# PMR5406 Redes Neurais e Lógica Fuzzy Aula 3 Multilayer Percetrons

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1 PMR5406 Redes Neurais e Aula 3 Multilayer Percetrons Baseado em: Neural Networks, Simon Haykin, Prentice-Hall, 2 nd edition Slides do curso por Elena Marchiori, Vrie Unviersity

2 Multilayer Perceptrons Architecture Input layer Output layer Hidden Layers Multilayer Perceptrons 2

3 A solution for the XOR problem x 1 x 1 x 2 x 1 xor x x 2 x 1 x if v > 0 ϕ(v) = -1 if v 0 ϕ is the sign function. Multilayer Perceptrons 3

4 NEURON MODEL Sigmoidal Function ϕ v ) ( 1 Increasing a ϕ(v ) = 1 +e av 1 v v i= 0,..., m induced field of neuron Most common form of activation function a ϕ threshold function Differentiable v = w i y i Multilayer Perceptrons 4

5 LEARNING ALGORITHM Back-propagation algorithm Function signals Forward Step Error signals Backward Step It adusts the weights of the NN in order to minimize the average squared error. Multilayer Perceptrons 5

6 Average Squared Error Error signal of output neuron at presentation of n-th training example: Total energy at time n: Average squared error: Measure of learning performance: e (n) = E(n) E AV d = = N (n) - C N n= 1 y e 2 (n) (n) E(n) C: Set of neurons in output layer N: size of training set Goal: Adust weights of NN to minimize E AV Multilayer Perceptrons 6

7 Notation e y v Error at output of neuron Output of neuron w i= 0,..., m y = Induced local i i field of neuron Multilayer Perceptrons 7

8 Weight Update Rule Update rule is based on the gradient descent method take a step in the direction yielding the maximum decrease of E w i = E -η w i Step in direction opposite to the gradient With w i weight associated to the link from neuron i to neuron Multilayer Perceptrons 8

9 Multilayer Perceptrons 9

10 Multilayer Perceptrons 10 Definition of the Local Gradient of neuron v - = E δ Local Gradient ) v ( e ϕ δ = We obtain because ) v ( ' 1 ) ( e v y y e e v ϕ = = E E

11 Update Rule We obtain w i = ηδ y i because E = E v w i v w i E v = δ v Multilayer Perceptrons 11 w i = y i

12 Compute local gradient of neuron The key factor is the calculation of e There are two cases: Case 1): is a output neuron Case 2): is a hidden neuron Multilayer Perceptrons 12

13 Error e of output neuron Case 1: output neuron e = d - y Then δ = ( d - y ) ϕ ' (v ) Multilayer Perceptrons 13

14 Local gradient of hidden neuron Case 2: hidden neuron the local gradient for neuron is recursively determined in terms of the local gradients of all neurons to which neuron is directly connected Multilayer Perceptrons 14

15 Multilayer Perceptrons 15

16 Multilayer Perceptrons 16 Use the Chain Rule v y y - = E δ k C k k k k C k k k y v v e e y e e y = = E ) v ( ' v y ϕ = k k k k k w y v ) v ( ' v e = = ϕ from We obtain = C k k k w y δ E (n) e E(n) C k 2 k 2 1 =

17 Local Gradient of hidden neuron Hence δ = ϕ ( v ) δ k C k w k δ ϕ (v ) w 1 w k w m δ 1 δ k δ m ϕ (v 1 ) ϕ (v k ) ϕ (v m ) e 1 e k e m Signal-flow graph of backpropagation error signals to neuron Multilayer Perceptrons 17

18 Delta Rule Delta rule w i = ηδ y i δ = ϕ ( v )(d y ) v ) ϕ ( δ k C k w k IF output node IF hidden node C: Set of neurons in the layer following the one containing Multilayer Perceptrons 18

19 Local Gradient of neurons ϕ' (v ) = ay [1 y ] a > 0 δ = ay [1 y ][d ay [1 y ] δ w if hidden node k k y ] k If output node Multilayer Perceptrons 19

20 Backpropagation algorithm Two phases of computation: Forward pass: run the NN and compute the error for each neuron of the output layer. Backward pass: start at the output layer, and pass the errors backwards through the network, layer by layer, by recursively computing the local gradient of each neuron. Multilayer Perceptrons 20

21 Summary Multilayer Perceptrons 21

22 Training Sequential mode (on-line, pattern or stochastic mode): (x(1), d(1)) is presented, a sequence of forward and backward computations is performed, and the weights are updated using the delta rule. Same for (x(2), d(2)),, (x(n), d(n)). Multilayer Perceptrons 22

23 Training The learning process continues on an epochby-epoch basis until the stopping condition is satisfied. From one epoch to the next choose a randomized ordering for selecting examples in the training set. Multilayer Perceptrons 23

24 Stopping criterions Sensible stopping criterions: Average squared error change: Back-prop is considered to have converged when the absolute rate of change in the average squared error per epoch is sufficiently small (in the range [0.1, 0.01]). Generalization based criterion: After each epoch the NN is tested for generalization. If the generalization performance is adequate then stop. Multilayer Perceptrons 24

25 Early stopping Multilayer Perceptrons 25

26 Generalization Generalization: NN generalizes well if the I/O mapping computed by the network is nearly correct for new data (test set). Factors that influence generalization: the size of the training set. the architecture of the NN. the complexity of the problem at hand. Overfitting (overtraining): when the NN learns too many I/O examples it may end up memorizing the training data. Multilayer Perceptrons 26

27 Generalization Multilayer Perceptrons 27

28 Expressive capabilities of NN Boolean functions: Every boolean function can be represented by network with single hidden layer but might require exponential hidden units Continuous functions: Every bounded continuous function can be approximated with arbitrarily small error, by network with one hidden layer Any function can be approximated with arbitrary accuracy by a network with two hidden layers Multilayer Perceptrons 28

29 w Generalized Delta Rule If η small Slow rate of learning If η large Large changes of weights NN can become unstable (oscillatory) Method to overcome above drawback: include a momentum term in the delta rule i (n) = α w (n 1) + i momentum constant ηδ (n)y(n) i Generalized delta function Multilayer Perceptrons 29

30 Generalized delta rule the momentum accelerates the descent in steady downhill directions. the momentum has a stabilizing effect in directions that oscillate in time. Multilayer Perceptrons 30

31 η adaptation Heuristics for accelerating the convergence of the back-prop algorithm through η adaptation: Heuristic 1: Every weight should have its own η. Heuristic 2: Every η should be allowed to vary from one iteration to the next. Multilayer Perceptrons 31

32 NN DESIGN Data representation Network Topology Network Parameters Training Validation Multilayer Perceptrons 32

33 Setting the parameters How are the weights initialised? How is the learning rate chosen? How many hidden layers and how many neurons? Which activation function? How to preprocess the data? How many examples in the training data set? Multilayer Perceptrons 33

34 Some heuristics (1) Sequential x Batch algorithms: the sequential mode (pattern by pattern) is computationally faster than the batch mode (epoch by epoch) Multilayer Perceptrons 34

35 Some heuristics (2) Maximization of information content: every training example presented to the backpropagation algorithm must maximize the information content. The use of an example that results in the largest training error. The use of an example that is radically different from all those previously used. Multilayer Perceptrons 35

36 Some heuristics (3) Activation function: network learns faster with antisymmetric functions when compared to nonsymmetric functions. ϕ ( v ) = 1 1 +e av Sigmoidal function is nonsymmetric ϕ (v) = a tanh( bv) Hyperbolic tangent function is nonsymmetric Multilayer Perceptrons 36

37 Some heuristics (3) Multilayer Perceptrons 37

38 Some heuristics (4) Target values: target values must be chosen within the range of the sigmoidal activation function. Otherwise, hidden neurons can be driven into saturation which slows down learning Multilayer Perceptrons 38

39 Some heuristics (4) For the antisymmetric activation function it is necessary to design Є For a+: For a: d d = a ε = a + ε If a= we can set Є= then d=±1 Multilayer Perceptrons 39

40 Some heuristics (5) Inputs normalisation: Each input variable should be processed so that the mean value is small or close to zero or at least very small when compared to the standard deviation. Input variables should be uncorrelated. Decorrelated input variables should be scaled so their covariances are approximately equal. Multilayer Perceptrons 40

41 Some heuristics (5) Multilayer Perceptrons 41

42 Some heuristics (6) Initialisation of weights: If synaptic weights are assigned large initial values neurons are driven into saturation. Local gradients become small so learning rate becomes small. If synaptic weights are assigned small initial values algorithms operate around the origin. For the hyperbolic activation function the origin is a saddle point. Multilayer Perceptrons 42

43 Some heuristics (6) Weights must be initialised for the standard deviation of the local induced field v lies in the transition between the linear and saturated parts. σ v =1 σ w 1/ = m 2 m=number of weights Multilayer Perceptrons 43

44 Learning rate: Some heuristics (7) The right value of η depends on the application. Values between 0.1 and 0.9 have been used in many applications. Other heuristics adapt η during the training as described in previous slides. Multilayer Perceptrons 44

45 Some heuristics (8) How many layers and neurons The number of layers and of neurons depend on the specific task. In practice this issue is solved by trial and error. Two types of adaptive algorithms can be used: start from a large network and successively remove some neurons and links until network performance degrades. begin with a small network and introduce new neurons until performance is satisfactory. Multilayer Perceptrons 45

46 Some heuristics (9) How many training data? Rule of thumb: the number of training examples should be at least five to ten times the number of weights of the network. Multilayer Perceptrons 46

47 Output representation and decision rule M-class classification problem Y k, (x )=F k (x ), k=1,...,m MLP Y 1, Y 2, Y M, Multilayer Perceptrons 47

48 Multilayer Perceptrons 48 Data representation = k k k C x C x d 0, 1,, M M Kth element

49 MLP and the a posteriori class probability A multilayer perceptron classifier (using the logistic function) aproximate the a posteriori class probabilities, provided that the size of the training set is large enough. Multilayer Perceptrons 49

50 The Bayes rule An appropriate output decision rule is the (approximate) Bayes rule generated by the a posteriori probability estimates: xєc k if F k (x)>f (x) for all F ( x ) F1( x ) F 2( x ) = L FM ( x ) k Multilayer Perceptrons 50

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