Arctic Animals. Daidra Gordon Allison Kesteloot Michelle Keim Marc Walters

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1 Arctic Animals Daidra Gordon Allison Kesteloot Michelle Keim Marc Walters Demo Project Professor Rainn December 7 th, 2004

2 Information on Animals Arctic Seal Habitat: Artic Regions Types: ringed seals, bearded seals, harp seals, hooded seals, spotted seals, and ribbon seals. Predators: humans, foxes, wolves, dogs, polar bears, and even large birds. Threats: increased pollution, increased fishing which means fewer fish Seal Facts: * In the water, seals move by moving their tails side to side. On land, they wiggle on their bellies and pull themselves with their arms. * Seals do not have ears * Seals can weigh from 110 (ringed seals) to 5,000 (elephant seal) pounds. * Most seals live close to Antarctica or the Arctic Circle, but some live in other oceans, and one type lives in Lake Baikal in Russia. Adaptations: * The seal is designed to move like a torpedo in water..it can move quickly and easily capture prey. * Some arctic seals breathe through the ice by using their claws to make breathing holes. Others ram their head through the ice. * Arctic seals raise their babies (pups) in lairs hidden in snow banks. This keeps them hidden from predators like polar bears. * Seals are insulated by a thick layer of fat (blubber) that keeps them warm, even in cold arctic water. * Seals can hold their breath for a long time, and learn to dive when they are young, which protects them from predators like polar bears. Polar Bear Build of body: * The entire body is covered in fur except for the pads of their feet and their noses. The fur is yellowish in color, not pure white. * Have narrower heads and smaller and longer teeth than other bears do. * The length of an adult male is 8 9 feet, weighing 770 1,430 lbs. The adult female is 6 7 feet, weighing lbs. * Have large rough pads on the bottom of their feet to help grip ice. This allows them to be able to run at 25mph. * Their feet are semi webbed and it makes swimming easier. They can swim up to 6mph for up to 60 miles without resting. Habitat: * They live in snow, ice, and very cold winds. * They create dens, which may be dug in snow or ice. Bears do not hibernate during the winter, because their blood temperature does not drop, like it does for animals going into hibernation. Instead they eat a lot during the summer to store up fat on their bodies for winter when food is harder to find. * Polar bears sleep even less than most other bears do in the winter because their winter conditions are not much different than other seasonal conditions. Hunting: * Polar bears are the best hunters out of any kind of bear. They mainly go after ringed seals, but can also eat other seals such as bearded, harp, or hooded seals. * They stalk the seals across the ice, or wait for them to come up for air from

3 under the water. The light coloring of the fur is helpful in hunting because of the camouflage against the white background. * Their sense of smell also helps them to catch their prey. * Polar bears hunt alone, except when they are in mating season, or when the mothers are with their cubs. The cubs can hunt on their own when they are about two or three years old. * During the summer months polar bears also eat moss, sea birds, and fish. Life Expectancy: In the wild is years, and in captivity it is about 40 years. Conclusion: Polar bears have many adaptations to the wild, but one of the most important to remember is their camouflage. Next time you see a cute polar bear commercial, think of all the qualities about the animal that makes it possible for them to live in the arctic. Penguin Habitat: arctic regions (south pole), South America, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and the Galapagos Islands. Types: 1. Adelie Penguin 10. King Penguin 2. African Penguin 11. Little (or Blue) Penguin 3. Chinstrap Penguin 12. Macaroni Penguin 4. Emperor Penguin 13. Magellanic Penguin 5. Erect Crested Penguin 14. Rockhopper Penguin 6. Fiordland Penguin 15. Royal Penguin 7. Galapagos Penguin 16. Snares Penguin 8. Gentoo Penguin 17. Yellow eyed Penguin 9. Humboldt Penguin Predators: Skuas (gull like bird), Johnny Rook (kind of hawk), leopard seal, humans, kelp, dolphin gull, sheathbill, giant fulmar. Threats: heat exhaustion, aspergillosis (respiratory disease), bacterial infections Penguin Facts: * Can walk miles to get somewhere. * Their only dies consist of fish. Some also eat krill * There are other birds considered to be penguin look alike. They are the auks and their kin, such as murres and puffins. * Galapagos Penguins were brought by fishing boats to docks off San Diego. * Some endangered so are bred at zoos. * Penguins are shaped like a torpedo. Their body is built for the most efficient swimming with their average speed in the water being about 15 miles per hour. Swimming: * Have extremely short legs which make them take short steps and roll from side to side. * When in a hurry they go down on all four and do a swift hobble on a pair of feet and flippers. * Swim almost as swiftly as a shark and real fast. * Propels himself with flippers, keeping feet stretched to use as a rudder.

4 Specie Facts Adelie are the smallest. They have all black heads with a white ring around their eye. 2 feet tall and weigh 8 9 lbs eating mainly fish. Nests are built of stones on the rocky beaches of Antarctica. Over 2.5 million breeding pairs living in Antarctica. Live in groups of about 10,000 birds. African penguins have a black upside down U shape on neck with black speckles on chest. 2 feet tall weigh 7 11 lbs. Live and breed on the coast of South Africa. Have been hunted by people. Protected species. Also known as the Blackfoot penguin. Chinstrap penguins get their name from the small black band that runs under their chin. 2 feet tall weighing about 10 lbs eating krill and fish. are the most common penguins with a population of about 13 million. Live on large icebergs in the Antarctic region. Emperor penguins are the largest penguin species. 4 feet tall weighing up to 90 lbs. Identifiable by size and orange glow on cheeks. Live year round, in the Antarctic. Temperatures. Only lays one egg and it's up to the dads to do all the work once the egg is laid. Galapagos penguins are the northern most colonies of penguins living on the Galapagos Islands. Can survive close to the equator because the Humboldt current brings cold waters to the islands from the Antarctic. Gentoo penguins live on many of the islands of the Antarctic region but the main colony is on the Falklands. 3 feet tall weigh 13 lbs. eat krill and some small fish. Identifiable by the wide white stripe over the top of their head. Make nests on the inland grasslands by piling stones, grass and sticks to create a circular nest. King penguin is the second largest penguin. About 3 feet tall weigh up to 35 lbs. Have orange spots near their ears and on the neck. Eat mainly fish and some squid and crustaceans. Hatches only one chick at a time. Their chicks have fuzzy brown feathers for about a year after they are born. Magellanic about 2 feet, 3 inches tall and weigh 9 pounds. They are the largest of the warm weather penguins. During mating season, Magellanic penguins burrow, forming underground nesting colonies. Yellow eyed penguins have a band of yellow feathers going from the bill, circling the eyes and up around the head. The yellow eyed penguin lives on the coast of New Zealand. It is the rarest of all penguins due to the deforestation of the New Zealand coastline and the introduction of new predatory species to the island. There are only an estimated 1,500 breeding pairs of yellow eyed penguins.

5 Walrus Habitat: * They live on the edge of the artic ice sheet. * They also spend most of the day in the water. * Enjoy sun bathing too. Predators: killer whales (orcas), polar bears Walrus Facts: * both male and females have tusk * the tusk of a walrus can grow to be 3 long * have thick layer of fat to insulate them from the cold water * are related to seals * have air sacs to help keep them afloat Prey: clams, snails, mussels, worms, sea cucumbers, or anything else on the sea floor Characteristics: * reddish brown fur * can grow 14 long * can weigh up to 2,000 lbs. * have sixteen short teeth * have two long tusks (teeth)

6 Seal Activities Activity #1 Brrrr! How do seals say warm in that water? This activity will explore the adaptation that keeps seals warm in arctic waters. Materials: plastic to spread under the water two buckets or tubs of cold water one bowl of vegetable oil access to sink and soap, or water free cleanser several towels stopwatch time chart Advance Preparation: The teacher will fill the buckeyes with cold water and place them on top of plastic. He or she will pour the oil into a bowl and prepare students by reading them facts about arctic seals. Process: Students will dip their left hand into one bucket of water. The teacher will time how long they keep their hand in the water (with the instruction to remove it when the water becomes too cold). They will then dip their right hand into the oil and put it into the other bucket of water. The teacher will time this as well. Afterwards, students and teacher will discuss the difference between the two experiences as well as how this relates to seals and their blubber. Activity #2 Why are they slippery? This activity will explore why seals have smooth skin instead of fur. Materials: Plastic to spread under the water one bucket or tub of cold water cups or bowls for puring several materials with different textures (wax, paper, fur, felt, etc.) several paper towels paper and pencil Advance Preparation: The teacher will fill the buckets with cold water and place them on top of plastic. Students will have examined different materials and discussed their textures. Process: Students will pour water over different materials and note how well it travels and how much it changes the material (weight, etc.). Students will then discuss how this relates to seals and why they have smooth skin. What material is most like a seal s skin? How did it do in these tests? Polar Bear Mask Polar Bears use the color of their fur as a camouflage when they are hunting their prey. You are going to make your own polar bear mask, so you too can hunt prey in the Arctic Circle. Once your mask is made, you and your classmates can stand in front of the white background and try to hunt each other down. Is it difficult to see your classmates faces?

7 1. Take one white paper plate and use the bear outline to trace a bear shape on your paper plate. 2. Once you have outlined the bear, use scissors to cut it out. Don t forget to cut eyes so you can see. Ask the teacher for help if this part is difficult for you. 3. Because polar bears are not completely white, lightly color the mask with a light yellow colored pencil. Don t forget to add a black nose. 4. Once you are done coloring, write your name on the back of the mask. 5. The last step is to glue one popsicle stick to the back of your mask. This will give you a handle for your mask. Penguin Activity #1 Penguin Fishing This activity will show the children what penguins mainly eat and where they go. Materials: cutout of a penguin (black) could also use a coloring page for these parts White cutout for the stomach of the penguin If using a coloring page have crayons available Goldfish crackers Advance Preparation: Have all the materials laid out on a table so that the children can easily get them all. Then call the children back a pod at a time so that they can get their materials. Once everyone has there materials begin telling them what they are to do. If using the coloring page then have black and orange crayons. Process: Students will pick up their materials and go back to their desk. Once everyone is seated we will begin. First they will take the black outline of a penguin and glue the white in the middle of the penguin so it will be the stomach. Once that is done then the kids can add a beak and eyes. Once that is done they will begin to add goldfish crackers to the stomach. This helps the kids see what penguins eat! Activity #2 Penguin Song This activity will help student s information on penguins. Materials: Penguin song handouts Advance Preparation: The teacher will need to make handouts and can either have the background music for Oh My Darling Clementine or know the tune. Process: First I will hand out the song to the students. Once the song is handed out we will read through it once. I will remind them of the tune to the Clementine song and then we will sing the song through once. After singing it once we will add motions to some of the words and sing it again so they can sing and do the motions. Walrus Activity #1 Walrus Relay Race Preparation: Move the class into the hallway (could move the chairs to the side) Draw a start and finish line on the floor Activity: race down to the finish line acting as a walrus turn around and race back to tag your partner the first team to finish the fastest wins

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