Vitamin and Mineral Supplements

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1 Vitamin and Mineral Supplements Getting Started 1. Review lesson plan before each session. 2. Copy handouts and follow-up questions: a. Do You Need a Supplement? b. You May Need a Vitamin or Mineral Supplement if You... c. How to Choose a Vitamin or Mineral Supplement d. Calcium e. Vitamin D f. Vitamin C g. Vitamin B12 h. Vitamin E i. Vitamin and Mineral Questions 3. Gather supplies needed for lesson and activities. Supplies Needed 1. Handouts. 2. Assorted supplement bottles for activity. Beginning the Lesson 1. Introduce yourself by name and the organization you represent. 2. Summarize the lesson by giving the objectives. Let the group know the lesson will be informal and they can ask questions anytime. Objectives The participants will: 1. Be able to determine if they may benefit from a nutritional supplement. 2. Understand how to choose the best nutritional supplement. 3. Understand the need for crystalline vitamin B 12 after the age of 50 and where to find it. 4. Understand how to read a supplement label. 1

2 Activity Note to the speaker: Do this activity after you have gone over the lesson and handouts so as to reinforce the information you have gone presented. Show examples of supplement bottles. Talk about the information on them and how it compares to guidelines on the handouts. For example, if you have a calcium supplement bottle, point out where you can find the % Daily Value that calcium supplement contains on the label. The Daily Value (DV) is set to meet the average daily nutrient needs of most healthy individuals. Also, emphasize that vitamins and minerals are in the food that we eat, so it is important to eat a variety of foods from the Food Guide Pyramid. Script There are a few points to remember when you choose a supplement, especially if you are over age 50. First of all, you should talk to you doctor about taking a multivitamin containing amounts of these vitamins: vitamin B 12 (25% DV); vitamin D (100 % DV); calcium (40% DV); and 100% of the Daily Value (DV) for most other nutrients. Also, you should take an additional calcium supplement if you diet is low in calcium (consume few milk or dairy foods less than 3 servings). If you carefully plan your diet to include dairy foods, small amounts of vegetable oils, meat (including poultry, pork, or fish), and fortified foods (cold breakfast cereals with B 12 or calcium-fortified orange juice), you will likely get adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals. However, if you are like many older adults, it is difficult to get the calcium, vitamin D, and B 12 you need. Thus, carefully selected supplements can help ensure older adults get the vitamins and minerals they need for optimal health each day. Review the handouts and discuss the functions, sources and % Daily Value for each of the nutrients listed. You might choose to talk about all of the vitamins and minerals included in this lesson or just one or two at a time. 2

3 References Straight Answers about Vitamin and Mineral Supplements. National Center for Nutrition and Dietetics Griffith, HW. (1998). Vitamins, Herbs, Minerals and Supplements: The complete Guide. Arizona: Fisher Books. Vitamin and Nutrition Supplements: Sorting Out Fact from Fiction amid A Storm of Controversy. Supplement to the Mayo Clinic Health Letter National Osteoporosis Foundation. (2001) Calcium and Vitamin D. On line: (http://www.nof.org/prevention/calcium.html). Accessed on February 23, Mahan LK, and Escott-Stump S. Krause s Food, Nutrition, and Diet Therapy, 9th ed Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1996, 96(1): The Food Stamp Program provides nutrition assistance to people with low income. It can help buy nutritious foods for a better diet. To find out more, contact your local food stamp office, food bank, or senior center. Primary authors: Mary Ann Johnson, PhD & Susan Stone, RD, LD Primary reviewers: Joan G. Fischer, PhD, RD, LD & Marilyn O. Wright, MS, RD, LD This material, including artwork, was developed with support from the Department of Foods and Nutrition at The University of Georgia, the Northeast Georgia Area Agency on Aging and the USDA Food Stamp Nutrition Education Program. Permission is granted to reproduce, translate, abstract, review or quote these materials in whole or in part for educational purposes only (not for profit beyond the cost of reproduction) provided that the author(s) and The University of Georgia receive acknowledgement as shown in this example notice: Reprinted with permission from The University of Georgia, Department of Foods and Nutrition, Athens, GA. Authors, Title, Date. 3

4 Calcium What It Does Keeps bones and teeth healthy Helps nerves function Regulates your heartbeat Needed to make blood clot Buffers acid in stomach Food Sources - Have at least three servings per day of these foods: Dairy products Canned fish with bones Calcium fortified tofu or soy Calcium fortified cereal and juice Supplements mg/day (20-50% DV) Use these kinds of calcium - calcium carbonate or calcium citrate You may have constipation if you take a supplement, so increase daily fluid intake and activity. 4

5 Vitamin D What is does Essential for the formation of bones and teeth Helps absorb calcium Helps immune function Food Sources - Have at least three servings each day of these foods: Vitamin D fortified milk Salmon with bones Eggs and egg substitutes Sardines Tuna Supplements Unless you drink four or more glasses of milk each day, you probably need a vitamin D supplement Choose a supplement with 400 IU/day (100 % DV) 5

6 Vitamin C What is does Helps to improve immunity Increases calcium and iron absorption Helps in healing wounds, burns, and broken bones Food Sources - Have 5 servings each day! Citrus fruits or fruit juice (orange, grapefruit) Tropical fruits Broccoli Cabbage Collards Tomatoes Supplements Choose a multivitamin with 60 mg/day (100 % DV) Smokers should take 100 mg/day (175 % DV) 6

7 Vitamin E What is does Helps to improve immunity Reduces symptoms of the common cold and arthritis Food Sources Broccoli Canola oil Corn Corn oil/margarine Fortified cereals Nuts Supplements Choose a multivitamin with 8-30 mg/day or IU ( % DV) 7

8 Vitamin B 12 What is does Helps turn the food we eat into energy for our bodies Helps your nervous system work well Keeps blood cells healthy If you don t eat enough: Weakness and fatigue Numbness and tingling in hands and feet Confusion Loss of memory Food Sources Fortified cereals Meat, Poultry, and Fish Milk and other Dairy products Liver Supplements Choose a multivitamin with 2.4 mcg/day People over the age of 50 should get some of their B 12 in crystalline form, which is not found naturally in foods. Crystalline B 12 is found in fortified cereals and supplements. 8

9 Vitamins and Minerals Questions Date: Name: County: Age: Please circle your answers. 1. I eat at least three servings of a calcium-rich food everyday. No Yes 2. I eat at least five fruits and vegetables everyday. No Yes 3. I eat a cold breakfast cereal everyday. No Yes 4. Circle one statement that is true: -I already take a multivitamin or mineral supplement -I probably need a multivitamin or mineral supplement -I probably don t need a multivitamin or mineral supplement 5. I learned something new today. No Yes 9

10 You many need a vitamin or mineral supplement if you Are on a very low-calorie weight loss diet or losing weight without wanting to. Are eating fewer than two meals per day. Do not eat dairy products, meat, or cold breakfast cereal most days of the week. Have a disease of your digestive track and can t absorb certain nutrients. If you smoke-- smoke reduces vitamin C levels. Drink three or more alcoholic beverages each day. How Do You Choose a Vitamin or Mineral Supplement? 1. Stick to the Daily Value - Choose a supplement that has close to 100% of the Daily Value but not more than 100%. 2. Check expiration dates and look for the initials USP This means the supplement is easily dissolved and absorbed by your body. 3. Store them in a safe place away from children. 4. Do not self-prescribe- Talk to your doctor. 10

11 Ask yourself Do I eat at least 3 servings of calcium-rich foods daily (such as milk, yogurt, calcium-fortified juice or cereal? Ask yourself Do I take a multi-vitamin or eat a cold breakfast cereal with vitamin B12 everyday? Ask yourself Do I eat at least 2 vitamin C rich foods daily, such as oranges, broccoli, cabbage, or tomatoes? No? No? No? Do You Need a Supplement? You may benefit from Calcium: 250 to 500 mg/day (or 25% to 50% DV) Vitamin D: 10 mcg (or 400 IU, or 100 % DV) You may benefit from Vitamin B 12 : 2.4 to 10 mcg/day (or 40% to 400% DV) You may benefit from Vitamin C: 60 mg/day (or 100% DV) 11

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