Data Analysis with Surveys

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1 Grade Level: 3 Time: Three 45 min class periods By: Keith Barton (Bedford County Public Schools) In this lesson, the students will create and conduct a survey. They will then collect and analyze the data to see if patterns arise in the responses of two or more comparison groups. There were two main lesson objectives: the students create and conduct a survey; and they organize data and use it to answer their investigation question. This lesson is described as a open inquiry: the students will decide what the question under investigation will be, the students will decide on a method to collect the relevant data, the students will analyze the data, and the students will use their data as evidence to answer the question under investigation. This lesson was developed through the Introduction to Inquiry: A Professional Development Model to Reform Teacher Practices project directed by Science by Inquiry at Sweet Briar College and funded by the Virginia Department of Education Math Science Partnership Grant (MSP) Page 1

2 Context In my classroom, this lesson comes at the end of our social studies unit on the ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome. The last part of that unit was on human characteristics, or jobs, and the different roles that were played by men and women. Throughout the year, we have spent a great deal of time comparing and contrasting different people, places, and things. While we have also already covered graphing, our third grade unit is using these two weeks to review turning tally marks into charts & graphs. This is an open inquiry lesson because the students must come up with their own question for investigation (though they will be provided a framework), their own method for investigating that question, and they must answer their question based on the data they collect. Though the students will never actually be told to do so, the lesson plan guides them towards creating a survey. One of the focuses of this plan was math, and the big ideas were surveys and analyzing data. While the SOLs do require the students to conduct surveys, it s not a part of the SOL that is tested. Because the tests are assessing more and more skills by application, we wanted our students to create a survey of their own. They had to find a way to conduct that survey and then look at the data to see what patterns emerged. All of these ideas are a part of the math SOL After having done two inquiry lessons prior to this one, the other third grade teachers on my team were beginning to take notice of the changes in my students. They wanted to collaborate on the planning process of this lesson so they could see what inquiry was about. We also decided to collaborate to include as many review skills as possible. Though this plan only includes the math and science portions, we also had reading, social studies, and spelling components that resulted from our team planning. ~ Keith Barton Page 2

3 Objectives Know o Surveys are an effective and valid way of gathering data. o Data can be represented in several different forms. o When writing, you must consider your audience. Understand o Questioning Skills o Data analysis and representation Do o Create and conduct a survey o Collect and analyze data o Represent data in a graph or table format o Communicate investigation question and data Page 3

4 Standards Virginia Standards Math 3.17 The student will a) collect and organize data, using observations, measurements, surveys, or experiments; b) construct a line plot, a picture graph, or a bar graph to represent the data; and c) read and interpret the data represented in line plots, bar graphs, and picture graphs and write a sentence analyzing the data. Science 3.1 The student will plan and conduct investigations in which a) predictions and observations are made; b) objects with similar characteristics are classified into at least two sets and two subsets; c) questions are developed to formulate hypotheses; g) data are gathered, charted, and graphed (line plot, picture graph, and bar graph); j) inferences are made and conclusions are drawn. English 3.1 The student will use effective communication skills in group activities. a) Listen attentively by making eye contact, facing the speaker, asking questions, and summarizing what is said. b) Ask and respond to questions from teachers and other group members. c) Explain what has been learned. Page 4

5 Preparation What You Need For the class (or teacher): Document Camera or SmartBoard with blank handouts (below) Blank copy of Double Bubble Thinking Map Blank copy of teacher- created survey (Appendix B) For each group: A Double Bubble thinking map (Hyerle, 2007) is a way to compare and contrast two ideas. It s similar to a Venn Diagram. Materials for students to create a survey (paper, pencils, computer) Materials for students to record survey results (journals, computer) For each student: Double Bubble thinking map Teacher- created survey (Appendix B) Question Framework (Appendix C) Investigation Write- up (Appendix D) Page 5

6 Getting Ready Before the day of the activity 1. Have students complete the pre- assessment (Appendix A) at least two days prior to the lesson. The pre- assessment will determine how well students can create a chart from data, read and interpret and chart, and analyze information. You may use this information to group students and/or to know the kinds of support your students will need as they are investigating. 2. Modify the Double- Bubble Thinking Map as needed to suit your purposes. Our example prompts students to explore the ideas about Ancient Greek and Roman civilizations, as described in this lesson plan. However, you can adapt that idea to follow any content that suits the placement of this lesson into your curriculum. 3. Review the Teacher s Survey (Appendix B) and modify as needed. 4. Make copies of the Double- Bubble Thinking Map, the Teacher s Survey, and the Question Framework as these documents will be needed on the first day of the lesson. 5. Decide if you will use a document camera or other classroom technology (Smart Board), and whether your students will have access to computers for typing up their surveys or charting their collected data. You may want to collaborate with your resource teachers. Once you have made those decisions, reserve any necessary space and equipment. Page 6

7 Day One: Planning the Investigation Engagement 1. Project a Double Bubble thinking map and hand one to each student. Ask them, If we complete a Double Bubble, what is it that we are trying to do? When the students remember that a Double Bubble is used to compare and contrast, point out which bubbles show similarities and which ones show differences. 2. Remind students that they have spent a lot of time this year comparing and contrasting different people, places, and things. Remind them about the comparisons they have already done with different continents, different countries, different books, and books to their movies. Quickly complete a Double Bubble to compare/contrast Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. We completed a Double Bubble thinking map for several different reasons. One, it let me see how much information the students remembered about the Ancient Greece/Rome units we had finished. Two, it set the stage for the whole idea of looking for differences, which was the point of the survey they would eventually have to write. Three, it provided an in-road to showing the students that all of our comparisons up to this point have been about attributes; we had not yet explicitly compared people s opinions. ~Keith Barton 3. Say to the class, In all of the comparisons that we ve completed this year, we ve only dealt with physical attributes, but sometimes it can be fun to go deeper and try to get at people s opinions and what they are thinking. Looking at the Double Bubble, what kinds of things do you think were important to these people? If possible guide the students towards mentioning architecture, government, and/or farming. Ask the class for ideas on ways they could find out more about what the Greeks and Romans really thought if these people were still alive today. If they are stuck, guide them towards the response, Ask them questions. As an example, mention or write down the following questions about architecture on the board: Which is the most useful architectural element? Why? Which architectural element is your favorite? Why? Page 7

8 4. Make sure the students see that these types of questions are focusing on people s opinions and not really facts. Prompt the class: Do you remember how men and women had different roles in these ancient civilizations? If we could travel back in time, I think it would be interesting to ask a bunch of women these questions, then ask a bunch of men these same questions, and see if they think differently. For example if women care about how a building looks, they might prefer columns, but if men care more about how tall the buildings are, they might prefer arches. Setting up the Investigation 5. Remind the students of previous investigations in which they had to conduct different trials to make sure that the test was fair. Ask the class what we would do with a group of questions to make sure we get as much information as possible. Guide the students toward mentioning that this one survey will need to be given multiple times. 6. Take a moment with the class to list on the board people groups that you believe may think differently. For example: men/women, adults/children, UVA fans/va Tech fans, etc. Next, list things that these groups might have differing opinions on. For example: school, sports, fashion/style, TV shows. 7. Take a moment to hand out the teacher created survey that you prepared in advance (see Appendix B) and have the students answer the questions and return the survey. As you collect the surveys, work through the following discussion questions: Who were my comparison groups? How do you know? How do you know what topic I was trying to learn more about? Think about the actual questions. Is there any way that I could group those questions? What did you think about the number of questions? Were there too many, too few, and why do you think so? 8. Write the following question framework on the board: What is the relationship between (people group 1) & (people group 2) and their thoughts on (topic)? Work with the students to fill in the missing parts of the framework that pertain to the Teacher s Survey. (What is the relationship between boys and girls and their thoughts on resource classes?) 9. Next, use a document camera to display a blank copy of the survey and go through a few of the student survey responses. Place tally marks in the correct places on a data chart. While you Page 8

9 don t need to go through all of the surveys, go through at least 10 and see if there is any information that stands out. Discuss the findings with the class. 10. Finally tell the class that they are going to be working within their reading groups (or like- ability groups as determined from the pre- assessment) to create a question and a way to answer that question. To start out, however, each student will work on his/her own. Hand out a Question Framework paper to each student (see Appendix C), and allow time to fill out the paper as individuals. At the end of the period collect the papers. Unlike most of the higher level questions we write during our literature circle time, these were simple yes/no, which one, rank these types of questions. Because these types of questions are so easy to write and answer, the class was all over it! ~Keith Barton Before Day Two: Check the Question Framework papers to assess the students thoughts on how many questions they will need to ask. Also, make notes on the papers about the people groups the students have chosen. Some students may have picked unrealistic groups, numbers of questions, or numbers of people to take the survey. This allowed me to see if they had a good idea of what people groups would be available to them. It also gave me an idea of which students work would need to be reined in some people picked actual people groups that were not reachable. Some wanted to compare Greeks to Romans or Europeans to Africans. I think this was because those particular students were still thinking about history and not about people in general. I found that the students took care of the redirection here. Each student shared his/her completed question stem with their reading group, and groups decided on which stem to use to make their survey. ~Keith Barton Page 9

10 Day Two: The Investigation Introduce the Investigation: 1. Begin by returning the students papers from yesterday. Allow time for each student to read over teacher s comments and to share their ideas with the other members of their group. 2. Afterwards, allow time for each group to decide which question they will choose to investigate. 3. While the groups are working, the teacher should circulate to see if the students are keeping in mind the notes that were written on their papers and to monitor progress on writing the survey. 4. As an exit ticket for the day, each student should write his or her own hypothesis to the investigation question, even if their opinions differ from others in the group. Day two could not have gone more perfectly, and the part of the plan that I thought would cause the most difficulty having each of the four groups decide on one question to answer- took no time at all. In the time that I spent walking around the classroom, very few students needed guidance. In fact, the surveys were written so quickly, that we even had enough time to go to the computer lab and type them. This was not in the original plan, but because the technology teacher had been showing the students how to use Microsoft Publisher to make things look more attractive, it was an opportunity I wasn t going to pass up! ~Keith Barton Over the next Two Days Provide students with time to distribute the surveys, have people complete them, and return the survey results to the students. Provide time for the students to start looking at the answers, and to come up with a plan for how they will organize, analyze, and show the results. Page 10

11 Day Three Data Analysis Once all data is collected, allow groups time to organize, discuss, and prepare their data for presenting to the class. Individually, have students fill out the Investigation Write- up sheet (Appendix D) as they are discussing with their group. Have the student groups present their question, data, and an answer to their investigation question to the class. Collect the Investigation Write- Up sheets to assess students summatively. For the most part, all the groups decided on a tally chart to show their data. The top reading group, however, chose to write paragraphs to answer their question, and their data was referenced in the paragraphs. I believe they got the idea from Scholastic News Magazine. We read an issue every week, and in every week, there is an article called Debate It. In the article, a question is asked and students interviews from opposing sides are printed in paragraph form. ~Keith Barton Page 11

12 Assessment Objectives The overall learning objective of this lesson (The Big Idea) is for students to understand survey analysis as a means of gathering evidence to answer a question of interest. The main objectives were to have the students write, conduct, and analyze a survey. Students also have to determine how to show all of their data in a way that it can be analyzed to answer the investigation question. Pre- lesson Assessment This pre- assessment will be used for the purpose of determining student s readiness for the lesson. It should be completed two days prior to starting the lesson. The assessment will get at the students ability choose questions appropriate for a given audience, write questions, and analyze/represent data in different forms. The pre- assessment was designed to see if the students could 1 - create a tally chart from given data, 2 - choose an appropriate audience, question set, and topic for a survey; and 3 - interpret data from a given chart. For grouping purposes, we felt that if we kept the students together by their reading groups, we would find commonalities in their answers. That was the case. The higher reading groups had nearly perfect answers on the pre-assessment, showing that they would need little help during the lesson. My lowest reading group struggled to understand what was being asked until items were read aloud. Another reason we grouped by reading group rather than pre-assessment results was because we also felt that this would give the chance to address their work during our reading rotation times, a schedule the students were already used to following. We also felt that the students might be more comfortable sharing ideas because they ve worked within their reading groups for the last six weeks. ~Keith Barton Assessment Plan At the heart of the assessment plan is determining whether or not the students are able to: create and conduct a survey and find a way to represent their findings. Progress will be assessed in several ways: 1. Pre- Assessment- A short pre- assessment will be given to determine what background knowledge the students are bringing to the lesson. The questions are designed to determine how well the students can create a chart from data, read and interpret a chart, and analyze information. 2. Question Framework- Student s individual Question Framework sheet from Day 1 will help the teacher to know which students may need more assistance in creating a practical survey. 3. Chart & Conclusion- The teacher will grade the accuracy of the students tally charts or other method chosen for displaying their findings. 4. Investigation Write- Up- The final assessment piece will be the student s individual ability to write out the plan they had for their investigation. A sheet has been provided in Appendix D. Page 12

13 Formative Assessments: The Question Framework turned in at the end of Day 1 is used to assess students formatively. Teacher needs to make comments on these sheets and return them to the students at the beginning of Day 2. Consider whether the groups are realistic, whether the number of surveys needed will be practical, and if the proposed questions will address the question for investigation. Summative Assessments: The surveys themselves can be used to assess how students, as a group, are able to write good survey questions. The group presentation on their data analysis is used to assess how students are able to creatively, and accurately present data. The group s response to the investigation question will show how students make the connections between their data and the answer to the investigation question. Consider using the individually written Investigation Write- Up to grade students individually and/or to formatively assess students writing abilities. Then there was the survey itself. The surveys did not have to be of any predetermined length, and when some of the students asked how long they had to be, I simply said, That s up to you, but it sure would be nice if each person in the group came up with at least one question. All of the groups had surveys of at least 5 questions. Reading the questions helped determine if the students were able to stay on topic. Though it was not in the plan, these questions were kept, put on a master list, and the students had to group the questions by topic to recreate the survey. ~Keith Barton The final pieces of assessment were the groups charts and the individual student s investigation writeup. The former showed how well the students could actually interpret their data, and the latter showed if the students could identify elements of the scientific method within this activity. ~Keith Barton Page 13

14 Acknowledgements Hyerle, David. Thinking Maps: A Language of Learning. Cary, NC: Thinking Maps Inc Page 14

15 Appendices: Handouts 1. Appendix A: Pre- Assessment 2. Appendix B: Teacher s Survey 3. Appendix C: Question Framework 4. Appendix D: Investigation Write- Up 5. Appendix E: Double Bubble Thinking Map from Hyerle, Page 15

16 Appendix A Name Pre-Assessment DIRECTIONS: In the space below, create a tally chart that shows the data given in the paragraph below. Mr. Barton wanted to know which candy was the most popular in his class of 21 students, so he asked them. Six students said that they liked Warheads, and three said that they liked Airheads. Reese s Pieces were the favorite of eight students. The rest of the class said that they didn t like candy at all. 1. If you wanted to find out a person s favorite color, which is the best question to ask? A. What color are most of your clothes? B. What color are your eyes? C. What color shirt are most people wearing today? D. What color shirt do people wear on Spirit Day? 2. What question could you ask the students in this class to figure out the most popular website we use for math? 3. There are rd graders in our school. If you wanted to know the most popular cafeteria item for 3 rd graders, how many students do you think would have to ask before you got a good answer? Page 16

17 DIRECTIONS: Use the chart below to answer the following questions.????? Valentine s Day * * Easter * * * * Halloween * * * * * * * Thanksgiving * Christmas * * * * * * * * * * *= 2 children 4. What question was probably asked to get this data? 5. How many people were asked that question? 6. In place of the??, what header should be written? 7. In place of the???, what header should be written? 8. Thanksgiving seems to have the fewest votes. Why do you think that is? 9. These results were taken from a question asked to kids. If the question had been asked to adults, how do you think the results would be different? Why? Page 17

18 Appendix B Name Teacher s Survey DIRECTIONS: Answer the questions below. 1. Circle the word that best describes you. Girl Boy The five main resource classes at this school are: 1- music, 2- art, 3- library, 4- technology, and 5- P.E. 2. Which resource is the hardest for you? 3. Which resource is the easiest for you? 4. Rank the resource teachers from meanest to nicest: (meanest) (nicest) 5. Who is your favorite resource teacher? 6. If you could pick one resources class to have three times per week, which one would it be? 7. In which resource do you learn the most interesting information? Page 18

19 Appendix C Name Question Framework DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks below to create a question you d like to investigate. What is the relationship between & and their thoughts on? 1. How many other questions do you think you ll need to ask to answer your investigation question? 2. How many different people do you think you will need to get to answer your questions? 3. If you had to make a hypothesis, what do you think the answer to your investigation question will be? Page 19

20 Appendix D Name Investigation Write-Up DIRECTIONS: Complete each section of this sheet so that another student might repeat your investigation. 1. Write your investigation question. 2. What materials did you use to complete this investigation? You do not have to use all the lines. 3. What were the steps you took to conduct your investigation? You do not have to use all the lines. Page 20

21 4. How did you organize your data? 5. Now that your investigation is complete, use the data to write an answer to your investigation question. Page 21

22 Appendix E Page 22

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