1 2 Government Debt 2.1 Revenues from taxation and other charges represent the primary source of State funding, but the State also borrows substantially to supplement annual funding. This report outlines the trend and composition of the debt funding and the cost of debt service. It also provides an update in relation to Ireland s activity in the sovereign debt market. General Government Debt 2.2 The most comprehensive measure of government debt is General Government Debt (GGDebt), an internationally standardised measure of debt which all EU countries are legally obliged to use for their twice-yearly reporting of government deficit and debt under the Maastricht Treaty. The GGDebt is defined by EU regulations as the total gross debt at nominal value outstanding at year-end for the consolidated general government sector that is, the total gross debt owed by all government bodies to third parties outside government. 1 Debt that one government body owes another does not count towards the GGDebt. In Ireland, the general government sector includes most public sector bodies, but not publicly owned banks, NAMA Investment Ltd, and those commercially-operated State companies which cover a majority of their operating costs through sales. 2.3 In April 2014, the Central Statistics Office (CSO) calculated Ireland's GGDebt at approximately 203 billion at the end of 2013 an increase of 5.4% since end Revised Measurement Framework 1 Specifically, GGDebt is defined as the consolidated liabilities of the general government sector in the following European System of Accounts 1995 (ESA95) categories: currency and deposits; securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives; and loans. 2 ESA 2010 will revise and update the common standards, classifications and accounting rules for member states in drawing up their national accounts and transmitting their data to Eurostat. Eurostat will publish EU aggregates in mid- October with a note illustrating all the changes. 2.4 The current framework for measurement of GGDebt will be revised in September The main implication of the new framework (ESA 2010) for Ireland will be that the Irish Bank Resolution Corporation Limited (now in special liquidation) will be included in the GGDebt calculation from In accordance with the ESA 2010 methodology, the CSO revised the GGDebt figure for 2013 to 216 billion (2012: 210 billion) in July The ratio of GGDebt to gross domestic product (GDP) is a standard sustainability measure applied for the purposes of comparison across the EU. The GGDebt as a proportion of GDP rose from 43% in 2008 to 123% of GDP in 2013 based on the ESA This was the CSO s first estimate according to the new ESA 2010 standards for National Accounts. It will not be subject to normal verification processes by Eurostat until September 2014 and should, therefore, be regarded as provisional.
2 20 Report on the Accounts of the Public Services 2013 Gross National Debt 2.7 The largest component of GGDebt is the gross national debt, which is debt arising from borrowings of the Exchequer undertaken by the National Treasury Management Agency (NTMA). This stood at billion at the end of 2013 (2012: billion). From end-2013 to end-june 2014, this increased by a further 3% to billion Figure 2.1 illustrates the trends in the major components of gross national debt from 2008 to end-june Figure 2.1 Gross national debt at redeemable par values, (year-end) and at end-june 2014 bn Medium/ long term debt Short term debt Other debt Jun-14 Annex A, Figure A1 Medium and Long-Term Debt 2.9 Medium and long-term debt at end-december 2013 accounted for 90% of the gross national debt. It comprised mainly borrowings in the form of government bonds and loans under the EU-IMF Programme of Financial Support for Ireland which was agreed in late Fixed Rate Government Bonds 2.10 Of the 111 billion in government bonds outstanding at end-december 2013, fixed rate bonds accounted for 84.6 billion or 76%. 1 End-June 2014 figures have not been audited. 2 Formal Agreement on a threeyear financial support programme from the EU, the euro area Member States and the International Monetary Fund was reached on 7 December During 2013, there were two bond sales ( 7.5 billion nominal) and three bond buybacks/cancellations. The sales included the first 10-year benchmark bond issue since January 2010, at a yield of 4.15%. In January 2014, the NTMA raised 3.75 billion from the sale of a new ten-year bond maturing in March 2024 at a yield of 3.54%. In March 2014, the NTMA announced the resumption of scheduled bond auctions, three of which took place in the period to end-june The total nominal value of bonds auctioned was 2.75 billion with yields ranging from 2.97% to 2.73%. 3 These were the first scheduled bond auctions since September 2010.
3 21 Government Debt Floating Rate Government Bonds 2.12 In 2010, as part of the process of bank capitalisation, the Minister for Finance issued promissory notes to the value of billion to three financial institutions Anglo Irish Bank, Irish Nationwide Building Society (INBS) and the Educational Building Society (EBS). Anglo and INBS were subsequently merged to become the Irish Bank Resolution Corporation Limited (IBRC). The net effect of this measure was to create State debt outside the NTMA-managed gross national debt On 7 February 2013, joint special liquidators were appointed to IBRC. The promissory notes which were held by the Central Bank of Ireland as collateral for lending to IBRC at the time were replaced with Government bonds. For this purpose, eight new floating rate bonds with a nominal value of billion were issued by the NTMA to the Central Bank of Ireland with maturities ranging from 25 to 40 years. The first of these bonds is due to mature in 2038 and the remaining bonds are due to mature every two years thereafter between 2041 and The bonds pay interest every six (June and December) based on the 6-month Euribor interest rate plus a fixed interest margin which averages 2.63% across the eight issues and ranges from 2.50% to 2.68%. These floating rate Government bonds accounted for 23% of the government bond balance at end-december The promissory notes outstanding at 30 June 2014 relate solely to EBS. The interest rate on these is fixed at 5.46%. A summary of the movement in the nominal value of promissory notes between 2010 when they were issued and June 2014 is outlined in Figure 2.2. Figure 2.2 Issue and redemption of promissory notes (position as at 30 June 2014) IBRC EBS Total Promissory notes issued in , ,850 Payments in 2011 a (3,060) (25) (3,085) Payments in 2012 a (3,060) (25) (3,085) Payments in 2013 a (25) (25) Cancellations in 2013 b (25,034) (25,034) Payments in 2014 (25) (25) Nominal value at end-june Department of Finance Notes: a The annual payments include an element of principal and interest. The nominal value of promissory notes is reduced by the principal element of the payment each year. The payment to IBRC in 2012 was made by the NTMA issue of bonds with a nominal value of 3.46 billion. b Amortising Bonds IBRC promissory notes were replaced with floating rate government bonds (see paragraph 2.13) In 2012, the NTMA issued amortising bonds for the first time. These bonds make equal annual payments (comprising principal and interest) over their lifetime, and are designed to meet the needs of the pension industry. Of the government bonds in issue at end-december 2013 almost 1.4 billion (or 1.2%) related to amortising bonds.
4 22 Report on the Accounts of the Public Services 2013 EU-IMF Programme of Financial Support 2.16 Ireland s EU-IMF programme provided for funding from EU facilities, the IMF and bilateral loans. The net euro amount received by the Exchequer under the programme was 67.5 billion (after adjustment for below par issuance, deduction of a prepaid margin, and the effect of foreign exchange transactions). The final programme disbursement of 0.8 billion from the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism (EFSM) took place in March The external support under the programme comprises 22.5 billion from the IMF Extended Fund Facility 22.5 billion from the EFSM 17.7 billion from the European Financial Stability Fund (EFSF) (this is net of a prepaid margin of 530 million 1 ) and bilateral loans from the United Kingdom ( 3.8 billion), Sweden ( 0.6 billion) and Denmark ( 0.4 billion) The liability outstanding at end-june 2014 was 67.6 billion. The liability outstanding differs from the drawdown amount due to the effect of hedging instruments in place to hedge currency risk on the IMF and UK loans, euro equivalents translated at those dates and adjustment for below par issuance. See Annex A, Figure A2 for further details There have been a number of amendments to the terms of the EU-IMF funding since the first drawdowns were made. In 2011, an agreement was reached to reduce the interest margins and extend maturities for loans granted by the EFSF and EFSM. Subsequently, the interest margins on the bilateral loans were also reduced. In April 2013, EU and euro area Finance Ministers agreed in principle to extend further the weighted average life of borrowings under both the EFSF and the EFSM. The revised maturity dates for the EFSF loans are reflected in Figure 2.3 and the first of these is now due to mature in The revised maturity dates for individual EFSM loans will only be determined as they approach their original maturity dates. It is not expected that Ireland will have to refinance any of its EFSM loans before The first repayment to the IMF will be in 2015 and the first bilateral loans to mature will be in Maturity Profile 1 The first drawdown from the EFSF in February 2011 amounted to 4.2 billion. At that date, Ireland was required to prepay the present value of the interest margin charges that would accrue over the life of the loan of 530 million, along with additional fees and charges of 72 million. The net amount disbursed was 3.6 billion. It was confirmed by the NTMA in June 2014 that 485 million of the 530 million prepaid margin will be rebated to Ireland in The remaining 45 million is due to member state guarantors Medium and long-term debt has various maturity dates. At end-june 2014, the residual maturity of fixed rate government bonds in issue ranged from under one year to 11 years, while the maturity of floating rate bonds ranged from 24 to 39 years, and the maturity of amortising bonds ranged from 13 to 33 years. The longest maturity for borrowing under the EU-IMF programme is currently just over 28 years Figure 2.3 shows the residual maturity profile of Government bonds and funding under the EU-IMF programme (totalling 181 billion) at end-june 2014.
5 23 Government Debt Figure 2.3 Residual maturity profile of government bonds and EU-IMF programme funding held at end-june 2014 a bn 30 b c Fixed rate bonds Floating rate bonds EU-IMF and bilateral Annex A, Figure A2 and Figure A3 Notes: a The EU-IMF Programme balances are shown net of currency hedging transactions where relevant. b c Includes amortising bonds. EFSF loans reflect maturity extensions agreed in June EFSM loans are also subject to a seven year extension. It is not expected that Ireland will have to refinance any of its EFSM loans before However, the revised maturity dates of individual EFSM loans will only be determined as they approach their original maturity dates. The original EFSM maturities are reflected above. Short-Term Debt 2.23 Short-term debt is debt with an original maturity of less than one year. Short-term debt 1 accounted for 2.6 billion of gross national debt at end-december 2013 and 5.7 billion at end-june Short-term instruments are used to provide liquidity and flexibility in the timing of long-term funding operations The main forms of short-term borrowings are treasury bills, exchequer notes and the euro commercial paper programme. Regular auctions of short-term treasury bills, (which resumed in July 2012), continued throughout 2013 with eight auctions during the year. Between January and June 2014, three auctions have taken place. Exchequer notes and euro commercial paper are sold through reverse enquiry. At end-december 2013, NAMA held 1.6 billion in exchequer notes over 60% of the total short-term debt Figure 2.4 compares the maturity profile of short-term debt at end-2008 and end-june This excludes short-term borrowing from other State funds.
6 24 Report on the Accounts of the Public Services 2013 Figure 2.4 Maturity profile of short-term debt, December 2008 and end-june 2014 End-December bn Over 6 30% Less than 1 month 18% 3 to 6 0.2% End-June bn 1 to 3 58% Less than 1 month 40% Over 6 2% 3 to 6 27% 1 to 3 25% Annex A, Figure A4 Debt Service Costs Ireland's Debt Market Position 2.26 Because of the high cost of debt, the NTMA did not actively seek new funding in the bond markets during the period September 2010 to July Following its return to the debt markets during 2012, sales of bonds achieved yields of 5.9% and 6.1%. 1 At end-december 2013, the yield on ten-year Irish Government bonds had fallen to 3.51% compared with Germany which was at 1.93% a difference of 1.58 percentage points. By June 2014, rates had further decreased to 2.36% for Ireland compared with Germany at 1.25%, and the difference had narrowed to just 1.11 percentage points (see Figure 2.5). 1 The yield is the annual return investors will receive for holding the bonds.
7 25 Government Debt Figure 2.5 Irish and German ten-year bond yields, 2008 June-2014 % Ireland Germany Jan 08 Jan 09 Jan 10 Jan 11 Jan 12 Jan 13 Jan 14 Note: National Treasury Management Agency (Bloomberg and NTMA calculations) Where a ten-year Irish bond yield is not available, the Irish yield is a synthetic yield derived from yields on other Irish Government Bonds for that period The debt service cost disclosed in the NTMA s accounts for 2013 was almost 8.1 billion when measured on a cash basis. When account is taken of a transfer of 625 million from current funds to a statutory sinking fund, the servicing outlay was 7.5 billion. 1 This is net of 125 million interest received and includes fees and expenses of 134 million The cost of servicing the debt rose by almost 25% between 2012 and The cost in 2013 was 3.9 times the cost in 2008 (see Figure 2.6) When the debt service cost is measured on an accruals basis, the servicing cost for 2013 was 7.4 billion. 2 The equivalent cost for 2012 was 6.2 billion a 19% increase year-on-year. Figure 2.6 Debt service costs (cash basis) 1 The sinking fund is used to make principal repayments. Each year, annuities are provided for in the Finance Act and are paid into the Capital Services Redemption Account from the Central Fund. A specified amount of the annuity is used for servicing the national debt (interest payments) and the balance for principal repayments (referred to as the sinking fund). 2 The accruals basis recognises the costs incurred rather than those paid and does not take account of sinking fund movements. bn bn 6.5bn 5.4bn 4.2bn 3.2bn 2.1bn National Treasury Management Agency
8 26 Report on the Accounts of the Public Services 2013 Average Cost of Borrowing 2.30 The NTMA estimates the overall weighted average cost of servicing the gross national debt at just under 4% at end-june. At end-june 2014, around 88% of gross national debt was at fixed rates, including debt where hedging had been undertaken. 1 The balance of the debt was at floating interest rates At end-december 2013, the overall weighted average cost of servicing the gross national debt was estimated at 3.9%. Four components accounted for 99% of the gross national debt as outlined in Figure 2.7. Figure 2.7 Average cost of borrowing, end-december 2013 % Gross national debt Average interest rate Product December 2013 a % Fixed rate bonds and amortising bonds b Floating rate bonds c EU-IMF Programme d State Savings Schemes e National Treasury Management Agency Notes: a Figures shown total 99%. The remaining 1% of gross national debt is short-term debt and other forms of medium/long-term debt. b c d e This is the bond coupon which differs from the yield. This equates to an interest rate of 6-month Euribor plus an average margin of 263 basis points. The rate reflects the relevant rate reset (in December 2013). The NTMA has entered into interest rate swaps to hedge an element of the exposure to interest rate movements. However the rates quoted do not take account of this hedging. The rate is the estimated all-in fixed euro equivalent cost reflecting hedging costs. This rate reflects accrued interest and expenses in 2013 as a percentage of average State Savings Schemes balances. The maximum interest rates (AER) payable on the fixed term fixed rate products available for purchase at end-december 2013 ranged from 1.32% to 2.66%. Cash and Other Financial Assets 2.32 Ireland s national debt is defined by the NTMA as the gross national debt incurred by the Exchequer less cash balances and other financial assets held The Exchequer held significant balances of cash and other financial assets over the past number of years. At end-2013, a total of 23.6 billion was held. This had increased by 7.5% (to 25.4 billion) at end-june 2014 (see Figure 2.8) The NTMA's stated intention was to have twelve to fifteen of advance funding in place when the EU-IMF programme reached its conclusion at the end of 2013 to cover medium and long-term debt redemptions and any Exchequer deficit. 1 Fixed rate debt also includes EFSF loans disbursed as part of the EFSF's pooled funding mechanism. The cost of these EFSF pooled loans is related to the EFSF's cost of funds in managing the pool and can change from time to time.
9 27 Government Debt Figure 2.8 Cash and other financial assets 2008 June 2014 bn End-June 2014 Central Bank Exchequer account Capital Services Redemption A/C Bank deposits Collateralised deposits Non Irish treasury bills Tri-party reverse repurchase agreement Credit support agreements collateral funding Housing Finance Agency guaranteed notes Annex A, Figure A The composition of the Exchequer cash and financial assets has changed significantly in recent years. At end-2008, almost all were held in the form of deposits at the Central Bank. Such balances accrue interest at the Euro Overnight Index Average rate (EONIA). At end-june 2014, EONIA was 0.336%. In June 2014, a cap was placed by the European Central Bank on Exchequer balances remunerated at EONIA. 1 This is the net of collateral posted of 2.3 billion and collateral received from NAMA ( 802 million), IBRC ( 102 million) and other counterparties ( 44 million). 2 In order to manage counterparty credit risk, the NTMA receives collateral such as Government bonds for cash placed on deposit. 3 A reverse repurchase agreement is where one party buys an asset from another party and commits to sell the asset back to the second party at a future date Around 79% ( 18.5 billion) in cash and other financial assets held at end-2013 was available to the State immediately or at short notice. Housing Finance Agency guaranteed notes of 3.7 billion were not readily realisable. 1.4 billion used to fund collateral deposited with derivative counterparties under credit support agreements, while not readily realisable, are given a cash value that reflects changes in the market value of related derivatives or as the derivatives mature The NTMA also invests available cash balances in short term bank deposits (including collateralised deposits 2 ) and in non-irish Treasury Bills. These investments earn a higher rate of return than EONIA but may also carry a higher risk At end-june 2014, the NTMA had invested almost 23% of cash and other financial assets ( 5.8 billion) in tri-party reverse repurchase agreements with financial institutions. 3 The administration of the transactions including settlement, collateral allocation and other functions are carried out by a third party agent (Euroclear). Collateralised deposits are now predominately completed under tri-party agreements. At end-june 2014, the overall weighted average maturity remaining on these agreements was 70 days (53 days if account is taken of collateralised deposits).
10 28 Report on the Accounts of the Public Services 2013 Conclusions 2.39 The main component of general Government debt is cumulative borrowing undertaken by the NTMA on behalf of the State, referred to as gross national debt. This increased by a net 36 billion (22%) in 2013, mainly due to the issue of floating rate notes to replace the promissory notes ( 25 billion) and borrowing required to fund the exchequer deficit ( 11.5 billion) At end-june 2014, the gross national debt had risen to 204 billion, up by 3% since end-december Additional short-term debt and Government bonds account for the majority of the increase The NTMA estimates the weighted average cost of servicing the gross national debt at just under 4% at end-june Around 88% of the gross national debt was at fixed rates, including debt where hedging had been undertaken. The remainder of the debt was at floating interest rates At end-2013, the NTMA held cash and other financial assets of 23.6 billion. By end- June 2014, this had risen by just under 8% to 25.4 billion. There is no specific monetary limit set by the Minister for Finance for the level of cash and financial assets maintained by the NTMA. The NTMA has stated that, in order to bolster investor confidence and in accordance with prudent liquidity risk management, it currently aims to maintain cash and other liquid assets equivalent to at least twelve ' Exchequer funding requirements The form in which Exchequer balances are held has changed significantly with a move away from holding balances in the Central Bank, to investing in higher yielding (but also higher risk) instruments. Nevertheless, the return on cash and related assets is lower than the average cost of borrowing. As a result, there is a cost associated with maintaining high levels of cash balances. 1 The balance relates to a reduction of 0.5 billion due to a decrease in cash and other financial assets and some other factors.
11 29 Government Debt Annex A Figure A1 Cumulative borrowing at redeemable par values, at year-end 2008 to 2013 and end-june 2014 a June Medium/long-term debt b Government bonds 41,863 70,858 90,102 85,310 87, , ,207 EU-IMF programme funding c 34,629 55,898 66,942 67,622 Other medium/long-term Short-term debt d Short-term debt 21,783 16,261 6,972 2,920 2,690 2,645 5,727 Other debt Borrowings from other State e funds 2,605 1,783 1,524 1, Government savings f schemes 5,723 7,396 10,338 11,546 13,483 15,506 16,011 Gross national debt 72,457 96, , , , , ,247 National Treasury Management Agency Notes: a End-June 2014 figures have not been audited. b Original maturities of more than one year. c The balances are stated net of currency hedging transactions. d Original maturities of one year or less. e The main element of this borrowing relates to the Post Office Savings Bank Fund. f Maturities up to ten years. Figure A2 EU-IMF programme of financial support for Ireland, December 2013 and end-june 2014 a December 2013 End-June 2014 b Lender Average term (years) c Average term (years) c IMF 22, , EFSF d 17, , EFSM 21, , Bilateral loans e 4, , Total 66,942 67,622 National Treasury Management Agency Notes: a The liability outstanding at end-june 2014 differs from the drawdown amount due to the effects of hedging instruments to hedge currency risk, exchange rate movements and adjustment for below par issuance. The balances are stated net of currency hedging transactions. b c d e End-June 2014 figures have not been audited. Weighted average term from date of drawdown. The EFSF figures are shown net of a prepaid margin of 530 million. The NTMA confirmed in June 2014 that 485 million of the prepaid margin will be rebated to Ireland in (The total aggregate liability including the prepaid margin at end-june 2014 was billion.) The bilateral loans are with the United Kingdom, Denmark and Sweden.
12 30 Report on the Accounts of the Public Services 2013 Figure A3 Residual maturity profile of government bonds, at year-end 2008 to 2013 and end-june 2014 a Under 5 years 5 to 10 years Over 10 years Total ,931 11,857 14,075 41, ,687 29,296 15,875 70, ,298 53,520 8,284 90, ,670 43,356 8,284 85, ,548 44,733 12,572 87, ,490 40,656 37, ,007 End-June ,898 39,488 37, ,207 National Treasury Management Agency Note: a End-June 2014 figures have not been audited. Figure A4 Residual maturity profile of short-term debt, at year-end 2008 to 2013 and end-june 2014 a Less than one month One to three Three to six Over six Total ,880 5,518 5,803 6,582 21, ,561 8,628 2, , ,186 3,286 1, , , , ,147 1, , , ,645 End-June ,288 3, ,727 National Treasury Management Agency Note: a End-June 2014 figures have not been audited.
13 31 Government Debt Figure A5 Cash and other financial assets, at year-end 2008 to 2013 and end- June 2014 a End- June 2014 Central Bank Exchequer account Capital Services Redemption Account Housing Finance Agency guaranteed notes 21,269 21,026 11,399 13,099 15,280 4,432 4, ,585 3,848 3,982 3,704 3,547 Bank deposits ,680 3,679 3,928 Collateralised deposits 340 7,389 2,261 Non-Irish treasury bills 1,045 3,041 3,665 Credit support agreements collateral funding Tri-party reverse repurchase agreements Total cash and financial assets ,356 1,244 5,765 22,059 21,816 16,164 17,692 23,850 23,601 25,370 National Treasury Management Agency Note: a End-June 2014 figures have not been audited.
14 32 Report on the Accounts of the Public Services 2013
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