 12 magnesium a 20 calcium Sr 38 strontium Ba 56 barium Ra 88 radium Reading the Periodic Table Sc Ti V r Mn Fe o Ni u Zn 21 Y Zr 40 f 72 Main Group Elements Transition Elements ROWS = PERIODS 23 Nb 41 Ta Mo 42 W Tc 43 Re scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron Ru 44 yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium Periodic Table of the Element s Os 76 hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium Non metals Metals OLUMNS = GROUPS 27 Rh 45 Ir Pd 46 Pt 78 Metalloids 29 Ag 47 Au d 48 g B N O F 5 Al 13 Ga 31 In 49 Tl 81 6 Si 14 Ge 32 Sn 50 Pb 82 7 P 15 As 33 cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic Sb 51 rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony Bi 83 iridium platinum gold mercury thallium lead bismuth 8 S 16 Se 34 Te 52 Po 84 9 l 17 Br 35 I 53 At e 2 Ne 10 boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon Ar 18 aluminum silicon phosphorus silicon chlorine argon Kr 36 selenium bromine krypton Xe 54 tellurium iodine xenon Rn 86 polonium astatine radon Rf Db Sg Bh s Mt Uun Uuu Uub Uuq rutherfordium dubnium seaborgium bohrium hassium meitnerium ununnilium unununium ununbium ununquadium helium La 57 Ac 89 e 58 Th 90 Pr 59 Pa 91 Nd 60 U 92 Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy o Er Tm Yb Lu lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium actinium thorium protactinium uranium Np Pu Am m Bk f Es Fm Md No Lr neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelvium nobelium lawrencium

13 hemical Formulas and Structure Diagrams Structural diagram O O O Na O O Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) NaO 3 Benzene 6 6 Ethane 2 6 Acetic acid (in vinegar) 2 3 O 2 hemical formula

14 hlorine and Sodium Bonds

15 Periodic Table and Reactivity

16 Lewis Dot Diagrams Neon 8 valence electrons Ne Boron 3 valence electrons B Flourine 7 valence electrons F Beryllium 2 valence electrons Be Oxygen 6 valence electrons O Lithium 1 valence electrons Li Nitrogen 5 valence electrons N ydrogen 1 valence electrons arbon 4 valence electrons Methane molecule ( 4 )

17 Example of Oxidation Numbers Adding to Zero l l l l l 4 arbon tetrachloride l l l l = 0 The total of the oxidation numbers for each atom in the molecule must be zero.

18 Periodic Table and Electron Acceptors and Donors

19 Predicting a hemical Formula Iron and oxygen combine to form a compound. Iron (Fe) has an oxidation number of 3+. Oxygen (O) has an oxidation number of 2-. Predict the chemical formula of this compound. 1. Looking for: hemical formula 2. Given: oxidation numbers Fe 3+ and O 2-3. Relationships: The oxidation numbers for all the atoms in a compound must add up to zero. 4. Solution: Three oxygen atoms contribute the total oxidation number of 6-. It takes only two iron atoms to get a total oxidation number of 6+. Therefore, the chemical formula is Fe 2 O 3. Your turn... a. Predict the chemical formula of the compound containing beryllium (2+) and fluorine (1-). Answer: BeF 2

20 Valence Electrons and Bonding hlorine 17 electrons 7 Inner electrons Bond hlorine has 7 valence electrons Valence electrons Sodium 1 valence electron hlorine 7 valence electrons

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