Theories of Evolution: A Brief History (take notes from classmates presentations)

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1 Packet Theories of : A Brief History (take notes from classmates presentations) Carl Linnaeus ( ) William Paley ( ) Georges Cuvier ( ) Thomas Malthus ( ) Jean Baptiste Lamarck ( )- Etienne Geoffroy St. Hilaire ( ) Patrick Matthew ( ) Richard Owen ( ) Charles Darwin ( ) Thomas Henry Huxley ( ) Alfred Wallace ( )

2 Darwin s Theory of Natural Selection (pp in text and class notes). - What does his theory state about: o Overpopulation- o Variation- o Competition- o survival of the fittest- o reproduction- o Speciation- - Sum up his theory in your own words: Chapter 16- Population Genetics What s the difference between microevolution and macroevolution? What is a gene pool? Factors causing gene frequencies to change: 1. Hardy/Weinberg Principle: Under ideal conditions, allele frequencies will remain constant from generation to generation in sexually reproducing populations. 2. Genetic Equilibrium: not changing, same allele frequencies from one generation to the next. 3. Ideal conditions: a. Large population-the population must be large to minimize random sampling errors. b. Random mating-there is no mating preference. For example an AA male does not prefer an aa female. c. No mutation -The alleles must not change. d. No migration Exchange of genes between the population and another population must not occur. e. No natural selection- Natural selection must not favor any particular individual.

3 Disruptions to Genetic Equilibrium: Explain how microevolution occurred with the peppered moths in England. What is gene flow? Provide an example How do mutations affect gene pools? Provide an example. What s genetic drift? Provide an example. Explain Founder effect. Provide an example. What s inbreeding? Provide an example. What s a population bottleneck? Provide an example. What s inbreeding depression? Provide an example. What s artificial selection? Provide an example.

4 Chapter 17- The Origin of Life What s the Big Bang Theory? What was it like on early Earth? What are three explanations for how life could have originated? Explain the heterotroph hypothesis. Explain Urey and Miller s experiment. What three processes does biological evolution include? What s the endosymbiont hypothesis?

5 Chapter 18- Diversity and Variation What s taxonomy? What s a species? Explain the Species Concept. Why is classification important? What are homologies? Provide an example. What are analogies? Provide an example.

6 What s a chemical homology? Explain the Linnean classification system. What s binomial nomenclature? How do you write a scientific name? Describe the three ways to classify organisms.

7 Chapter 19- Changes in Species. How have fossils been used to provide evidence of evolution. What s coevolution? Provide an example. How can homologies help biologists understand the history of evolutionary changes? Explain how genetic and molecular evidence can be used to show evolution. What s speciation? Explain the following forms of isolation and provide and example: geographical isolation- ecological isolation- mechanical isolation- behavioral isolation - seasonal isolation- gamete isolation-

8 What s the difference between prezygotic and postzygotic isolating mechanisms? What s adaptive radiation? Explain stasis. Explain gradualism. Explain punctuated equilibrium. What s the difference between divergent and convergent evolution?*

9 CHAPTER 20- Human What sets primates apart from other mammals? What traits distinguish modern humans from other animals, especially primates? What are hominids? What are some of the most important features used in comparing hominid fossils? How is molecular evidence used to compare different species? How do experts determine the age of a fossil? How are australopithecines similar to humans (genus Homo)? How are they different? Summarize the major evolutionary changes in the hominids since they last shared a common ancestor with any other primates.

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