English in bilingual programs in the Basque Country

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1 English in bilingual programs in the Basque Country JASONE CENOZ Abstract This paper focuses on bilingual and trilingual education in the Basque Autonomous Community in Spain, where Basque and Spanish are o cial languages. The use of Basque as the language of instruction is widespread and there is a trend to introduce English as a third language from a very early age. The paper also discusses the use of English as an additional language of instruction within the bilingual system and the teaching conditions. It also summarizes the results of research on multilingual schooling in the Basque Country, which has focused on di erent areas such as the development of proficiency in Basque and Spanish, the e ect of bilingualism on third-language acquisition, the e ect of early instruction on the development of proficiency in English or other languages and on the cognitive development. Finally, some of the challenges that the Basque educational multilingual system will have to face in the course of the next years are considered. 1. Introduction Basque is the only non Indo-European language in western Europe. It is spoken in the Basque Country, an area of approximately 20,742 square kilometers, which comprises seven provinces, three belonging to the French Pyrenees Atlantiques community ( Lapurdi, Nafarroa Beherea, and Zuberoa), and four to two autonomous regions in Spain (the Basque Autonomous Community and Navarre). This article will only refer to the Basque Autonomous Community (BAC) but a description of the use of Basque in the whole of the Basque Country can be found in other sources (see, e.g., Azurmendi et al. 2001; Cenoz 2001a). The Basque language has been in contact with Latin and Romance languages for centuries, but it is typologically unrelated to them. Nowadays, /05/ Int l. J. Soc. Lang. 171 (2005), pp Walter de Gruyter

2 42 J. Cenoz Basque is a minority language within its own territory. The disappearance of Basque from important areas of the Basque Country is a relatively recent phenomenon resulting from the intense contact with Romance languages and immigration. The contact with Romance languages not only explains the linguistic influence of Spanish and French on Basque but also the important retreat su ered by Basque in the last three centuries (Zuazo 1995). This contact increased in the twentieth century as the result of industrialization and the development of communications and the mass media. The industralization of the BAC attracted an important number of Spanish speaking immigrants in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Furthermore, the Spanish only policy during Franco s dictatorship ( ) had important consequences not only at the institutional and educational levels but also in the private domain. The weak position of Basque at the institutional level and the limited number of written texts can explain the existence of di erent dialects. In the last decades, the Academy of the Basque Language ( Euskaltzaindia) has played a crucial role in the standarization of the Basque language at the oral and written levels. Nowadays, unified Basque (euskara batua) is widely accepted in the Basque Country, and most books published in Basque are published in Batua. The political and social changes that have taken place in the last decades of the twentieth century in Spain have favoured attempts to maintain and revive the Basque language, and nowadays Basque has a co-o cial status in the BAC. Apart from Basque and the Romance languages, English is becoming increasingly important for Basque citizens as a medium of intra- European and international communication. As in many other areas in Europe (see Cenoz and Jessner 2000), English is considered a third language but in the case of the Basque Country, it is also a foreign language not used in everyday communication. 2. The use of Basque in the Basque Autonomous Community The total Basque population is approximately three million with 92% being Spanish citizens. The BAC is the most highly populated area with 73% of the total population, 18% live in Navarre and 9% in the Northern Basque Country. This article focuses on multilingual education in the BAC, an area with 2,104,041 inhabitants, 24.7% of which are bilingual and 16.3% of which are passive bilingual.

3 English in the Basque Country 43 Spanish is the dominant language in the BAC and virtually all Basquespeakers also speak Spanish and, therefore, are bilingual. Proficiency in Basque is not needed in many regions of the BAC, and the use of Basque in everyday life is limited to areas dominated by Basque speakers. Since the Status of Autonomy for the Basque Country was promulgated (1979) one of the priorities of the Basque Government has been the revitalization of the Basque language. This revitalization has been very successful in the educational system, and education has contributed significantly to the increase in the number of Bascophones in the last years. Basque is in a process of reversing language shift ( Fishman 1991) and apart from education, there has been significant progress in di erent areas such as the media, publications or advertising. Nevertheless, the use of Basque also presents important limitations. It is common for schoolchildren instructed through the medium of Basque to use Spanish with their classmates or for adults to drop their Basque courses before becoming proficient in the language. Even though there is a Basque-medium television channel, Basque radios and a Basque newspaper, the presence of Basque cannot compete with that of Spanish in the media or in advertising. The number of publications in Basque has increased in the last decades, but many of these publications are textbooks. Within the family, Bascophone parents usually speak Basque to their children but the presence of Basque in sport and leisure activities is weaker than in education. Bascophones tend to use Basque in the private domain, but they frequently use Spanish in more formal settings (Euskararen Jarraipena I 1995). Bascophones use Basque more often with children than with other members of the family and they tend to use Basque less often when shopping or working. Most bilinguals (77%) listen to the radio in Basque, and 82% of them watch television in Basque. The most influential factors that determine the use of Basque are: (i) the number of Bascophones in the subject s social networks; (ii) the relative ease with which the subject has to use Basque and Spanish; and (iii) the number of Bascophones in the sociolinguistic area where the subject lives (Euskararen Jarraipena II 1997). 3. Bilingual and multilingual education in the Basque Autonomous Community 3.1. Bilingual programs in the Basque Autonomous Community Compulsory education is the Basque Autonomous Community includes six years of primary school (6 12-year-old children) and four years of

4 44 J. Cenoz secondary school (12 16-year-old children). Most children go to school from the age of three, and many attend day-care centers from a much earlier age. Noncompulsory secondary education goes from sixteen to eighteen. There are state and private schools, and each type accounts for approximately 50% of the total number of students. Private schools are in many cases Catholic schools but some nonreligious schools, including some ikastolak and other types of schools, are also private. Ikastolak are Basque-medium schools created in the 1960s to promote the use of Basque in education. In 1993, the ikastolak were forced to opt for the state or private systems. Even though nowadays there are state and private ikastolak, most ikastolak belong to the Ikastolen Elkartea, a coordinating body that promotes di erent projects to improve the quality of education including the teaching of languages in kindergarten, primary and secondary education. The use of Basque in education was banned during the Franco regime ( ), but groups of enthusiastic parents and teachers in the BAC opened a number of private Basque-medium schools in the 1960s. Basque has also been used as a language of instruction in some schools before the Spanish Civil War ( ). The political changes that have taken place in Spain in the last decades have allowed for a relatively high level of autonomy in the BAC, and the Basque Government linguistic policy favors the use of Basque as the language of instruction. Since the law on the normalization of the Basque Language (1982) was passed, Basque, along with Spanish, was recognized as an o cial language in the BAC. Basque and Spanish became compulsory subjects in all schools, and three models of language schooling were established: models A, B, and D (there is no letter C in Basque). These models di er with respect to the language or languages of instruction used, their linguistic aims, and their intended student population. 1. Model-A schools are intended for native speakers of Spanish who choose to be instructed in Spanish. Basque is taught as a second language for four to five hours a week. These schools provide minimal instruction and, thus, minimal proficiency in Basque as a second language. 2. Model-B schools are intended for native speakers of Spanish who want to be bilingual in Basque and Spanish. With this aim in mind, both Basque and Spanish are used as languages of instruction for approximately 50% of school time, although there is considerable variation from school to school (Arzamendi and Genesee 1997). 3. In model-d schools, Basque is the language of instruction and Spanish is taught as a subject for four to five hours a week. This model

5 English in the Basque Country 45 Table 1. Number of students in models A, B, and D in the BAC ( ) Model A Model B Model D Other Kindergarten and primary school (3 12-year-old children) Compulsory secondary school (12 16-year-old children) 24, % 26,370 34% 45, % 19, % 85, % 31, % 1, % % was originally created as a language-maintenance program for native speakers of Basque, but currently also includes a large number of students with Spanish as their first language. Consequently, Model-D schools can be regarded as both total immersion programs for native Spanish-speaking students and first-language maintenance programs for native Basque-speakers. When the bilingual models were established, approximately 25% of the students in the Basque Autonomous Community attended Basquemedium schools; at present, 83.4% of kindergarten/primary schoolchildren and 65.3% of secondary schoolchildren have Basque as a language of instruction of some or all the school subjects. The distribution of kindergarten, primary-school, and secondary-school pupils in the three models during the school year is shown in Table 1. Basque educational models are based on the assumption that bilingual education has important advantages. Apart from being able to communicate in the two o cial languages of the community it is assumed that bilingual education can have a positive e ect on cognitive development and communication ability (see Baker 2001 for a review of research in this area). It is also considered that there is interdependence between the languages known by a bilingual person so that linguistic abilities acquired in one language can be transferred to another one (Cummins 1976, 1981, 1988):... children in model D and B programs who have considerably less time through the medium of Spanish will not be delayed in the development of Spanish academic skills.... Language planners should intensify as much as possible, within the limitations imposed by human and financial resources, e orts to increase the proportion of model B and D schools. (Cummins 1988: 208) The use of Basque as one of the languages of instruction at the University has also increased in the last years, and about one third of the students have Basque as the language of instruction for some of the courses.

6 46 J. Cenoz 3.2. Toward multilingual education The development of bilingual education has implied an enormous e ort on part of teachers, teacher trainers, and institutions in the last 25 years. At the same time, the position of English as a foreign language not used in everyday life and the need to learn English for communication with speakers of other languages imply an additional challenge to the Basque educational system. Parents demand more English instruction and betterquality English instruction in school, because traditionally students in the BAC have achieved relatively low levels of proficiency in English at school. These poor English-language results can be attributed to a number of factors, including large class sizes, the use of outdated or traditional instructional approaches, and the lack of well-trained teachers with adequate proficiency in English. The new Spanish educational system (that has been adapted to the Basque educational system) has also reinforced the teaching of English as a foreign language in the curriculum. Foreign-language teaching (English in most cases) is compulsory from the third year of primary school (eight-year-olds), but early instruction in English from the age of four or six is very common. Specific projects to develop trilingual education in Basque schools have been developed in the 1990s and they can be regarded as an extension of the bilingual educational system. These projects aim at achieving communicative competence in the three languages ( Basque, Spanish and English) and also consider the importance of developing positive attitudes toward the languages. The Basque Government Department of Education supports the development of trilingual education and subsidizes di erent activities such as courses, seminars, and projects. The most popular project is the early teaching of English from the second year of kindergarten (age four to five). The original project, called Early Multilingualism, started in 1991 in several ikastolak and is coordinated by the Ikastolen Elkartea. English is taught for two hours a week in four 30-minute sessions. This project became so popular that nowadays 62 ikastolak (approximately 18,000 pupils) participate in the Early Multilingualism project run by the Ikastolen Elkartea, but the teaching of English in kindergarten has also extended to most schools in the BAC (Aliaga 2002). Other projects involve the use of both Basque and English or of Basque, Spanish, and English as media of instruction. For example, Lauro Ikastola is a Basque-medium school and Spanish is introduced as a subject in the first year of primary school. English is introduced as a subject in the second year of primary school but becomes the language of

7 English in the Basque Country 47 instruction of three subjects in secondary school: science, history of religion, and computer science (see Cenoz 1998). Another example is the model-a Gaztelueta School. This is a private school, which has been using English as a medium of instruction for several school subjects (history, science, and handicrafts) for a number of years and which added Basque as a medium for teaching other subjects (history, handicrafts, natural science, computer science) a few years ago. Several public schools have also initiated similar projects, but these projects are still experimental and have a limited scope. The use of English as an additional language of instruction provides the opportunity to increase the limited time devoted to English in other projects. It is also being used as a follow-up of the early introduction of English to provide more hours of instruction to secondary school students who started learning English in kindergarten and have been learning English for many years but only for two or three hours a week. These projects face more problems at the organizational level. Teachers need to have a high level of proficiency in English and in the subject matter. Sometimes this creates problems, and it is not always clear whether it is better for the subject teacher or the language teacher to teach a subject in English or whether content teachers have to be trained in English or teachers of English in specific subjects. Moreover, students have to achieve the same level of knowledge in subjects taught in English and the school has to make important decisions regarding the specific subjects to be taught in English. Finally, the use of English as the language of instruction implies the development of specific materials in accordance with the curriculum. These di culties explain that experiments of this type are not as common as the early introduction of English in kindergarten and the most important projects have taken place in private schools. The Basque Government strongly supports the development of multilingual education along with the improvement of the quality of education and considers multilingualism as one of the main aims of the educational system. Parents are also strong supporters of multilingual education. The increasing use of Basque as the language of instruction shows the interest of parents in bilingual education. They are also very interested in improving their children s level of proficiency in English and support the early introduction of English (Cenoz 1997). The development of multilingual programs in the BAC is related to the need to acquire English as a language of international communication and the idea that the positive experience of bilingual education can be extended to trilingual education. The positive e ect of early instruction in English in foreign-language situations is not based on empirical research

8 48 J. Cenoz but rather on the popular idea that young children learn languages very easily Teaching conditions Primary-school teachers in the Basque Country have a certificate of education from a teachers college and secondary-school teachers have a university degree and take preservice courses on education. Nowadays, teacher colleges o er di erent studies so that teachers can obtain a specific degree in teaching foreign languages or in teaching Basque or Spanish. Teachers who did not have a specialized degree because they finished their studies a long time ago have taken in-service courses so as to obtain special certificates. Teachers who teach Basque or through the medium of Basque need a certificate of Basque. As a result of the increase in the number of students in model B and D, most primary- and secondary-school teachers in the BAC need to be proficient in Basque. The Basque Government o ers extension courses and leaves of absence for teachers who want to study Basque in order to extend their proficiency. Teachers who complete these courses are required to take examinations to certify that they have attained su cient proficiency to teach in Basque (see also Gardner 2000). Proficiency in English among primary and secondary teachers in the Basque Country is not high because English is not used in everyday life, and for many years French was the first foreign language. Most primaryschool teachers are bilingual in Basque and Spanish but it is often the case that only teachers of English speak English. The early introduction of English in kindergarten has increased the demand for teachers of English but at the same time an important decrease in the birth rate in the BAC has limited the creation of new jobs. As a result, many teachers who were already proficient in Basque and Spanish have taken in-service courses to become specialists in English. Unfortunately, the level of proficiency in English of some primary teachers is not very high. Secondaryschool teachers of English usually have a university degree in English Studies and present a higher level of proficiency in English. All school teachers can get advice from specialists in the centers for educational advice. These centers are supported by the Basque Government Department of Education and are distributed all over the Basque Autonomous Community. In addition, the ikastolak have their own consultants at the Ikastolen Elkartea and some private schools also have specific networks for counseling. The specific projects to develop

9 English in the Basque Country 49 multilingual education usually involve a close contact between teachers and consultants and the meetings are used to discuss specific problems related to the materials and the teaching techniques. It is also common for the consultants to visit the schools and in addition, there are language courses and courses on instructional methods subsidized by the Basque Government. Instructional methods in the di erent models vary from school to school depending on whether Basque is used as a medium of instruction or is taught as a school subject. In models B and D, where Basque is used as the language of instruction, the methodological approach is contentbased. Basque is also taught as a subject in models B and D and, in these classes, instruction focuses on Basque grammar and literature. Basque is a school subject in model A and is taught as a second language. Most materials to teach Basque and Spanish are published and available and include books, workbooks, audiovisual material, and multimedia. The materials used to teach Basque or through the medium of Basque have been especially developed in the Basque Country and are not translated from other languages. The materials used to teach through the medium of Spanish are in many cases the same as those used in Spanish schools outside the Basque Autonomous Community but there are specific materials for the teaching of Spanish as a second language. English is the language of communication in the English classes and in the first years all the activities are oral. The method used in kindergarten is based on storytelling and requires the children s active participation by means of collective dramatization and playing. In general, the methodology used to teach English emphasizes the acquisition of oral skills, the use of learner-centered syllabuses, and in some cases the integration of curricula for the three languages. The materials for the teaching of English tend to be especially developed and some of them have been published. These materials have been created by teacher trainers and teachers and have been experimented within the schools. Nowadays, new technologies are also used for the teaching of the di erent languages. 4. Research on multilingual schooling Research on multilingual schooling in the Basque Country has focused on di erent areas: (i) the development of proficiency in Basque and Spanish; (ii) the e ect of bilingualism on third-language acquisition; (iii) the e ect of early instruction of English on the development of proficiency in English; (iv) the e ect of early instruction of English on other languages

10 50 J. Cenoz and cognitive development; (v) cross-linguistic influence in the acquisition of English; and (vi) attitudes and motivation The development of proficiency in Basque and Spanish Several evaluations of the Basque bilingual programs have been carried out in the last years, and the results indicate that instruction through Basque (the minority language) is closely related to higher levels of achievement in this language. Proficiency in Spanish tends to be unrelated to the language of instruction. It seems likely that since Spanish is the majority language, opportunities for extensive exposure to it outside school compensate for reduced exposure to it in school. Most studies have also found that there are no di erences between the models in academic development (see also Cenoz 1998, Etxeberria 1999). In general then, results from evaluations of bilingual schools in the BAC corroborate results obtained in Canadian immersion programs (Genesee 1987; Swain and Lapkin 1982) and at the same time extend these results to the case of native speakers of a minority language The e ect of bilingualism on third-language acquisition Research findings on the acquisition of English as a third language in the BAC indicate that higher levels of bilingualism are positively related with higher levels of proficiency in English (Cenoz and Valencia 1994; Lasagabaster 1997; Sagasta 2001). The first of these studies (Cenoz and Valencia 1994) analyzed the level of proficiency in English of 321 students in the last year of secondary school. The results indicated that bilingual students (model D) outperformed monolingual students (model A) once the e ect of other variables (intelligence, motivation, or exposure to English) had been controlled. Lasagabaster (1997) compared proficiency in English in models A, B, and D in primary school and confirmed that proficiency in English was influenced by the degree of bilingualism in Basque and Spanish. Students who had achieved a higher level of bilingualism ( D model) presented the highest proficiency in English, followed by students with an intermediate level of bilingualism (B model), and the lowest achievement in English corresponded to students who presented the lowest level of bilingualism (A model). Sagasta (2001) examined writing skills in English in the D model and their relationship to the degree of bilingualism in Basque and Spanish. She found that a higher level of

11 English in the Basque Country 51 bilingualism is associated with higher scores in general writing proficiency and specific areas such as syntactic complexity, lexical complexity, fluency, or error production. These results are compatible with the folk-wisdom belief that the more languages you know the easier it is to learn an additional language. They are also compatible with the threshold and interdependence hypotheses proposed by Cummins (1976, 1981), the higher levels of metalinguistic awareness associated with bilingualism, and the use of more learning strategies associated with L3 acquisition (Cenoz and Genesee 1998; Jessner 1999; Missler 1999) The e ect of early instruction in English on the development of proficiency in English The results of research studies comparing di erent areas of Englishlanguage achievement by di erent age groups who have received the same number of hours of instruction indicate that older learners obtain significantly higher results than younger learners (Cenoz 2003a; García Lecumberri and Gallardo 2003; García Mayo 2003; Lasagabaster and Doiz 2003). These findings confirm the poor results obtained by young students in educational settings in studies conducted in other contexts (Burstall 1975; Cenoz 2002a; Ekstrand 1976; Muñoz 2000, 2003; Celaya et al. 2001). Cenoz (2003b) also found that when the levels of proficiency of learners who were in the same course but started learning English at di erent ages are compared, the number of hours of instruction does not necessarily imply a higher level of proficiency in English. These findings go against the popular belief the younger the better, which has been confirmed in cases in which the second language is used in everyday life but not in situations of foreign-language acquisition (Singleton 1989, 2001). Cognitive maturity can explain the higher linguistic development of older students when di erent age groups are compared, but it is not possibly a factor when the proficiency of learners who are the same age is compared. These results indicate that the number of hours of instruction is not a su cient predictor of second-/foreign-language proficiency (Genesee 1987; Harley 1986). An alternative interpretation is that younger learners do not present advantages because they are still in the first stages of third-language acquisition and, as it is the case in second-language acquisition in natural settings, the advantages of older students could disappear in the long run (Snow and Hoefnagel-Höhle 1978).

12 52 J. Cenoz 4.4. The e ect of early instruction of English on other languages and on the cognitive development There is still limited research on the e ect that the early introduction of English has on Basque and Spanish. According to the evaluations of the project carried out by the Ikastolak, instruction in English from kindergarten does not adversely a ect the students acquisition of Basque or Spanish or their overall cognitive development (Cenoz 1997; Garagorri 2002) Cross-linguistic influence in the acquisition of English This area of research tries to find information related to language mixing in third-language acquisition by focusing on transfer at the lexical level in oral production. The results of this research can give us interesting information about the organization of the multilingual lexicon and also on the special di culties that younger learners could face in separating the different systems. When the number of words borrowed from Basque and Spanish in oral production in English is examined, it can be observed that the mean number of terms transferred from Basque and Spanish is very low particularly in the case of the youngest group and that Spanish is the most important source language at all ages (Cenoz 2001b). It seems that linguistic distance plays an important role in cross-linguistic transfer and that students have a stronger influence from Spanish, an Indo- European language, than from Basque a non Indo-European language, although it is possible that the role of Spanish as the main language of communication is also influential when choosing Spanish as the source language of transfer Attitudes and motivation In general, younger learners present significantly better attitudes toward learning English than older learners and attitudes toward the learning of the three languages decline at the end of primary school (Cenoz 2002b, Cenoz 2003c). These di erences could be linked to psychological and educational factors. Psychological factors associated with age could explain a rejection of the school system on part of older learners, and educational factors include the use of more traditional and less active methods with older learners.

13 English in the Basque Country Future challenges The educational system in the BAC has consolidated bilingual education and has taken important steps toward the development of multilingual education during the last years, but there are still important challenges and problems to be solved. The increasing number of students who have Basque as the language of instruction or one of the languages of instruction has had an important impact on the number of bilingual speakers, but there is still an important gap between the knowledge of Basque and the use of Basque in everyday life. There are also some worries regarding the quality of the Basque language used by non-native speakers of Basque and the important influence of Spanish on Basque mainly at the lexical and grammatical levels. These problems are related to its status as a minority language and its limited use outside the classroom in some areas of the BAC. Research studies on early instruction of English in kindergarten indicate that the early teaching of English is not enough to improve proficiency in the language. It seems that, at least in sociolinguistic contexts in which English is not used in everyday life, it is necessary to follow up these programs with more intensive instruction in English and the use of English as an additional language of instruction. Teaching through the medium of English is not an easy task but it provides additional exposure to the foreign language and the opportunity to learn it by focusing on content and on di erent linguistic aspects and skills than in language classes. An additional challenge for the Basque educational system is to adapt the educational system so as to integrate the increasing number of immigrant children who live in the BAC. These children often receive instruction through the medium of Spanish (A model) rather than in models B and D, as most Basque children do, and therefore, they can face more difficulties to integrate in their new cultural environment. 6. Conclusions The Basque educational system has some specific characteristics related to the sociolinguistic, political, historical, and economic context in which it is located. Yet, it can be a useful example of bilingual and multilingual education for other regions because of several reasons. It shows the way language policy is positively a ecting the development of multilingual education and, at the same time, the way education has an e ect on the increasing number of speakers of the minority languages. It also shows

14 54 J. Cenoz the complexity of developing multilingual education regarding factors such as teacher training or material development. The development of bilingual and multilingual education has also had an impact on the research community and nowadays research on trilingual education in the Basque Country is contributing to analyzing the e ect of bilingualism on third-language acquisition or the e ect of age in second-/third-language acquisition. University of the Basque Country References Aliaga, R. (2002). Introducción temprana de la lengua inglesa en las escuelas públicas del País Vasco. In Trilingües a los 4 años?, F. Etxeberria and U. Ruiz Bikandi (eds.), San Sebastian: Ibaeta-Pedagogia. Arzamendi, J.; and Genesee, F. (1997). Reflections on immersion education in the Basque Country. In Immersion Education: International Perspectives, K. Johnson and M. Swain (eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Azurmendi, M. J.; Bachoc, E.; and Zabaleta, F. (2001). Reversing language shift: the case of Basque. In Can Threatened Languages Be Saved?, J. A. Fishman (ed.), Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Baker, C. (2001). Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Burstall, C. (1975). French in the primary school: the British experiment. The Canadian Modern Language Review 31, Celaya, M. L.; Torras, M. R.; and Pérez-Vidal, C. (2001). Short and mid-term e ects of an earlier start: an analysis of EFL written production. Eurosla Yearbook 1, Cenoz, J. (1997). L acquisition de la troisième langue: bilinguisme et plurilinguisme au Pays Basque. AILE 10, (1998). Multilingual education in the Basque Country. In Beyond Bilingualism: Multilingualism and Multilingual Education, J. Cenoz and F. Genesee (eds.), Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. (2001a). Basque in Spain and France. In The Other Languages of Europe, G. Extra and D. Gorter (eds.), Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. (2001b). The e ect of linguistic distance, L2 status and age on crosslinguistic influence in the third language. In Cross-Linguistic Influence in Third Language Acquisition Psycholinguistic Perspectives, J. Cenoz, B. Hufeisen, and U. Jessner (eds.), Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. (2002a). Age di erences in foreign language learning. ITL Review of Applied Linguistics 135/136, (2002b). Three languages in contact: language attitudes in the Basque Country. In Language Awareness in the Foreign Language Classroom, D. Lasagabaster and J. Sierra (eds.), Bilbao: University of the Basque Country. (2003a). The influence of age on the acquisition of English: general proficiency, attitudes and code mixing. In Age and the Acquisition of English as a Foreign Language: Theoretical Issues and Field Work, M. P. García Mayo and M. L. García Lecumberri (eds.), Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.?

15 (2003b). Facteurs déterminant l acquisition d une L3: âge, développement cognitif et milieu. AILE. (2003c). Teaching English as a third language: the e ect of attitudes and motivation. In Trilingualism in Family, School and Community, J. Ytsma and C. Ho mann (eds.), Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. ; and Genesee, F. (1998). Psycholinguistic perspectives on multilingualism and multilingual education. In Beyond Bilingualism: Multilingualism and Multilingual Education, J. Cenoz and F. Genesee (eds.), Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. ; and Jessner, U. (2000). English in Europe: the Acquisition of a Third Language. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. ; and Valencia, J. (1994). Additive trilingualism: evidence from the Basque Country. Applied Psycholinguistics 15, Cummins, J. (1976). The influence of bilingualism on cognitive growth: a synthesis of research findings and explanatory hypotheses. Working Papers on Bilingualism 9, (1981). The role of primary language development in promoting educational success for language minority children. In Schooling and Language Minority Students: A Theoretical Framework, California State Department of Education (ed.), Los Angeles: Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center. (1988). Research and theory in bilingual education: the Basque situation in international perspective. In II Euskal Mundu-Biltzarra, Vitoria-Gasteiz: Eusko Jaurlaritza. Ekstrand, L. H. (1976). Age and length of residence as variables related to the adjustment of migrant children, with special reference to second language learning. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Applied Linguistics, vol. 3, G. Nickel (ed.), Stuttgart: Hochschulverlag. Etxeberria, F. (1999). Bilingüismo y Educación en el País del Euskara. Donostia: Erein. Euskararen Jarraipena I. La Continuidad del Euskera I. La Continuité de la Langue Basque I. (1995). Vitoria-Gasteiz: Eusko Jaurlaritza. Euskararen Jarraipena II. La Continuidad del Euskera II. La Continuité de la Langue Basque II. (1997). Vitoria-Gasteiz: Eusko Jaurlaritza. Fishman, J. A. (1991). Reversing Language Shift. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Garagorri, X. (2002). Hirueletasun goiztiarra ikastoletan Eleanitz-Ingelesa proiektuaren ebaluazioa. In Trilingües a los 4 años?, F. Etxeberria and U. Ruiz Bikandi (eds.), San Sebastian: Ibaeta-Pedagogia. García Lecumberri, M. L.; and Gallardo, F. (2003). English FL pronunciation in school students of di erent ages. In Age and the Acquisition of English as a Foreign Language: Theoretical Issues and Field Work, P. Garcia Mayo and M. L. García Lecumberri (eds.), Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. García Mayo, M. P. (2003). Age, length of exposure and grammaticality judgments in the acquisition of English as a foreign language. In Age and the Acquisition of English as a Foreign Language: Theoretical Issues and Fieldwork, M. P. García Mayo and M. L. García Lecumberri (eds.), Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Gardner, N. (2000). Basque in Education in the Basque Autonomous Community. Vitoria- Gasteiz: Eusko Jaurlaritza. Genesee, F. (1987). Learning through Two Languages. Cambridge: Newbury. Harley, B. (1986). Age in Second Language Acquisition. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Jessner, U. (1999). Metalinguistic awareness in multilinguals: cognitive aspects of third language learning. Language Awareness 8, Lasagabaster, D. (1997). Creatividad y conciencia metalingüística: incidencia en el aprendizaje del inglés como L2 o L3. Leioa: Universidad del País Vasco.? English in the Basque Country 55

16 56 J. Cenoz ; and Doiz, A. (2003). Maturational constraints on foreign language written production. In Age and the Acquisition of English as a Foreign Language: Theoretical Issues and Fieldwork, M. P. García Mayo and M. L. García Lecumberri (eds.), Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Missler, B. (1999). Previous experience of foreign language learning and its contribution to the development of learning strategies. In Tertiär- und Drittsprachen, S. Dentler, B. Hufeisen, and B. Lindsemann (eds.), Tübingen: Stau enburg. Muñoz, C. (2000). Bilingualism and trilingualism in school students in Catalonia. In English in Europe: the Acquisition of a Third Language, J. Cenoz and U. Jessner (eds.), Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. (2003). Variation in oral skills development and age of onset. In Age and the Acquisition of English as a Foreign Language: Theoretical Issues and Fieldwork, M. P. García Mayo and M. L. García Lecumberri (eds.), Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Sagasta, P. (2001). La produccion escrita en euskara, castellano e inglés en el modelo D y en el modelo de inmersión. Leioa: Universidad del País Vasco. Singleton, D. (1989). Language Acquisition: the Age Factor. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. (2001). Age and second language acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 21, Snow, C.; and Hoefnagel-Höhle, M. (1978). The critical period for language acquisition: evidence from second language. Child Development 49, Swain, M.; and Lapkin, S. (1982). Evaluating Bilingual Education: A Canadian Case Study. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Zuazo, K. (1995). The Basque Country and the Basque language. In On the History of the Basque Language: Readings in Basque Historical Linguistics, J. I. Hualde, J. A. Lakarra, and R. L. Trask (eds.), Amsterdam: Benjamins.

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