Chapter 6: The Periodic Table Study Guide

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1 Chapter 6: The Periodic Table Study Guide I. General organization of table A. Modern periodic table 1. Increasing atomic number B. 3 major blocks 1. Metals a. Mostly solids at room temperature b. Conduct electricity and heat well c. Shiny d. Ductile and malleable 2. Metalloids a. Act like metals when impure b. Act like non-metals when pure 3. Non-metals a. Mostly gases at room temperature b. Do NOT conduct electricity and heat well c. If a solid, brittle C. Groups 1. Vertical groups with similar chemical and physical properties 2. Two methods of grouping (1 through 18; A and B group) 3. Halogens, alkali metals, alkaline-earth metals, noble gases, representative elements, transition elements, innertransition elements D. Periods 1. Horizontal groups with similar principle energy levels 2. Increasing energy level as you change periods II. Electron Configurations A. Location of s, p, d, and f blocks B. How many electrons can fit into a s, p, d, and f block C. Short cut use of electron configuration D. Identify the location and/or element based upon given electron configuration

2 III. Periodic Trends A. Atomic size (INCREASE down a group; DECREASE across a period) 1. Decrease in size across a period due to shielding (*know what shielding is* HINT-HINT, WINK-WINK) B. Ions of ion a. cation (positive charged ion; loss of electrons) i. Size will decrease compared to neutral atom b. anion (negative charged ion; gain of electrons) i. Size will increase compare to neutral atom 2. What elements will most likely become a cation or anion? 3. Ionic size INCREASES down a group; cation and anion sizes decreases across a period C. Ionization energy 2. DECREASE down a group; INCREASE across a group D. Electronegativity 2. DECREASES down a group; INCREASES across a group E. Nuclear charge 2. INCREASES down a group; INCREASES across a group

3 Sample Questions 1. Which of these sets of elements have similar physical and chemical properties? a. oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, boron b. strontium, magnesium, calcium, beryllium c. nitrogen, neon, nickel, niobium 2. Identify each element as a metal, metalloid, or nonmetal. a. Gold metal b. Sulfur nonmetal c. Silicon metalloid d. Barium metal 3. Name two elements that have similar properties to those of the element sodium. Lithium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, or francium 4. What property did Mendeleev use to organize his periodic table? Increasing atomic mass 5. How are elements arranged in the modern periodic table? Increasing atomic number 6. Into what four classes can elements be sorted on their electron configurations? Representative elements, noble gases, transition metals, and inner transition metals 7. Why do elements potassium and sodium have similar chemical properties? They are in the same group and have the same number of electrons in the highest occupied energy level (end in similar e - configurations) 8. Classify each element as a representative element, transition metal, or noble gas. a. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 s4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 noble gas b. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 s4s 2 3d 10 transition metal c. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 2 representative element 9. Which of the following elements are transition metals: Cu, Sr Cd, Au, Al, Ge, Co?

4 10. How many electrons are in the highest occupied energy level of a Group 5A element? How does atomic size change within groups and across periods? Atomic size generally increases within a group and decreases from left to right across a period. 12. When do ions form? Ions form when electrons are transferred between atoms. 13. What happens to the first ionization energy within groups and across periods? Decreases within a group and increases from left to right across a period. 14. How does electronegativity vary within groups and across periods? Decreases from top to bottom within a group and increases left to right across a period. 15. Arrange these elements in order of decreasing atomic size: sulfur, chlorine, aluminum, and sodium. Sodium, aluminum, sulfur, chlorine 16. Which element in each pair has the larges first ionization energy? a. sodium, potassium b. magnesium, phosphorus 17. Which element in each pair has atoms with a larger atomic radius? a. sodium, lithium b. strontium, magnesium c. carbon, germanium d. selenium, oxygen 18. Which particle has the larger radius in each atom/ion pair? a. Na, Na + b. I, I - c. S, S 2- d. Al, Al 3+

5 19. Which element in each pair has a higher electronegativity value? a. Cl, F b. C, N c. Mg, Ne d. As, Ca 20. When the elements in each pair are chemically combined, which element in each pair has a greater attraction for electrons? a. Ca or O b. H or O c. O or F d. K or S

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