Community Based Disaster Management

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1 Community Based Disaster Management by Dr Michael Ricos, Coordinator - Disaster Management Department IDEP FOUNDATION INDONESIAN DEVELOPMENT of EDUCATION and PERMACULTURE

2 Why Do Disasters Occur? Exposure to Hazards - Natural & Manmade Landslide Terrorism Tsunami Volcano Flood Vulnerability of Communities - Bad Construction, Location, Environmental - No Capacity for Emergency Response etc. Housing - Earthquake Zone

3 What is risk? RISK = Hazards x Vulnerabilities Capacity Flash Flood Deforestation Next to River X Hazard Vulnerability No Emergency Training & No Evacuation Plan

4 Disaster Prevention = Risk Reduction Reduce Exposure to Hazards - Some can be Mitigated, Managed - Incorporated into Development Lower Vulnerability of Communities - Better Construction / Relocation / Evacuation - Can become Prepared to Respond to Emergencies

5 Disaster Risk Reduction Through 1. Community Based Disaster Management 2. Effective National Early Warning and Preparedness 3. Policy on Land-use and Appropriate Construction 4. Risk Assessment in Development Projects & Planning 5. Insurance (financial and social) and Asset Protection through Social Safety Nets

6 Why Community Based DRR? Limitations of Government / INGO only - Top Down Country Size : Diverse Conditions and Cultures : Resources - Monitoring: Many Smaller Disasters are not reported / responded to - Risk Mapping : Many Local Conditions Hazards go undetected - Mitigation : Limited Resources for Mitigation Projects - Money & People - Planning: Too many geographical / cultural conditions to handle - Implementation : To Difficult to Cover with a Single Approach - Preparedness Response : Emergency Response by Government / NGO only - Public Perception : Govt / INGO Projects give False Sense of Security

7 Why Community Based DRR? Communities are at Frontlines of Disaster - Most affected by Disasters - First on the Ground to Respond to Disasters - Most lives are saved in the first 24hrs after a disaster - If Community cannot Respond they Have to wait for Help - Best Local Knowledge of Conditions and Coping Mechanisms - Have Strong Capacity for Reducing Disasters Risk (CB DRR) - If Community Do not Accept the DRR measures - DRR likely to Fail

8 Multi-Stakeholder Disaster Management Government Legislation, Planning DM Infrastructure, Funding, Tools, Response, Training National DRR, EWS & Infrastructure Top Down COMMUNITY Implementation of CB-DRR Local Risk / Hazard Mapping Planning and Mitigation Proposals for DRR Projects Bottom Up UN / Donors / NGOs Funding & Capacity Building DRR Implementation Partner Emergency Response DRM Training Programs EWS & infrastructure Technical Advice Development of Tools for DRR

9 What is CBDM MITIGATION: Communities can Lessen their Exposure to Specific Hazards and Prevent Disasters from Occurring PREPAREDNESS : Disaster preparedness which builds on local knowledge can dramatically reduce suffering and loss of life & infrastructure. Many actions can be taken by communities to reduce impacts of Disasters. RESPONSE : When disasters happen local Community can save the most lives in the first hours and this is often before external support has arrived. RECOVERY : Effective & sustainable disaster recovery is only possible when you have community ownership of processes & they are aware that development can lead to Disasters

10 CBDM Tools in 3 Key Areas A. Resource Materials - Manuals, Handbooks, Videos, etc. - For Target Communities and Government Officials - Aids for CBDM Facilitators and CBDM Trainers B. Training of CBDM Facilitators - For Communities, and Community Leaders, Government Officials - Training of CBDRM Facilitators (ToF( ToF) ) and CBDRM Trainers (ToT) C. Public Awareness of Disasters & how to react - Video s, Comics, Posters, Websites, TV and Radio Announcements

11 IDEP CBDM Kit as an Example 1. Developed in response to Bali Bomb 2002 For Local Communities to Prepare for / Respond to Disaster 2. Support to date: USAID- Funding Early Stages MPBI - Key Technical Advisors CRS - Inputs to manual UNESCO kits, 1st ToF,, Travel / Networking Oxfam GB - CBDM Workgroups, CBDM in OGB Prime

12 CBDM Kit for increasing communities ability to prepare for and manage disasters CBDM Manual Section A For Disaster Preparedness, includes : Government / Agency / UN Endorsement Reasoning for CB Disaster Preparedness Development Disaster Preparedness Group Information about 8 types of disasters Community Risk Mapping Disaster Planning Tools CBDM kit piloting 2003 In 5 Villages

13 Community Disaster Management Group Familiar Structure HANSIP / LINMAS /CDMG

14 CBDM Kit for increasing Communities ability to prepare for and manage disasters CBDM Manual Section B For Disaster RESPONSE includes : What to do when a disaster happens Evacuation procedures CBDM Manual Section C For Disaster RECOVERY includes : CB Disaster Recovery Groups Community Needs Assessment Fulfilling Community Needs Tools for Accountability How to get support CBDM kit piloting in Aceh 2005

15 CBDM Kit for increasing Communities ability to prepare for and manage disasters CBDM Manual ADDITIONAL TOOLS : Contact lists of key related organizations Basic First Aid & Trauma self help guide Temporary shelter & Sanitation fact sheets About the format used Easy to photocopy graphics & tools Includes examples for each of the tools Encourages adaptation to local needs

16 CBDM Kit for increasing understanding about different types of disasters Each comic includes a story about a local hero/heroine demonstrating what a difference community based action can make, as well as a fact sheet about the specific type of disaster.

17 CBDM Kit for socializing Community Based Disaster Management Poster No 1 - Are we ready if disaster strikes? Poster No 2 - Managing Disasters with a CDMG Community Disaster Management Group Large A1 sized all-weather posters for display in public areas

18 PUBLIC AWARENESS OF DISASTER Communities affected by disaster ask for CBDM by themselves - IDEP have many requests by communities for CBDM kit eg. Poso, Lombok, Cilacap Very Basic Knowledge can save lives -Traditional knowledge during Tsunami in Simelue Boarding School Headmaster -Evacuates 400 Students in Jember -MAB - UNESCO Preparedness Training in Siberut -MPBI NTB Sphere workshop in Lombok Floods Post Tsunami -Indonesian TV has Daily News Reports on Disasters. Fertile Ground for DM! Videos, Comics, Posters, Websites, TV & Radio Easy to reach many people quickly - But Need Ongoing Campaign

19 KOGAMI in PADANG 1 yr Community Tsunami Alert Scientists predicted that height of Tsunami might go inland max 5 m above sea level Based on survey, Padang then divide to three zones based on the height of land As alternative in giving secure to the people, KOGAMI has designed evacuation route which will be completed by following survey This map is very useful for community to know where they live and what to do when earthquake potential Tsunami happens Public New revision Education : m from Campaigns shoreline is very dangerous are Dangerous : 0-5 m asl Aware area : >5-10 m asl Save zone : >10 m asl

20 How to Plan for PADANG?? - Extreme Tsunami Risk STATISTICS FOR KOTA PADANG (CITY) Size : 694,96 Km 2 Community : Urban Population : 850,000 Shoreline : KM Vulnerable districts : 8 Vulnerable Population : 400,000 Predicted Height of Wave :5-7 M Time to Impact : mins after quake Current Time for Evacuation mins HOPLESS SITUATION? WHAT CAN BE DONE? Courtesy : Prof. Kerry Sieh

21 Education for Public Model Design Workshop To introduce Emergency Capacity Building Program and its goal to community in Padang Pariaman Government To find the model design of participatory emergency planning which will be conducted consistently by government with communities Public Awareness through education will provide motivating force for change. From the Model Design Workshop that was held on April, the Bupati (leader of regency) stated his commitment to replicate the participatory emergency planning with communites consistently. The participants agreed that criteria of model should be integrated with local culture so it could be maintaining as local wisdom for the next generations

22 DISASTER RISK REDUCTION IN DEVELOPMENT QuickTime and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture.

23 Integrating Community Based Disaster Management into Sustainable Development GHFS-Permaculture Field School Emergency Zone Sustainable Rehabilitation Training Acehenese as Trainers in VDC - Land use, Agriculture, Water management, Solid and Liquid Waste, Conservation 90 Graduates - Growing own food in Tsunami Zone Permaculture Guide Book - Community Developed in East Timor Adapted for Indonesia Permaculture Trainers Guide Book Developed in Aceh and Bali for Indonesia CBDM Kit for Community Education Knowledge of Hazards Knowledge of Preparedness activities Tools for self assessment Hazard Awareness for Safe Development Community understands Risks Able to plan / develop with Hazards in mind Reduce Exposure to Hazards

24 Priority Areas for Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Immediate Impact of CBDRR Distribute CBDM Manuals, Comics, Posters Institutionalize tools from various organizations Call for Inputs Develop Training Programs MPBI CBDRM Courses, PMI, LIPI, Scouts/Guides etc National Standards / Socialization of CBDM Coordinated effort Govt. (BAKORNAS PB) with all stakeholders CBDM Integrated into National Plan for Disaster Management Improve Funding of Long-Term CBDM DRR activities not attractive for Donors - Source DFID Need Long Term Commitments from BINGO s,, UN, Donors and Govts.

25 CRISIS = THREAT + OPPORTUNITY Thank You! Contact us: Website: YAYASAN IDEP INDONESIAN DEVELOPMENT of EDUCATION and PERMACULTURE

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