Note Taking Study Guide EARLY DEMANDS FOR EQUALITY

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1 SECTION 1 Note Taking Study Guide EARLY DEMANDS FOR EQUALITY Focus Question: How did African Americans challenge segregation after World War II? Fill in the timeline below with events of the early civil rights movement. When you finish, write two sentences that summarize the information in your timeline. Jackie Robinson becomes the first African American to play major league baseball. Montgomery bus boycott

2 SECTION 1 Section Summary EARLY DEMANDS FOR EQUALITY In the South, African Americans were separated from white Americans. Jim Crow laws made this separation legal. Segregation that is enforced by law is called de jure segregation. African Americans in the North also faced segregation, even where there were no explicit laws. Segregation by tradition is known as de facto segregation. In the 1950s, the NAACP turned to the federal courts to end segregation. In Brown v. Board of Education, the NAACP challenged segregation in public schools. Thurgood Marshall, an African American lawyer, was part of the legal team. The Supreme Court agreed that segregation in public schools was illegal. Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote the Brown decision. He declared that the idea of separate but equal was wrong. However, southern states found ways to resist compliance with the law. In Little Rock, Arkansas, nine African American students volunteered to desegregate the high school. The governor ordered the National Guard to stop the students from entering the school. President Eisenhower then sent federal troops to protect the students. In 1955, Rosa Parks, an African American woman who lived in Montgomery, Alabama, refused to give up her bus seat to a white passenger. She was arrested. Civil rights activists organized a bus boycott to protest her arrest. On the evening following the boycott, a Baptist minister named Martin Luther King, Jr., spoke to a group of African Americans. He asked them to protest segregation in a nonviolent way. The Montgomery bus boycott continued for over a year. In 1956, the Supreme Court ruled that the Montgomery law that segregated buses was illegal. The boycott showed that African Americans could be powerful if they worked together. The protest also made King very important within the civil rights movement. READING CHECK What action did the governor of Arkansas take to prevent the desegregation of schools in Little Rock? VOCABULARY BUILDER Find the word compliance in the underlined sentence. What do you think it means? Here is a clue. An antonym for compliance is disobedience. Use this clue to figure out what compliance means. READING SKILL Summarize List three key events of the 1950s that helped to end segregation. Review Questions 1. Why was Brown v. Board of Education important? 2. How did the Montgomery bus boycott help the civil rights movement? 221

3 SECTION 2 Note Taking Study Guide THE MOVEMENT GAINS GROUND Focus Question: How did the civil rights movement gain ground in the 1960s? Use the concept web below to record information about the civil rights protests of the 1960s. Protested restaurant segregation Sit-ins Civil Rights Protests March on Washington 222

4 SECTION 2 Section Summary THE MOVEMENT GAINS GROUND Despite some victories, activists continued to struggle for civil rights for African Americans. In North Carolina, four college students started a sit-in at a restaurant to protest discrimination. This sit-in led to sit-ins across the nation. A new civil rights organization, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, or SNCC, began a grass-roots movement. The next battleground was interstate transportation. The Supreme Court had ruled that segregation on interstate buses was illegal. In 1961, riders set off on two buses on a freedom ride. After the freedom riders met with violence, President John F. Kennedy intervened. The riders were successful. In 1962, James Meredith enrolled at the all-white University of Mississippi. Civil rights activist Medgar Evers helped win the federal court case that ordered the university to desegregate. A riot broke out the night before Meredith s arrival. Still, Meredith went on to graduate. In 1963, Martin Luther King, Jr., began a civil rights campaign in Birmingham, Alabama. It began with nonviolent marches and sit-ins. However, Birmingham s Public Safety Commissioner would not tolerate the demonstrations. He used police dogs and fire hoses on the peaceful protesters. Many Americans were shocked by images of violence on the news. To put pressure on Congress to pass a new civil rights bill, supporters planned a March on Washington. On August 28, 1963, more than 0,000 Americans gathered in Washington, D.C. The highlight was King s I Have a Dream speech. On November 22, 1963, President Kennedy was assassinated. Vice President Lyndon Johnson became President. Johnson used his political skills to gain the passage of the Civil Rights Act of This act banned segregation in public places. The civil rights movement had changed the relationships between races. It also set the stage for future reforms. READING CHECK Which civil rights organization began a grass-roots movement? VOCABULARY BUILDER Find the word tolerate in the underlined sentence. The word forbid is an antonym of the word tolerate. The word forbid means to not permit. Use context clues and the meaning of forbid to figure out the meaning of tolerate. READING SKILL Summarize Summarize what James Meredith accomplished in Review Questions 1. What was the purpose of the March on Washington? 2. Describe the Civil Rights Act of

5 SECTION 3 Note Taking Study Guide NEW SUCCESSES AND CHALLENGES Focus Question: What successes and challenges faced the civil rights movement after 1964? Complete the outline below to summarize the contents of this section. I. Push for Voting Rights A. Freedom Summer II. Frustration Explodes into Violence A. III. New Voices for African Americans A. IV. A. King continues to seek nonviolent methods. V. A. 224

6 SECTION 3 Section Summary NEW SUCCESSES AND CHALLENGES The civil rights movement had made some progress. However, many African Americans were still unable to vote. In 1964, the SNCC organized a project known as Freedom Summer. Volunteers registered African Americans to vote in Mississippi. In 1965, Martin Luther King, Jr., organized a march in Selma, Alabama. He wanted the government to pass laws to protect voting rights. The march met with a series of violent confrontations. Television coverage of the violence outraged the nation. In response, Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of This law banned literacy tests. In 1964, the Twenty-fourth Amendment banned the poll tax. It had been used to keep poor African Americans from voting. Some African Americans were angry that discrimination and poverty continued. In many cities, this anger led to violent riots. The Kerner Commission was established to figure out the cause of the riots. The commission blamed discrimination against African Americans over a long period of time. At the same time, many young African Americans were becoming more radical. Malcolm X was the most well-known African American radical. He was a minister of the Nation of Islam. This religious group demanded that the races be separated. However, Malcolm X was shot and killed in Many young African Americans wanted to continue the policies of Malcolm X. They no longer supported the idea of nonviolence. SNCC leader Stokely Carmichael thought African Americans needed black power. He wanted African Americans to use their economic and political power to gain equality. Not long after, the Black Panther Party was formed. The Black Panthers became the symbol of young militant African Americans. In 1968, Martin Luther King, Jr., was assassinated. The civil rights movement had made segregation illegal. However, the radical methods that had been used left some people bitter. READING CHECK Which group became the symbol for young militant African Americans? VOCABULARY BUILDER Find the word confrontations in the underlined sentence. What does confrontations mean? Look for clues in nearby words or phrases. Circle any that help you figure out what confrontations means. READING SKILL Summarize Summarize the effect Malcolm X had on the civil rights movement. Review Questions 1. Why was the march in Selma important? 2. Why did violence occur in many American cities during the 1960s? 225

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