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1 This guide is designed to help you to revise for your exam and it contains lots of useful material. It is designed to be used alongside the notes that you have from your lessons. You will find some example questions on the back page along with some tips on how to answer them. If you have any questions or worries about your exam please see your class teacher or Mrs Noble. Paper B602: Philosophy 2 Religion and Science Good and Evil Exam date: 11th June 2014

2 Philosophy unit 1 : Religion and science Scientific theories about the origins of the universe. Scientists now believe that the universe is about 18 billion years old. Most scientists accept that the universe was started with a massive explosion called the Big Bang. Which sent matter and gases flying out in all directions. All the galaxies in the universe were formed and are still moving away from each other as the universe is still expanding. The stars and the planets were formed when the gases cooled. Evidence such as radiation has been found to support this theory. Scientific theories about the origins of humanity. The theory of evolution is now widely accepted by scientists. It was made famous by Charles Darwin in the 19th century. He suggested that all life on the planet began as single cell creatures and over time have developed into the range of species that we have today. The creatures gradually developed to fit their environment through a process of natural selection where only the strongest survived to pass their genes on to the next generation. This means that humans have not always existed in the form that we are in today, instead we have developed into what we are. This calls in to question the belief that humans are special and set apart. Creation Christians believe that God created the world, out of nothing in 6 days and then rested on the 7th. He planned it all and then made it according to his plan. Nothing in the universe was created by accident and nothing was without a purpose. God created each of the different species and finally created humans as the pinnacle of his creation. 2 Christian views on humanity These differ greatly from the scientific views. Christians believe that humans were specially created in the image of God. God breathed into them the breath of life which Christians interpret to mean a soul. This separates them from animals as they are unique in being able to have a relationship with God. Human life is sacred and humans have been given special rights and responsibilities. Which animals do not have.

3 Are the views compatible? Literalist Christians would say that the scientific theories are incompatible with what the Bible says and therefore science must be wrong. They believe that a the word of God the Bible cannot contain any errors and so they are unable to accept the theories that science puts forward. Conservative Christians think that science and the Bible may be compatible. When Genesis says that the world was made in six days, they may interpret this to mean 6 much longer periods of time which then could fit in with the timescale of the big bang/evolution. One key point that they make is that Genesis describes the world being created in the same order as scientific theories suggest. More liberal Christians have a different attitude. They still believe that the Bible comes from God, but they do not believe that the stories contained in the Bible all have literal truth. The may believe that the message of the creation stories tells us that God specially and purposefully created the world whilst not believing that it happened exactly in the way described in Genesis Stewardship and the environment Christians believe that the world is not their own, it belongs to God and they have been put on it to act as stewards. This role of stewardship means that they are responsible for the earth and for the other species in it. They should take care of it, protect it and preserve it for future generations. They believe that they should be careful with the world s natural resources and not be greedy. Although in the past Christians have understood their role as being able to rule the planet, now they are much more careful about how they live. Individual Christians may take an active role in recycling and trying to cut down on the pollution that they create. They may also take into consideration the policies of the political parties when deciding on who to vote for. The earth is the Lord s, and all that is in it. Psalm 24:! 3 Let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, ad over the birds of the air, and over all the cattle, and over all the wild animals of the earth. Genesis 1:26

4 1. Make sure you can give 2 pieces of evidence to support the Big Bang theory 2. Make sure you can give 2 pieces of evidence to support the theory of evolution. 3. Put together a glossary of key terms for this unit and make sure you are able to incorporate these into your answers. 4. Explain the different interpretations of the biblical view to someone in your family to ensure you can communicate them clearly. 5. Find out about the work of 2 charities who focus on stewardship so that you can use them as examples in your answers. 6. Find out 3 ways of understanding the concept of the soul 7. Explain how the Christian view of soul affects their beliefs about the status of humans. 8. Make a list of 4 reasons why we should take care of the planet and 4 reasons why some people may think this is not necessary. We are just an advanced breed of monkeys on a minor planet of a very average star. But we can understand the universe. That makes us something very special. The Lord God formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being. Genesis 2:7 Stephen Hawking So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. Genesis 1:27 4 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, an the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters. And god said Let there be light, and there was light. Genesis 1:1-3

5 Philosophy unit 2 : Good and Evil Why is there evil in the world? This is the key question that you looked at in this unit. It is a problem that has always presented a problem for Christianity. Many people find it difficult to believe in a God who can allow so many bad things to happen. Some things are classed as moral evil the kind of wrong that happens because of human wickedness, things such as war, cruelty and abuse. At other times suffering is caused because of natural evil things such as earthquakes, floods and disease. They do not seem to be cause because of any human fault. Life can often seem very unfair and can cause people to either lose their faith in God or ask questions such as: Why doesn t God do anything to stop cruelty to children, AIDS, or natural disasters? Was God responsible for creating evil and can God be blamed for all that goes wrong? If God didn t create evil then who did? Could God stop the evil if He wanted to? Christian beliefs about God Christians believe that God is perfect. He is an eternal being. They believe that he created the world perfectly and has power over everything in it. They believe that God is: Omnipotent all powerful Omnipresent everywhere Omniscient all knowing Omnibenevolent all loving Many Christians also believe that He is a personal God, capable of interacting with individuals. They believe that he is both transcendent, beyond the world and immanent, working in the world. 5 Christian beliefs about the Devil Some Christians believe that the Devil or Satan is responsible for all the evil that happens in the world. He is believed to be the enemy of God who was once an angel, Lucifer, who was created by God and lived in Heaven with him. Lucifer, however decided not to obey God and was thrown out of Heaven. He now rules in Hell as well as spending time roaming the earth trying to tempt people to do wrong. Traditionally the Devil is pictured as being red with horns and a forked tail. Many people now don't believe that Satan is a real person, it is a poetic way of describing how people feel pulled in different directions. Some believe that evil is either a force or a psychological phenomenon.

6 Adam and Eve? Sometimes Christians say that it is result of Adam and Eve. God created them perfectly, but they rebelled (by obeying the snake who Christians believe was the Devil). When they sinned they brought evil and suffering into the world that had been perfect. The problem with this is that if Adam and Eve were perfect then why did they rebel against God? If God knows everything then why didn t he know what they would do and create them differently? A Test? Some people say that evil and suffering are like a test and they help us to become more mature. They say that suffering teaches us important lessons and that we couldn t be good unless we faced these difficulties. For example we couldn t learn to be brave unless we were in danger and we couldn t be generous if we never came across people in need. Irenaeus suggested that if we didn t have to choose between right and wrong then we would be like robots. There are problems with this theory though. Sometimes people suffer when they have no chance of learning anything from it. Tiny babies die when they could learn nothing and sometimes suffering makes people bitter rather than better. Christians sometimes have to just accept that suffering is a mystery, something that only God can explain. They just have to trust that God knows what He is doing and will act for the best. Many Christians cope with their suffering by turning to prayer and trusting that God will help them through. They know that things won t always go their way but they can trust that God is in control and does not make mistakes. They believe that Jesus was the Son of God who came down to earth and suffered a terrible death. They believe that God did this so that they would be free to go to Heaven and because of this Christians can believe that God does understand their suffering. Sometimes Christians say that suffering makes them feel closer to God because they realise how much they need to depend on Him. 6

7 As a way of responding to God Christians believe that they should try to avoid evil and do good. They believe that God is completely perfect and they want to follow in his ways and to please him. They believe there are different ways that they can find out what is right and what is wrong. The Bible This is often used as a source of moral guidance. Christians believe that it is the word of God and that they should try and apply it to their lives to guide them. It is not always straightforward as it doesn t always refer to problems that Christians face today (for example issues of medical ethics) but Christians believe that it contains the principles they need to learn how to live in God s way. Christians want to try and live in the way that God would want them to because they are grateful for what God has done and they want to please him. They believe that God was responsible for the creation of the world and everything in it and they believe that He came to earth as Jesus in order to bring forgiveness to people. They want to show their thanks by following the guide that God has set for them. 7 Conscience Christians believe that their conscience comes from God and that if they pray about a situation God will speak to them through their conscience and guide them to do what is right. The Example of Jesus Some Christians try to think what would Jesus do before they act. Because Jesus was the Son of God they believe that he always did what was right, so if they can imagine what he would do in their position then they can adopt he same attitudes. For example Jesus helped the outcasts in society, so a Christian may respond to this by volunteering in a homeless shelter. Some Christians also believe that they will be rewarded with Heaven if they behave in the right way in this life. They may look to the teaching of the Sheep and the Goats and feel that they would be punished by God if they do not try to live in a way that is pleasing to Him.

8 1. Make a list of examples of natural and moral evil. 2. Give a definition for each type of evil. 3. Explain to someone in your family why the existence of evil is a philosophical problem for Christians. 4. Now make a table to explain each of the explanations that a Christian may give to explain evil, an example to back it up, and problems that may be found with it. 5. Explain how the existence of the Devil may account for evil. 6. Write a short explanation of each of the ways that faith may help a Christian cope with suffering. 7. Produce a revision cards to show how and why Christians may try to lead a moral life. For just as the sufferings of Christ flow into our lives, so also through Christ our comfort overflows. 2 Corinthians 1: 5 Your enemy the devil prowls around like a roaring lion looking for someone to devour. 1Peter 5:7 then we are heirs heirs of God and coheirs with Christ, if indeed we share his sufferings in order that We may also share in his glory. Romans 8: 17 Cast all your anxiety on him because he cares for you. 1Peter 5: 7 For Satan himself masquerades as an angel of light. 2 Corinthians 11:14 And pray in the Spirit on all occasions with all kinds of prayers and requests Ephesians 6: 18 8

9 Here are a selection of practice questions for part d. When completing these questions you need to remember that in order to get 6/6 you need to write in detail and refer specifically to Christian belief. You should also include quotes where you can. You should aim to write 3 paragraphs. The assessment criteria should help you to identify how well you are doing. Please hand in any questions that you would like to have marked. 1. Describe Christian beliefs about the origins of the universe. (6) 2. Explain Christian teachings about the origins of humanity. (6) 3. Explain Christian responses to scientific theories about the origins of the universe. (6) 4. Describe Christian responses to environmental issues. (6) 5. Explain Christian teachings about the existence of evil. (6) 6. Describe Christian teachings about the forces of good and evil. (6) 7. Explain how Christians may decide how to make moral decisions. (6) 8. Explain Christian responses to the problem of evil. (6) Level marks Level marks Level marks I have: Included a small amount of relevant information Shown that I understand the question. Selected relevant information. Started to explain the issue Used some specialist words and terms. Used quite a clear structure. Fully explained the issue, bit by bit. Referred to more than one Christian view. Included quotes if they are relevant. Correctly used key words and terms. Made very few mistakes in my spelling and grammar. 9

10 You need to remember that the part e questions are worth 50% of each unit, therefore it is well worth working on the way that you approach them. Each answer should include 4 paragraphs: each paragraph needs a clear point, explanation and mini evaluation. At least one paragraph should focus on a Christian point of view and the final one should explain your response to the issue. The mark scheme below will help you to assess your own answers. 1. Science is right about how the universe began and therefore religion is wrong. 2. Humans are nothing more than the product of evolution. 3. Caring for the environment is a choice and not a duty. 4. A loving God could never have created a world with this much suffering. 5. There is no such thing as the Devil. 6. life is too short to worry about being moral. Discuss this statement. You should include different, supported points of view and a personal viewpoint. You must refer to Christianity in your answer. Band Mark I have Written a simple answer. Shown a little understanding of the question Included some relevant information. Given one or more views and explained them a little bit. Tried to show what Christians think. Written and explained my own view Written at least 3 paragraphs. Explained each point that I have made. Included a Christian view and my own view. Structured my answer well. Used some specialist terms Written at least 4 paragraphs. Included one relevant point and clear explanation per paragraph Included at least one Christian and my own point of view. Included a mini evaluation in each paragraph. 10

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