The Spread of Protestantism

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1 The Spread of Protestantism

2 Protestant Reformation

3

4 3.2A, corruption in the medieval catholic church What forms of corruption existed within the church during the late middle ages? Popes used excommunication to force monarchs to obey the church Many priests were illiterate Many clergy broke their vows of chastity Some officials lead lives of luxury and leisure Some clergy: Charged repentant Christians to see holy remains and objects Sold church offices to the highest bidder (simony) Sold indulgences

5 3.2A, corruption in the medieval catholic church How was the power of the papacy weakened? Babylonian captivity ( ) Philip IV (France) quarreled with pope over his power to tax the clergy Pope Boniface was kidnapped in 1296 and replaced with French pope, Clement V Seven popes ruled the church from Avignon, France Many Christians thought these popes were only puppets of the French king The Great Schism ( ) Papacy moved back to Rome in 1376 French cardinals elected a new pope, Clement VII Both Urban VI and Clement VII claimed to be the rightful pope Many Christians questioned the authority of the papacy

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7 3.2B, Early Calls for Reform Who were some of the first people to speak out against Church corruption and teachings? John Wycliffe of England Thought Christians didn t need Church or sacraments to achieve salvation Regarded Bible as most important source of religious authority Completed first translation of Bible into English Outcome: the Church persecuted his followers, the Lollards as heretics Jan Huss of Bohemia Criticized wealth of Church Wanted religious services conducted in the language of the worshippers Opposed the sale of indulgences Outcome: was burned at the stake for refusing to accept importance of Church rituals

8 3.2B, Early Calls for Reform In what other ways did people call for reform? Catherine of Siena Popularized mysticism Believed people could experience God through intense prayer Outcome: maintained that Christians didn t need priests, rituals, or sacraments Girolamo Savonarola of Florence Launched crusade against immoral society Encouraged book burnings Claimed Vatican was filled with sin and corruption Outcome: was burned at the stake by angry citizens of Florence

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10 3.2C, Martin Luther and the Beginning of the Reformation What was his early life like? Son of middle-class German parents Studied law Became a Catholic monk Why did Luther question Church practices and teachings? Troubled by idea that salvation was attainable through good works Interpreted St. Paul to mean that path to salvation was by faith alone Believed forgiveness for sins could come from God s mercy only Angered by (Tetzel s) sale of indulgences

11 3.2C, Martin Luther and the Beginning of the Reformation How did his criticisms expand into an effort to form a new church? Wrote 95 theses to start debate on Church abuses Published books and pamphlets questioning church teachings Ideas for reform led to a new church: Congregations choose their own ministers Worship of saints and holy days was considered sinful Mass conducted in German, not Latin Clergy allowed to marry Why did his reforms create widespread revolt in Germany? Peasants, believing everyone was equal under God, revolted against lords Princes, who wanted freedom from the pope, seized Church land Peace of Augsburg forced many to move in order to worship freely

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13 3.2D, the reformation spreads throughout Europe Why did Protestantism spread beyond Germany? Political leaders looked for ways to escape power of the Catholic Church People were tired of Church abuses and corruption Charismatic individuals questioned Church teachings and provided leadership Rising literacy rate allowed for rapid spread of new ideas

14 3.2D, the reformation spreads throughout Europe What other groups separated from the Catholic Church and formed new religions? Anabaptists (1525) Founded by dissatisfied followers of Zwingli Thought Christians should not be baptized until adulthood Believed true Christians should form a separate community Anglicans (1534) Founded by King Henry VIII of England King Henry enraged by pope s decision not to grant him divorce Believed the monarch, not the pope, was supreme religious authority of England Broke away, but beliefs were almost the same as the Catholic Church Calvinists (1546) Founded by John Calvin Believed in predestination (God had determined who would obtain salvation) Thought a disciplined, austere life would prove who had been chosen

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16 3.2E, the Catholic Church s response to the reformation Reformed the Church from within Pope Paul III ( ) Led the counter-reformation Promoted reform-minded cardinals to Curia Had Church abuses catalogued Called meeting at Trent to deal with the growth of Protestantism Council of Trent ( ) Defined Catholic beliefs and corrected abuses Sale of indulgences prohibited Simony outlawed Seminaries established to train parish priests Monasteries and convents cleansed of immoral clergy

17 3.2E, the Catholic Church s response to the reformation Tried to stop the spread of Protestantism Jesuits (1540) Disciplined and well-educated order of Catholic priests Won Poland and southern Germany back into the Catholic faith Spread Christian message across Africa, Asia, and the Americas Inquisition (1542) Church court designed to judge and convict heretics Imprisoned, exiled, or executed those with unorthodox views Index of Prohibited Books (1559) List of banned books which Catholics were forbidden to read List included Protestant Bibles and some scientific writings

2. Prior to the Reformation, all Christians in Western Europe were. 3. What caused Catholics to cry out for reform?

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