Causes of the Reformation

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1 Mr. Montreuil April

2 The Big Picture I can explain how the Protestant Reformation impacted Europe religiously, politically, & socially. This Lesson I can critique the Medieval & Renaissance era Catholic Church & explain why people would have started to question its authority. 2

3 Famous Faces Pope Alexander VI Borgia Medici Famous Places Papal States Vatican St. Peter s Basilica Purgatory Famous Things Celibacy Indulgences Avignon Papacy These terms should be defined in your notebook in the context of the events being studied. Remember to take notes on the information that follows. You will have a quiz on this information at the start of class. 3

4 The Black Plague An overall weakening of people s faith occurred when 1/3 of Europe died. The first responders of their day, Catholic priests and monks were decimated by the disease. To cope with the shortage of clergy, the Church streamlined the ordination process which resulted in post-plague priests often being illiterate. * Remember, most Europeans were illiterate at the time. They relied on the educated priests to tell them what the Bible said. Now no one could! 4

5 Papal Wars The capital of the Catholic Church is the Vatican in Rome. After the fall of Rome, the Popes controlled central portions of Italy in what became known as the Papal States. This led them to be both religious as well as political leaders. Many Middle Ages Popes were involved in wars not just to defend, but to expand Papal lands. * Today Vatican City (0.17 sq miles) is technically its own country and the famous Swiss Guard is like the Pope s Secret Service. 5

6 Popes & Anti-Popes Throughout the centuries, the elections of new Pope s were not always accepted by the entire Church. This led on several occasions to there being more than one Pope at a time in opposition to one another. At one point the Papacy was actually moved to Avignon, France where 7 Popes in a row presided. * While in Avignon, the Popes increasingly came under the influence of the French Crown which was a corrupting influence on the Church. * Having multiple Popes created confusion among the masses. 6

7 Papal Corruption House of Borgia During the Renaissance especially, money had much to do with who became Pope. Two of the most powerful families of the era were the Medici & the Borgia. 4 Popes eventually came from the Medici. House of Medici 3 Popes eventually came from the Borgia. These families used their power in the Church to further their power, influence, & wealth. * These Popes often rewarded their relatives, friends, & allies with high level Church positions like Bishops & Cardinals. 7

8 Violation of Celibacy The Catholic Church does not, even to this day, permit its clergy to get married, believing that they should dedicate themselves to God and to the people they lead. However, clergy are human, and succumb to temptation like anyone else. Several Popes were known to have had mistresses and even children. * One of the Borgia Popes, Alexander VI, had at least 4 acknowledged children. Much of his reign was dedicated to furthering his family s power. 8

9 Financing Art through Indulgences The Church was the wealthiest & most powerful institution in Europe. It had the money to hire the great Renaissance artists to beautify its churches & cathedrals and to glorify God through art. Over time, one way they paid for these projects was by selling indulgences, or tickets to heaven. These purchases were said to lessen time in Purgatory & get the buyer, or a relative, to heaven quicker. * Some of the greatest works of the Renaissance were religious. The Sistine Chapel, the Statue of David, and the Pieta to name a few. * Pope Leo X offered indulgences to help rebuild St. Peter s Basilica in Rome. 9

10 Next Step(s): 1) You will have a quiz on this information. You may use any notes you take. 2) You should define the vocabulary at the start of this presentation. 3) Class Activities related to this information and how it led to the discontent within the Catholic Church & ultimately the Reformation. 10

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