2 Organizing the Periodic Table In a grocery store, the products are grouped according to similar characteristics. With a logical classification system, finding and comparing products is easy. Similarly, elements are arranged in the periodic table in an organized manner. Chemists used the properties of elements to sort them into groups.
3 Organizing the Periodic Table German chemist, J. W. Dobereiner published a classification system where elements were grouped into triads. A triad is a set of three elements with similar properties. Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine are an example of one triad. These elements look different, but have similar chemical properties: they react easily with metals But all the known elements could not be grouped into triads.
4 Mendeleev s Periodic Table A Russian chemist and teacher, Dmitri Mendeleev, published a table of the elements in Mendeleev developed his table while working on a textbook for his students. He need a way to show the relationship between more than 60 elements. He wrote the properties of each element on a separate note card. This approach allowed him to move the cards around until he found an organization that worked. The organization he chose, according to atomic mass, was the first true periodic table.
5 The Periodic Law Mendeleev developed his table before scientists knew about the structure of atoms. He did not know that the atoms of each element contain a unique number of protons. A British physicist, Henry Moseley, determined an atomic number for each known element. In the modern periodic table, elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.
6 There are seven rows, or periods in the table. The Periodic Law Period 1 has 2 elements, Period 2 has 8 elements, Period 4 has 18 elements & Period 6 has 32 elements. Each period corresponds to a principal energy level. There are more elements in higher numbered periods because there are more orbitals in higher energy levels.
7 The Periodic Law The elements within a column or group in the periodic table have similar properties. The properties of the elements within a period change as you move across a period from left to right. The pattern of properties within a period repeats as you move from one period to the next.
8 The Periodic Law Periodic Law when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties. Group 1 (1A: alkali metals) are all highly reactive and are rarely found in elemental form in nature Group 2 (2A: alkaline earth metals) are rather reactive silvery colored, soft metals Group 17- (8A: halogens) the only group which contains elements in all three familiar states of matter at standard temperature and pressure.
10 Metal, Nonmetals, and Metalloids The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) set the standard for labeling groups in the periodic table. They numbered the groups from left to right 1 18, The elements can be grouped into three broad classes based on their general properties. Metals Nonmetals Metalloids Across the period, the properties of elements become less metallic and more nonmetallic.
11 Metals About 80 % of the elements are metals. Properties of Metals Good conductors of heat and electric current. Have a high luster or sheen caused by the ability to reflect light Solids at room temperature (except Hg) Many metals are ductile (can be drawn into wires) Most metals are malleable (they can be hammered into thin sheets without breaking)
12 Nonmetals Nonmetals are in the upper-right corner of the periodic table. There is a greater variation in physical properties among nonmetal than among metals. Properties of Nonmetals Most are gases at room temperature. S and P are solids, Br is a liquid. Nonmetals tend to have properties that are opposite to those of metals. In general, nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and electric current. Solid nonmetals tend to be brittle.
13 Metalloids There is a heavy stair-step lines that separates the metals from the nonmetals. Most of the elements that border this line are metalloids. Properties of Metalloids Generally has properties that are similar to metals and nonmetals. Under some conditions they behave like a metal. Under other conditions they behave like a nonmetal.
14 Questions How did chemists begin the process of organizing elements? Used the properties of elements to sort them into groups. What property did Mendeleev use to organize his periodic table? In order of increasing atomic mass How are elements arranged in the modern periodic table? In order of increasing atomic number Name the three broad classes of elements. Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
15 Questions Name two elements that have properties similar to those of the element sodium Li (lithium), K (potassium), Cs (cesium), Rb (rubidium), Fr (francium) Identify each element as a metal, metalloid or nonmetal. Gold (Au) metal Silicon (Si) metalloid Sulfur (S) Nonmetal Barium (Ba) metal
17 End of Section 6.1
18 Squares in the Periodic Table The periodic table displays the symbols and names of the elements along with information about the structure of their atoms. Depending on who wrote the table, it can be organized in a slightly different manner. The symbol for the element is usually located in the center of the square. The atomic number, atomic mass and element name are usually in the box.
19 Squares in the Periodic Table The background colors, chosen by the author, are in the squares and are used to distinguish groups of elements. Group IA elements are called alkali metals. Group 2A elements are called alkaline earth metals. The nonmetals of Group 7A are called halogens. Group 8A elements are called Noble Gases Groups 1B 8B are called transition metals The two periods usually located at the bottom of the periodic table separate from the main table are called inner transition elements. Period 8 is called the Lanthanide Series and Period 9 is called the Actinide Series
20 Electron Configuration in Groups Electrons play a key role in determining the properties of elements. So there is a connection between an element s electron configuration and its location in the periodic table. Elements can be sorted into noble gases, representative elements, transition metals, or inner transition metals based on their electron configurations. The Noble Gases are in Group 8A and are sometimes called inert gases because they rarely take part in a reaction.
21 Electron Configuration in Groups Helium (He) 1s 2 Neon (Ne) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 Argon (Ar) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 Krypton (Kr) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 The highest occupied energy level for each element, (the s & p sublevels) are completely filled with electrons. s sublevel p sublevel
22 Electron Configuration in Groups Fluorine (F) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 Chlorine (Cl) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5 Bromine (Br) Iodine (I) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 5 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 5 The highest occupied energy level for each element, (the s and p sublevels) are filled with 2 s electrons and 5 p electrons. s sublevel p sublevel
23 The Representative Elements Elements in groups 1A through 7A are often referred to as representative elements because they display a wide range of physical and chemical properties. In atoms of representative elements, the s and p sublevels of the highest occupied energy level are not filled. Lithium(Li) 1s 2 2s 1 Sodium (Na) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 Potassium (K) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 s sublevel
24 The Representative Elements Carbon (C) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 Silicon (Si) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 2 Germanium (Ge) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 2 In atoms of carbon, silicon, and germanium, in Group 4A, there are four electrons in the highest occupied energy level For any representative elements, its group number (according to A/B system) equals the number of electrons in the highest occupied energy level. s sublevel p sublevel
25 Transition Metals Elements in the B groups are referred to as transition elements. There are two types of transitions elements: transition metals and inner transition metals In atoms of a transition metal, the highest occupied s sublevel and a nearby d sublevel contain electrons. These elements are characterized by the presence of electrons in d orbitals.
26 Inner Transition Metals The inner transition metals appear below the main body of the periodic table. If they aren't shown in offset, the Table would be quite wide. In atoms of an inner transition metal, the highest occupied s sublevel and a nearby f sublevel generally contain electrons. The inner transition metals are characterized by f orbitals that contain electrons. They all have very similar chemical properties.
28 End of Section 6.2
29 Periodic Trends Atomic Size When atoms of the same element are attached to one another they are called (diatomic) molecules. Because the atoms in each molecule are identical, the distance between the nuclei of these atoms can be used to estimate the size of the atoms. Distance between nuclei The atomic radius is one half of the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element when the atoms are joined. Atomic Radius
30 Atomic Size The distance between atoms in a molecule are extremely small, so it is often measured in picometers. (10 12 pm = 1m) In general, atomic size increases from top to bottom within a group and decreases from left to right across a period.
31 Atomic Size As the atomic number increases within a group, the charge on the nucleus increases and the number of occupied energy levels increases. The increase in positive charge draws electrons closer to the nucleus. The increase in the number of occupied orbitals shields electrons in the highest occupied energy level from the attraction of protons in the nucleus. The shielding effect is greater than the effect of the increase in nuclear charge, so the atomic size increases.
32 Atomic Size In general, atomic size decreases across a period from left to right. Each element has one more proton and more more electron than the preceding element. The increasing nuclear charge pulls the electrons in the highest occupied energy level closer to the nucleus and
33 Ions Some compounds are composed of particles called ions. An ion is an atoms or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge. An atom is electrically neutral because it has equal numbers of protons and electrons. Positive and negative ions form when electrons are transferred between atoms. Atoms of metallic elements tend to form ions by losing one or more electrons from their highest occupied energy levels. For example, a sodium atom tend to lose one electron.
34 Cations In the sodium ion, the number of electrons (10) is no longer equal to the number of protons (11). Because there is more positively charged protons than negatively charged electrons, the sodium ion has a net positive charge. An ion with a positive charge is called a cation. The charge for a cation is typically written as a number followed by a plus sign. (Example: 1 + ) If the charge is 1 +, the number 1 is usually omitted from the complete symbol for the ions. (Na + )
35 Anions Atoms of nonmetallic elements, such as chlorine, tend to form ions by gaining one or more electrons. A chlorine atom tend to gain one electron. In a chlorine ion, the number of electrons (18) is no longer equal to the number of protons (17). Because there are more negatively charged electrons than positively charged protons, the chloride ion has a net negative charge. An ion with a negative charge is called an anion. Examples: Cl -, S 2-
36 Trends in Ionization Energy Recall that electrons can move to higher energy levels when atoms absorb energy. Sometimes there is enough energy to overcome the attraction of the protons in the nucleus. The energy required to remove an electron from an atom is called ionization energy. The energy to remove the first electron from an atom is called the first ionization energy. The cation produced has a 1 + charge.
37 Trends in Ionization Energy First ionization energy tends to decrease from top to bottom within a group and increase from left to right across a period.
38 Ionization Energy The energy to remove the first electron from an atom is called the first ionization energy. The cation produced has a 1 + charge. The second ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from an ion with a 1 + charge. The ion produced has a 2 + charge. The third ionization energy third ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from an ion with a 2 + charge. The ion produced has a 3 + charge.
39 Ionization Energy Ionization energy can help you predict what ions elements will form. If you look at Li, Na, & K ionization energies, the increase in energy between the first and second ionization energies is large. It is relatively easy to remove one electron from a Group IA metal atom, but it is difficult to remove a second electron, so Group IA metals tend to form ions with a 1 + charge. Symbol First IE (kj/mol) Second IE (kj/mol) Li Na K
40 Group Trends in Ionization Energy In general, first ionization energy decreases from top to bottom within a group. (recall that the atomic size increases as the atomic number increases within a group) As the size of the atom increases, nuclear charge has a smaller effect on the electrons in the highest occupied energy level. So less energy is required to remove an electron from this energy level and the first ionization energy is lower.
41 Group Trends in Ionization Energy The trend in ionization energy of the alkali metals is evident in their reactivity with water to release heat and hydrogen gas.
42 Group Trends in Ionization Energy In general, the first ionization energy of representative elements tends to increase from left to right across a period. This trend can be explained by the nuclear charge, which increases, and the shielding effect, which remains constant. So there is an increase in the attraction of the nucleus for an electron, thus it takes more energy to remove an electron from an atom.
43 Trends in Ionic Size During reactions between metals and nonmetals, metal atoms tend to lose electrons and nonmetal atoms tend to gain electrons. The transfer has a predictable affect on the size of the ions that form. Cations are always smaller than the atoms from which they form. Anions are always larger than the atoms from which they form. When a Na atom loses an electron, the attraction between the remaining electrons and the nucleus is increased. Result? The electrons are drawn closer to the nucleus.
44 Trends in Ionic Size Metals that are representative elements tend to lose all their outermost electrons during ionization, so the ion has one fewer occupied energy level. The trend is the opposite for nonmetals like the halogens in Group 7A. For each of these elements, the ion is much larger than the atom. As the number of electrons increases, the attraction of the nucleus for any one electron decreases
45 Trends in Ionic Size The effective nuclear charge experienced by an electron in the highest occupied orbital of an atom or ion is equal to the total nuclear charge (the number of protons) minus the shielding effect due to electrons in lower energy levels. The effective nuclear charge determines the atomic and ionic radii. Left to right in any period, the principal quantum number, n, of the highest occupied energy level remains constant, but the effective nuclear charge increases. Therefore, atomic and ionic radii decrease as you move to the right in a period.
46 Within any group, as you proceed from top to bottom, the effective nuclear charge remains nearly constant, but the principal quantum number increases. Consequently, atomic and ionic radii increase from top to bottom within a group. Trends in Ionic Size
47 Trends in Electronegativity There is a property that can be used to predict the type of bond that will form during a reaction. This property is electronegativity, which is the ability of an atom of an element to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound. In general, electronegativity values decrease from top to bottom within a group. For representative elements, the values tend to increase from left to right across a period.
48 Periodic Table Trends Metals at the far left of the periodic table have low electronegativity values. Nonmetals at the far right (excluding noble gases) have high values. The electronegativity value among the transition metals are not as regular. The lease electronegative non-noble element is francium. It has the least tendency to attract electrons. When it reacts, it tends to lose electrons and form positive ions. The most electronegative element is fluorine, and when it is bonded to any other element it either attracts the shared electrons or forms a negative ion. Elements close to flourine have high electronegativities.
49 Shielding increases Nuclear charge increases Electronegativity decreases Ionization Energy decreases Ionic size increases Atomic size increases Trends for Groups 1A Through 8A Can be explained by variations in atomic structure Increase in nuclear charge within groups & across periods, also shielding within groups Atomic size decreases Ionization energy increases Electronegativity increases Nuclear charge increases Shielding is constant Size of cation decreases Size of anions decreases
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